|Composting Your Organic Kitchen Wastes with Worms||
Every home kitchen generates food scraps for disposal. Throwing these scraps in the garbage can create odor problems and adds to the volume of waste going to the landfill. Disposing of kitchen scraps in a garbage disposal is convenient, but it adds to the burden of the waste-treatment system and throws away a potentially valuable resource. Furthermore, garbage disposals are not recommended for homes that rely on a septic system for waste disposal. A viable alternative to disposing of food scraps in the landfill or the sewer system is to compost them. The resulting material is a useful addition to gardens and potted plants.
|May 1, 2009||442-005|
|Electricity||Mar 31, 2014||388-800 (4H-246NP)|
|Land Application of Broiler and Turkey Litter for Farming Operations Without a DEQ Permit||
Poultry litter (poultry manure and a bedding material such as sawdust, pine bark, or peanut hulls) is a good source of nutrients and organic matter for growing crops. Land application of poultry litter on farms has been the mainstay of effective and safe usage for years. Unfortunately, improper management of litter applications may cause nutrient enrichment and/or contamination of surface and ground water resources. The key to proper management is an understanding of the nutrients available in the litter, the nutrient requirements of the crops to be produced, and the potential for the litter and/or nutrients to reach surface or ground waters.
|May 1, 2009||442-052|
|Manure Spreader Calibration for Rear-discharge Equipment -- Handling Solid and Semi-solid Manures and Poultry Litter||
To maximize crop productivity and minimize adverse environmental effects, it is critical that land applications of manures meet, but not exceed, crop nutrient requirements. To assure that the actual manure application rate matches the desired application rate, manure-spreading equipment must be calibrated. The goal of manure spreader calibration is to determine the amount of manure, on a weight per unit area basis, that is being applied to a field. This publication describes three methods for manure spreader calibration for spreaders handling solid and semi-solid manures.
|May 1, 2009||442-004|
|Pumping Water from Remote Locations for Livestock Watering||
Both intensive grazing and water quality protection programs are increasing the need for pumping water to livestock from locations where commercial electricity is not readily available. If electricity is available, it will generally be the most cost-effective method for pumping water. However, there may be instances where the distance from existing power lines to the desired pump location makes it cost-prohibitive to obtain electricity from the utility. A rule of thumb is that alternative energy sources may be economically justified if the distance to commercial power exceeds one-third of a mile. In this case, the livestock producer can select from a range of alternative power methods. The "best" alternative power option is generally site specific.
|May 1, 2009||442-755|
|Science Display & Demonstration||Jun 13, 2012||4H-37NP|
|Virginia 4-H School Enrichment, Scientific Inquiry||
This curriculum includes six lessons intended for youth in grades three through six. These activities are experiential and contain aspects of problem-based and inquiry-based learning.
|Mar 24, 2014||388-808 (4H-245NP)|