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Garden Insects / Pests

Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
2014 Arthropod Pest Management Research On Vegetable in Virginia Apr 22, 2015 ENTO-127NP
Aphids, or plant lice, are small, soft-bodied insects. There are hundreds of different species of aphids, some of which attack only one host plant while others attack numerous hosts. Most aphids are about 1/10 inch long (2.54 mm), and though green and black are the most common colors, they may be gray, brown, pink, red, yellow, or lavender. A characteristic common to all is the presence of two tubes, called cornicles, on the back ends of their bodies. The cornicles secrete defensive substances. In some species they are quite long, while in others they are very short and difficult to see. Aphids feed in clusters and generally prefer new, succulent shoots or young leaves. Some species, known as wooly aphids, are covered with white, waxy filaments, which they produce from special glands. Order: Homoptera, Family: Aphididae
Nov 3, 2014 444-220 (ENTO-82NP)
Applying Pesticides Safely

Proper use of pesticides is essential for your safety and for that of the environment. Pesticides must be used correctly to be effective.

Review the product label before each use. Be sure you have all the materials necessary for a safe and proper application. Check precautions label sites (e.g., types of plants or areas) and timing requirements such as days to harvest, temperature, and wind speed restrictions. Be sure you can indeed use this pesticide when and where you intend to!

Jan 19, 2016 426-710 (HORT-199P)
Arthropod Pest Management Research on Vegetables in Virginia – 2010

This booklet contains arthropod pest management research conducted on vegetable crops in eastern Virginia in 2010. If not noted otherwise in the individual reports, all research was conducted at the Virginia Tech Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center near Painter, VA and at the Hampton Roads Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Virginia Beach, VA. All plots were maintained according to standard commercial practices. Soil type at the ESAREC is a Bojac Sandy Loam. Soil type at the HRAREC is tetotum loam (average pH: 5.7). Most of the research involves field evaluations of federally‐labeled and experimental insecticides. Much of the information presented herein will be published in a similar format in Arthropod Management Tests: 2011, vol. 36 (Entomological Society of America). We hope that this information will be of value to those interested in insect pest management on vegetable crops, and we wish to make the information accessible. All information, however, is for informational purposes only. Because most of the data from the studies are based on a single season’s environmental conditions, it is requested that the data not be published, reproduced, or otherwise taken out of context without the permission of the authors. The authors neither endorse any of the products in these reports nor discriminate against others. Additionally, some of the products evaluated are not commercially available and/or not labeled for use on the crop(s) in which they were used.

Feb 22, 2011 3102-1532
Arthropod Pest Management Research on Vegetables in Virginia – 2013 Feb 25, 2014 ENTO-60NP
Bagworm Nov 3, 2014 2808-1008 (ENTO-83NP)
Balsam Woolly Adelgid Jun 24, 2015 3006-1452(ENTO-161NP)
Banded Ash Borer

Adult banded ash borers have somewhat cylindrical, elongated bodies ranging from 8–18 mm (0.3–0.7 inches) long and tapered towards the tip of the abdomen. Adults are grayish-black in color with lighter colored hairs all over the body

May 19, 2015 ENTO-133NP
Bark Beetles
Species identification is difficult because the adult beetles of the various species are very similar, cylindrical and hard-shelled. Over 600 species in the sub-family. Adult beetles are between 1/8 and 1/3 inch long. Nearly all bark beetles are black or brown. Bark beetles are in the Order: Coleoptera, Family: Curculionidae, Sub Family: Scolytinae.
Nov 10, 2014 444-216 (ENTO-85NP)
Benefits of an Insecticide Seed Treatment for Pumpkin Production in Virginia

In recent years cucurbit growers in the Mid-Atlantic U.S. could purchase their seeds pre-treated with the neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam. The insecticide seed treatment is currently packaged as FarMore F1400, which also includes three proven and complementary fungicides that provide the first line of defense against several key seed and seedling diseases including Rhizoctonia, Fusarium, Pythium, general damping-off and seedling blight. The seed treatment is relatively cheap (less than $1 per acre), and has become widely used by growers. However, as the use of neonicotinoids have become controversial, particularly as it relates to pollinator protection issues, some growers have asked whether the thiamethoxam is really needed. In this bulletin, we hope to provide some information that might be helpful to answering that question.

