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Tamim Younos

Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
Virginia Farmstead Assessment System: Livestock Manure Storage and Treatment Facilities

Storage of livestock wastes involves accumulating manure and wastewater in an environmentally sound manner until they can be applied to land or otherwise utilized. Manure storage facilities allow farmers to spread manure when conditions are right for nutrient use by crops. Storing manure in a concentrated area, however, increases risk to the environment and to human and animal health. Fecal bacteria in livestock waste can contaminate groundwater, causing such infectious diseases as dysentery, typhoid and hepatitis.

May 1, 2009 442-909
Virginia Farmstead Assessment System: Management of Irrigation Systems

More than 40% of Virginia's population depends on wells or springs as a source of drinking water and this dependence is close to 100% in rural areas. Furthermore, approximately one-fourth of all Virginia households rely on an individual water supply system, such as a backyard well or spring Figure 1. Wells and springs should be designed and managed to provide clean water. If improperly constructed or maintained, however, they can allow bacteria, pesticides, fertilizers or petroleum products to contaminate groundwater. These contaminants can put human and animal health at risk.

May 1, 2009 442-902
Virginia Farmstead Assessment System: Site Evaluation: Groundwater, Soils, & Geology

In Virginia, groundwater is an important source of private and public water supplies. In fact, in 60 of Virginia's 95 counties, the majority of households obtain water from private wells and springs (see Figure 1). For 38 counties, groundwater is the sole source for public water supplies, and another 16 counties depend on groundwater to obtain more than 50 percent of their water for public supplies. Overall, more than one-third of Virginia's almost 6.4 million residents depend on groundwater. Agriculture, an important part of Virginia's economy, maintains its high productivity, partially by using groundwater. According to U.S. Geological Survey estimates for the year 1990, almost 22 percent of the 36 million gallons of fresh water source used per day for crop irrigation in Virginia was derived from groundwater.

May 1, 2009 442-901