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Aquaculture & Seafood

Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
Artemia Culture for Intensive Finfish and Crustacean Larviculture

In Virginia and throughout the United States, freshwater and saltwater finfish and shrimp aquaculture is expanding rapidly. During the cultivation of most marine finfish and shrimp species – as well as some freshwater species – live feeds are an essential component during the larviculture stage. During larviculture, the rotifer is the most commonly used live feed upon transition of the larvae from endogenous (internal energy reserves) to exogenous (external) feeding. Upon completion of the rotifer stage, the most commonly used live feed prior to conversion of the larva to a dry diet is Artemia.

Sep 25, 2009 600-106
Clearing Muddy Pond Waters

All other things being equal, clear water ponds can produce many more fish than muddy ponds. Muddy water reduces fish food availability, and interferes with the ability of fish to see and catch prey. Muddy waters favor blue-green algae and bacterial growth, which can impart a bad flavor to drinking water and food fish. Green water is usually the result of algae, which is another type of problem with a different solution than that discussed here. It is a sad irony that the same soil that is vital for agricultural production on land becomes a major pollutant when suspended in water.

May 1, 2009 420-250
Commercial Frog Farming May 1, 2009 420-255
Common Diseases of Cultured Striped Bass, Morone saxatilis, and Its Hybrid (M. saxitilis x M. chrysops) Jun 10, 2010 600-080
Control Methods For Aquatic Plants in Ponds and Lakes

Aquatic plants growing in ponds and lakes are beneficial for fish and wildlife. They provide food, dissolved oxygen, and spawning and nesting habitat for fish and waterfowl. Aquatic plants can trap excessive nutrients and detoxify chemicals. Aquatic wildflowers such as the water lily are sold and planted to provide floral beauty to garden ponds.

However, dense growths (over 25% of the surface area) of algae and other water plants can seriously interfere with pond recreation and threaten aquatic life. Water plants can restrict swimming, boating, fishing, and other water sports. Water plants can impart unpleasant taste (musty flavor), decaying vegetation emits offensive odors (rotten egg smell), and algae can discolor pond waters. Dense growths of plants can cause night time oxygen depletion and fish kills. Green plants produce oxygen in sunlight, but they consume oxygen at night. Decomposing water weeds can deplete the oxygen supply, resulting in sport fish kills from suffocation. Dense plant growths can provide too much cover, preventing predation, and leading to stunted (small-sized) sportfish populations.

May 1, 2009 420-251
Cooking a Simple Family Shrimp Boil Jul 1, 2013 AEE-44NP
Cultchless (Single-Seed) Oyster Crop Budgets for Virginia: 2013 User Manual Aug 13, 2013 AAEC-40P
Dealing with Trichodina and Trichodina-like species May 1, 2009 600-205
Fish Kills: Their Causes and Prevention May 1, 2009 420-252
Food Allergen Labeling and HACCP Control for the Seafood Industry: Undeclared Food Allergens and Their Impact on U.S. Consumers Feb 6, 2014 AREC-55P
Freshwater Fish Farming in Virginia: Selecting the Right Fish to Raise May 1, 2009 420-010
Freshwater Shrimp Boils: Experience the Excellent Taste of Virginia Farmer-Grown Freshwater Shrimp Aug 8, 2013 CV-31NP
Getting Acquainted with Amyloodinium ocellatum May 1, 2009 600-200
HACCP Verification Procedures - Validation of Blue Crab Retort Processes

Processors in the state of Virginia that cook whole crabs and pick the meat for sale must be certified by Virginia Department of Health/Division of Shellfish Sanitation (DSS). They also are required to develop and implement a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan as part of the seafood HACCP regulation.

Apr 24, 2015 600-070 (AREC-147)
Increasing Your Confidence in Cooking High Quality, Safe Seafood (Fish and Shellfish): A Demonstration Tutorial Jan 16, 2013 FST-98NP
Intensive Marine Finfish Larviculture

Marine finfish production is a rapidly expanding field, both in research and industrial aquaculture. A driving force behind this growth is the inherently high value placed upon marine finfish products in the marketplace. 

May 1, 2009 600-050
Liming Acidified Lakes and Ponds May 1, 2009 420-254
Overview of Good Aquaculture Practices

Aquaculture has seen rapid growth in the United States. In Virginia, aquaculture is expanding in the foodfish, baitfish, shellfish, and ornamental production sectors. Growth areas include pond production and indoor, intensive recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Continued expansion of aquaculture in the state, as well as across the region and country, demands attention to both environmental and economic sustainability.

Good aquaculture practices (GAqPs) are a series of considerations, procedures, and protocols designed to foster efficient and responsible aquaculture production and expansion and to help ensure final product quality, safety, and environmental sustainability. GAqPs include considerations for: site location; production system design; incoming seed stock; facility biosecurity; feeding management, procurement, and storage; production techniques to maximize fish health; harvest; and cleaning and sanitation basics to ensure final product quality and safety. This document provides an overview and general framework for GAqPs, oriented to Virginia’s growing pond and RAS aquaculture production sectors.

May 14, 2010 600-054
Pescados y Mariscos en Virginia - Inocuos y Nutritivos Jan 12, 2010 348-961S
Pesticide Applicator Manuals Nov 17, 2011 VTTP-2
Planning for Commercial Aquaculture May 1, 2009 420-012
Pond Construction: Some Practical Considerations May 1, 2009 420-011
Rotifer Production (as a First Feed Item) for Intensive Finfish Larviculture

Live feeds are an integral component in the cultivation of most marine finfish species during larval stages. The first live feed that has demonstrated acceptability for most marine species, and which can typically be raised on a commercial scale, is the rotifer Brachionous spp. While approximately two thousand species of rotifers have been identified, most culturists rely upon the marine rotifers Brachionus plicatilis (L-strain) with a size range of 200 to 360 μm and B. rotundiformis (s-strain) with a size range of 150 to 220 μm (see figure 1). Rotifers are favored due to their size, their ability to be raised in mass cultures, and the fact that their nutrient composition can be quickly improved through the use of specialized enrichment diets.

May 27, 2009 600-105
Safe and Nutritious Seafood in Virginia

Consumers enjoy eating a variety of seafood and can find many choices of fresh as well as frozen seafood in the refrigerated and freezer cases of grocery stores. Seafood tastes good, is low in saturated fat, is an excellent source of protein and omega-3 fatty acids, and helps in the prevention of heart disease. However, consumers want to feel confident that they are buying safe, high-quality seafood products. This publication provides the information you need to help ensure that the seafood you buy and consume is safe and nutritious. 

Jan 15, 2016 AREC-156P
Safe and Nutritious Seafood in Virginia May 1, 2009 348-961
Selection and Cooking Basics for Preparing High Quality, Safe Seafood (Fish and Shellfish) Jan 16, 2013 FST-96NP
Should You Attempt Fish Farming? Considerations for Prospective Fish Growers May 1, 2009 420-897
The Control of Burrowing Crayfish in Ponds May 1, 2009 420-253
The Seafood Hazard Guide, 4th edition: Summary of Changes and Recommendations pdf Aug 31, 2012 AREC-18P
Understanding Fish Nutrition, Feeds, and Feeding May 1, 2009 420-256