Dec 21, 2015 ENTO-174NP
Biology and Management of Hessian Fly in the Southeast Feb 27, 2013 AREC-39P (ANR-1069)
Black Vine Weevil

Plants Attacked: The adults feed on a wide variety of evergreen, deciduous, and herbaceous plants. The larval form is destructive on yew (taxus), hemlock, rhododendron, and several other broad-leaved evergreens. Adults and larvae will sometimes feed on strawberry and impatiens.

Description of Damage: Two kinds of damage are conspicuous: Adults chew marginal notches in leaves, causing damage that quite often is confused with a disease or chemical injury. The adults feed from the outer margin of the leaf inward, creating characteristic notches, and these notches can be used as an early indicator of potential larvae in the soil. Adults cut notches on the margins only; they never create holes on the center of the leaf. On yew, needles nearer to the main trunk, down inside of the shrub, show notching and feeding scars. Broadleaved evergreens exhibit notching similar to that caused by the two-banded Japanese weevil and Fullers rose beetle. Larvae, the most destructive form of this weevil, feed on roots. When large numbers of larvae are feeding on the roots, the plants will wilt, turn brown, and die.

Nov 14, 2014 444-210 (ENTO-86NP)
Blow Flies

Adult blow flies are generally

medium to large, robust flies. They vary in

length, with the largest species measuring about 16 mm (0.6 inches) long. They can be green, blue, or black with metallic reflections. Some species have conspicuous bristles. All adults have large, noticeable reddish-brown eyes. The wings are transparent and held flat over the back. Adults often cluster in the sun on warm sides of buildings, outcroppings, fences, and other prominent structures. They are sometimes found visiting flowers and feeding on nectar.

May 19, 2015 ENTO-134NP
Bluegrass Billbug Pest Management in Orchardgrass

The bluegrass billbug, Sphenophorus parvulus, is a weevil native to Virginia. Weevils belong to the family Curculionidae, which is contained within the order for beetles, Coleoptera. Like most weevils, the bluegrass billbug has a relatively narrow range of host plants, feeding on a handful of cool-season grass species.

Jul 1, 2010 444-040
Boxelder Bug

This bug is about 1/2 inch long and 1/3 as wide. It is black with three red lines on the thorax, a red line along each side, and an oblique red line on each wing. The wings lie flat on the back when at rest. The young nymphs are red and gray. The population of bugs may number into the thousands. Hemiptera: Rhopalidae, Leptocoris trivittatus

Feb 26, 2016 ENTO-186NP
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug

Homoptera: Penatomidae: Halyomorpha halys

Distribution and Hosts

The brown marmorated stink bug, (BMSB), is an invasive insect not native to North America. It was accidentally introduced near Allentown, PA in 1996 and has spread since that time. It was found in Virginia in 2004 and by 2010, it was found throughout most of the Commonwealth. The BMSB feeds on a wide range of tree fruits and seedpods as well as many vegetables including tomatoes, peppers, beans, cucurbits, and sweet corn. High densities of this pest species have also been seen in soybeans and corn. However, so far in Virginia, the most severely damaged crops have been tree fruit (apples and peaches). For homeowners, it is mainly a nuisance pest, as it invades houses in the winter looking for a place to over-winter. For businesses such as hotels and restaurants and other commercial settings with public interface, the presence of high numbers of these bugs in the fall can have economic consequences.

May 21, 2009 2902-1100
Brown Recluse Spider

Brown recluse spiders belong to a group of spiders commonly known as violin spiders or fiddlebacks. Their name refers to a characteristic fiddle-shaped pattern on their head region directly behind their eyes (never on the abdomen). Brown recluse spiders range in color from tan to dark brown, but often they are a golden brown. The coloration is generally uniform (head and abdomen are about the same color) with no stripes or bands on the legs. The fiddle marking is usually dark brown or black, with the neck of the fiddle pointing towards the abdomen. Hairs on the body are fine, not coarse, and the fiddle pattern is often shiny. The body measures 8–10 mm long (about 0.4 inch).

May 19, 2015 ENTO-135NP
Catalpa Sphinx Caterpillar

Catalpa sphinx caterpillars, also known as “Catalpa worms”, are major defoliators of catalpa, their only host. With their chewing mouthparts, they strip away large portions of the leaves. In heavy infestations they can completely defoliate the entire tree. Apparently trees on high ground with poor soil are rarely, if ever, attacked. In some years, depending on the region, many trees will have all their leaves stripped away by the end of the summer. This may be followed by years with no defoliation observed at all. The fluctuation between outbreak and no defoliation is largely due to the activity of parasites.

Nov 14, 2014 2911-1421 (ENTO-88NP)
Cerceris fumipennis “The Smokey Winged Beetle Bandit”

Cerceris fumipennis is a solitary digger wasp (crabronid) native to eastern North America. It is a predator almost exclusively of adult beetles of the family Buprestidae. This wasp gathers many species of native metallic wood-boring beetles, as well as the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (EAB). The conspicuous manner with which C. fumipennis provisions its nest, as well as its docile response to human handling, makes it a useful biosurveillance tool for detection of EAB.

Sep 24, 2015 ENTO-171NP
Choosing Pesticides Wisely

If you determine a pesticide is needed, read the pesticide labels carefully. You must choose a product that is specifically labeled for use on the plants you wish to protect and effective against the pest you want to control. Never use a pesticide on a food-bearing plant unless the label directs such use. The general term pesticide includes insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, rodenticides, etc. You must determine which product is appropriate to combat your problem. For example, an insecticide is effective only against insect pests, and some insecticides target only a certain type of insect. An insecticide alone will not solve a weed or disease problem. However some pesticide products contain two or more active ingredients. For instance, a formulation for rose care may contain an insecticide and a fungicide.

Jan 15, 2016 426-706 (HORT-202P)
Cluster Fly

Adult cluster flies are medium-sized, robust, somewhat bristly flies about 7 mm (0.3 inches) long. They are brownish-gray with numerous short yellow hairs on the thorax, a checkered pattern on the abdomen, and large, reddish-brown eyes. Adults are typically slow fliers. In the fall they begin to cluster in the sun on the warm sides of buildings, outcroppings, fences, and other prominent structures as they seek protected places to overwinter. They may enter houses and other buildings in large numbers. Homes built on the top of a hill or otherwise stand out in the landscape may attract many cluster flies. While cluster flies are a nuisance in the home, they do not bite, are not associated with the transmission of disease, and do not reproduce inside buildings. Cluster fly larvae (maggots) are parasites of earthworms and develop in the soil. They are not known to reduce earthworm populations to the extent that they disrupt soil ecology.

May 19, 2015 ENTO-136NP
Compact Soil Sampling Strategy for White Grubs

Annual white grubs (WG) are early-season pests attacking corn seeds and seedlings (Figure 1). Heavy WG infestations can cause stand and yield losses of up to 20%. Because grubs occur in the soil, their presence in fields and subsequent damage to corn may go unnoticed until too late. Also, 30% overwintering mortality in WG densities is typical in VA. Insecticidal seed treatments such as clothianidin (PonchoTM) and thiamethoxam (CruiserTM) are the tools of choice for controlling soil insect pests. Growers typically must decide whether to purchase insecticide-treated seed well in advance of spring planting.

Jun 30, 2011 2802-7027
Cottony Maple Scale

Cottony Maple Scale (Homoptera: Coccidae), Pulvinaria innumerabilis

PLANTS ATTACKED: Maples and dogwood primarily, but also many woody ornamentals.

Nov 14, 2014 2808-1011 (ENTO-89NP)
Cucumber Beetles

Plants Attacked: Cucumber, cantaloupe, winter squash, pumpkin, gourd, summer squash, and watermelon, as well as many other species of cucurbits. Cucumber beetles may also feed on beans, corn, peanuts, potatoes, and other crops.

May 1, 2009 2808-1009
Deer: A Garden Pest Sep 5, 2013 HORT-62NP
Diagnosing Plant Problems

Something is wrong with your plant. What’s the cause? You can begin to determine the cause of the problem by taking on the role of Sherlock Holmes – be a keen observer and ask many questions. Diagnosing plant problems is often a difficult task. There can be many different causes for a given symptom, not all of them related to insects or diseases. The health of a plant may be affected by soil nutrition and texture, weather conditions, quantity of light, other environmental and cultural conditions, and animals, including humans. Complicating this scenario is the fact that any two of the above factors can interact to give rise to a problem. For example, a prolonged period of drought may weaken plants so that they are more susceptible to pests; this is typically observed with boxwoods.

May 1, 2009 426-714
Dogwood Borer
Larvae feed in the inner bark of live, healthy dogwood trees. The damaged area of the trunk or branch swells and eventually the bark will fall off. Leaves turning red prematurely in mid-summer on a lone branch are an early sign of dogwood borers. Infested branches and limbs will die. Dogwood borers often will not kill the tree in the first year, but reinfestation in successive years will. Plants attacked include: Dogwood, pecan, elm, hickory, and willow.
Nov 18, 2014 2808-1010 (ENTO-90NP)
Earwigs in Virginia

Earwigs can be up to 1 and 1/4 inches (25.4 - 31.8mm). Most are Red-brown to black in color. Adult earwigs are flattened insects, up to 1 and 1/4 inches in length, and light red-brown to black. Some species are wingless but others have a pair of leathery forewings covering a few segments of the  abdomen and the membranous hind wings, which have the tips protruding. The forceps-like appendages at the end of the abdomen are strongly curved in the male. The female's appendages are smaller and less curved. The forceps are used primarily for defense and during courtship and cannot harm people. Earwigs are primarily scavengers on dead insects and rotted plant materials. Some species are predators. Only a few of the winged species are good fliers. They are often transported great distances in plant materials and occasionally in other freight. The most common earwig in Virginia is the European earwig, Forficula auricularia. Dermaptera: Forficulidae.

Mar 11, 2016 3101-1527 (ENTO-194NP)
Eastern Tent Caterpillar

Larvae feed in the inner bark of live, healthy dogwood trees. The damaged area of the trunk or branch swells and eventually the bark will fall off. Leaves turning red prematurely in mid-summer on a lone branch are an early sign of dogwood borers. Infested branches and limbs will die. Dogwood borers often will not kill the tree in the first year, but reinfestation in successive years will. Plants attacked include: Dogwood, pecan, elm, hickory, and willow.

Nov 18, 2014 444-274 (ENTO-92NP)
Emerald Ash Borer Feb 7, 2014 HORT-69NP
Euonymus Scale
Eggs are laid early in the spring and hatch in late May or early June. The crawlers settle quickly and produce a second brood by mid-July. A third brood is produced in October. There is continuous overlapping of broods, so that all stages may be found during favorable conditions. Two to three-plus generations per year may occur in Virginia. The overwintering stage is the adult female.
Nov 21, 2014 444-277 (ENTO-93NP)
European Hornet Mar 12, 2015 2911-1422 (ENTO-123NP)
Evaluation of the Residual Efficacy of Commercial Slug Baits

Slugs are prevalent pests in no-till and reduced-till crop systems in Virginia. These slimy mollusks utilize plant residue to hide during the day, and at night, they feed on numerous crops causing irregular feeding holes and shredded leaves. Slugs cause the most damage during early plant growth.

Jan 29, 2016 ENTO-178NP
Fall Webworm

Native to North America, the fall webworm occurs throughout the United States and southern Canada. Its hosts include more than 100 species of deciduous forest, shade, and fruit trees, with preferences varying from region to region.

Nov 21, 2014 2808-1013 (ENTO-94NP)
Field Guide to Stink Bugs Nov 17, 2014 444-356 (ENTO-68)
Food Safety For School and Community Gardens May 29, 2013 FST-60P
For the Birds, Butterflies & Hummingbirds: Creating Inviting Habitats Aug 1, 2014 HORT-59NP (HORT-74NP)
Galls made by aphids, adelgids, phylloxerans, psyllids, and midges May 8, 2015 ENTO-146NP
Gardening and Your Health: Ticks

During early spring and summer, as the weather warms up and the garden springs back to life from its winter dormancy, many gardeners -- and ticks -- eagerly return to their outdoor activities. Gardeners should be aware of the risks and know how to protect themselves from becoming hosts to disease-carrying ticks.

May 1, 2009 426-066
Gypsy Moth Management for Homeowners on Small Properties

The gypsy moth, native to Europe and Asia, is a major invasive pest of hardwood forests in the U. S. Introduced into Massachusetts in 1869, the gypsy moth has rapidly moved into other regions of the country and is responsible for large amounts of defoliation each year. Most of Virginia is generally infested by this pest. Visit http://fubyss.ento.vt.edu/vagm/ to read more about the gypsy moth biology and control.

May 1, 2009 2811-1021
Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Jun 11, 2010 3006-1451
History, Distribution and Pest Status of the Mexican bean beetle Mar 25, 2014 ENTO-62NP
House fly

Adult house flies are medium-sized flies about 6 mm (0.25 inch) long. They are grayish-black in color, with 4 dark bands running the length of the thorax and conspicuous bristles on the body. The abdomen is usually yellowish or gray, with a dark midline. The large eyes are reddish-brown and there are silvery patches between the eyes on the face. There are two pairs of wings, but the hind wings are small and modified for balance during flight. Adults often cluster in the sun on the warm sides of buildings, outcroppings, fences, and other prominent structures. House fly larvae (maggots) are found in dung, garbage, and rotting organic materials. Homeowners may find house fly maggots in garbage cans that have been left uncovered and not emptied regularly, or in improperly stored food.

May 19, 2015 ENTO-137NP
Hunting Billbug Pest Management in Orchardgrass Jul 1, 2010 444-041
Imported Willow Leaf Beetle

Imported willow leaf beetle was identified in the United States in 1915. It likely arrivedon landscape plants shipped from Europe, where it is native.

May 20, 2015 ENTO-139NP
Improving Pest Management with Farmscaping Dec 6, 2013 ENTO-52NP(ENTO-55NP)
Insect Identification Lab Sep 25, 2013 ENTO-45NP
Insect Pests of Christmas Trees Slide Show Mar 6, 2015 2909-1415 (ENTO-122NP)
Insect Pests of Ornamental Plants Slide Show Mar 6, 2015 2909-1414 (ENTO-121NP)
Insect and Mite Pests of Boxwood Sep 25, 2013 ENTO-42NP
Integrated Pest Management for Plant Diseases in the Home Garden and Landscape, Learning Module I: Integrated Pest Management Apr 22, 2015 PPWS-14NP
Integrated Pest Management for Plant Diseases in the Home Garden and Landscape, Learning Module II: The Plant Disease Triangle Apr 22, 2015 PPWS-15NP
Integrated Pest Management for Vegetable Gardens

Maintain a slightly acid soil (around pH 6.5). If in doubt, have a soil analysis done through your local Extension office, by a private lab, or with a commercial soil test kit. Lime can be used to increase soil pH and sulfur can lower it.

Maintain adequate levels of soil fertility through additions of potassium and phosphorus releasing materials, such as commercial fertilizers or animal manures. Soil testing should be done every three years to determine levels of these important nutrients.

Build a biologically active, healthy soil through regular addition of organic matter, such as yard waste, compost, and manure.

For planting areas not being cropped, grow annual cover crops, such as clover or rye grass, to provide additional organic matter.

Till the soil in the fall to expose pests living near the surface to natural enemies and weather, and to destroy insects overwintering in crop residues.

May 1, 2009 426-708
Iris Borer

Adult iris borers are stout, medium sized moths with a wingspan of 3.8–5 cm (1.5–2 inches). The head and forewings are covered with purplish brown scales and the hind wings are yellowish. The forewings have thin dark zigzag lines, a more conspicuous dark kidney-shaped spot, and variable sooty shading around the margins. The bottom edge of the forewings is noticeably scalloped. Eggs are highly sculptured and are found primarily in the folds of dried out, brown, dead leaves of iris plants. Initially a creamy color with a greenish tinge, the eggs turn lavender with age. Full grown caterpillars are cylindrical, smooth, and pinkish-white. They measure up to 4.4 cm (1.7 inches) long. Pupae are dark brown to nearly black and very shiny.

May 20, 2015 ENTO-140NP
Japanese Beetle

The Japanese beetle is found throughout Virginia and in most of the Eastern United States. In regions west of the Mississippi it is found in isolated pockets. Japanese beetles were first found in New Jersey in 1916 and have spread from that point since. The Japanese beetle has been well established in Virginia since the early 1970’s.

Dec 11, 2014 2902-1101 (ENTO-97NP)
Japanese Beetle Pest Management in Primocane-Bearing Raspberries Sep 15, 2009 2909-1411
Large and unusual Insects Found in Virginia May 5, 2015 ENTO-148NP
Leaf‐ Footed Bugs Dec 21, 2010 3012-1522
Leatherwing (Soldier) Beetles Dec 10, 2013 ENTO-53NP
Lilac Borer/Ash Borer

The adult has clear wings and is wasp-like in appearance. Size: The moth is about 1 inch long with a wingspan of 1 1/2 inches. Color: The fore wings are brown or chocolate color and the hind wings are clear with a dark border. The larvae are pure white worms with brown heads. Order: Lepidoptera Family: Sesiidae Species: Podosesia syringae (Harris).

Dec 11, 2014 444-278 (ENTO-99NP)
Locust Borer, Megacyllene robiniae (Forst.) Coleoptera: Cerambycidae May 8, 2015 ENTO-141NP
Locust Leafminer Mar 17, 2016 3101-1528 (ENTO-205NP)
Longhorned Beetles/Roundheaded Borers

Size: Larvae up to 3 1/4 inches (80mm) or more. Color: Adult longhorned beetles are medium to large cylindrical beetles, usually brown, reddish brown, or black in color. They are sometimes mottled or banded with white or gray. Larvae (roundheaded borers) are brown, reddish brown, or black. They are sometimes mottled or banded with white or gray. Adults are called longhorned beetles because of their long and distinctive 11-segmented antennae, often longer than the beetle's body. The thorax and wing covers on some species bear small, stout spines. Roundheaded borers (larvae) are elongate, cylindrical, and have large gnawing mandibles. The name roundheaded borer refers to the enlarged thorax directly behind the head. Order: Coleoptera, Family: Cerambycidae.

Dec 11, 2014 444-215 (ENTO-100NP)
Mexican Bean Beetle Dec 13, 2013 ENTO-51NP
Millipedes Sep 25, 2013 ENTO-43NP
Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle in Virginia

Multicolored Asian Lady beetles enter the house through small openings around windows, doors, and utility access points. In addition, they can enter the house by cracks in the siding and trim and through attic vents. Sealing those entry sites is the best method to keep them from becoming indoor pests later. Conduct a thorough energy audit of your house, as places where cold air can enter the house are places where this lady beetle can gain access. Fill all cracks and leaks with a fine quality silicone or silicone-latex caulk.  Once inside, insecticides are not recommended except for severe cases. Sweep up with a broom and dustpan all beetles that collect in windowsills and on walls. Beetles can also be picked up with a vacuum cleaner but bags will need to be discarded so that beetles do not escape.

Dec 11, 2014 444-275 (ENTO-102NP)
Pediobius foveolatus – A parasitoid of the Mexican bean beetle

Pediobius foveolatus, is a tiny exotic parasitoid wasp that is used as a biological control agent for Mexican bean beetle, an important defoliating pest of beans in Virginia.

Sep 24, 2015 ENTO-170NP
Pepper Weevil Mar 25, 2014 ENTO-63NP
Periodical Cicada

In Virginia both the 17-and 13-year cicadas damage many ornamental and hardwood trees. Oaks are commonly attacked but the most seriously damaged are newly planted fruit and ornamental trees such as apple, dogwood, peach, hickory, cherry, and pear. Pines and other conifers are not commonly attacked.

Feb 25, 2015 444-276 (ENTO-105NP)
Pest Management Guide: Home Grounds and Animals, 2016 Feb 1, 2016 456-018 (ENTO-166P)
Pest Management for Water Quality

Research has shown that consumers find reading and understanding the label to be the most difficult aspect of applying pesticides. However, an understanding of the label information is essential before work begins. The label printed on or attached to a container of pesticide tells how to use it correctly and warns of any environmental or health safety measures to take. Read the label when you purchase a pesticide and again before mixing or applying it. If you are confused about any part of the label, consult your Extension agent or a representative of the company that makes the product. Many pesticides now list a toll-free number for consumers. The label includes specific information that you should be aware of and learn to understand.

Mar 18, 2015 426-615 (HORT-138P)
Pest Monitoring Calendar for Home Lawns in Virginia May 1, 2009 430-524
Pesticide Applicator Manuals Nov 17, 2011 VTTP-2
Pine Shoot Beetle Apr 27, 2015 444-291 (ENTO-149NP)
Pine Tortoise Scale

Foliage drops, needles usually shorter and may kill tree over period of years -
most damaging on seedlings and young saplings. Often black sooty mold is associated with infestations.

Mar 24, 2016 3101-1529 (ENTO-207NP)
Poison Ivy: Leaves of three? Let it be!

Those who experience the blisters, swelling, and extreme itching that result from contact with poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans), poison oak (Toxicodendron pubescens), or poison sumac (Toxicodendron vernix) learn to avoid these pesky plants. Although poison oak and poison sumac do grow in Virginia, poison ivy is by far the most common. This publication will help you identify poison ivy, recognize the symptoms of a poison ivy encounter, and control poison ivy around your home.

May 1, 2009 426-109
Psocids: Barklice and Booklice May 7, 2015 ENTO-143NP
Red Imported Fire Ant (RIFA) Mar 5, 2010 444-284
Redheaded Ash Borer May 7, 2015 ENTO-142NP
Redheaded Pine Sawfly Jun 24, 2015 3006-1453(ENTO-162NP)
Scale Insects Feb 26, 2015 2808-1012 (ENTO-106NP)
Second Edition Mid-Atlantic Guide to the Insect Pests and Beneficials of Corn, Soybean, and Small Grains Oct 4, 2012 444-360
Spider Mites Feb 26, 2015 444-221 (ENTO-107NP)
Spiders of Medical Concern in Virginia Aug 8, 2014 ENTO-73NP
Spotted Lanternfly

The spotted lanternfly (SLF) originates from China where its presence has been documented in detail dating as far back as the 12th century. In modern times, it was first recorded from a sample collected in Nankin, China. SLF is native to China, India, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. In September 2014, the first detection of spotted lanternfly in the US was confirmed in eastern Pennsylvania. In 2015, the range expanded from two to four Pennsylvania counties; the geographical range is likely to expand further. SLF is likely to have arrived from China up to two years earlier on shipping materials, pointing to its ability to overwinter successfully. It is highly invasive and can spread rapidly when introduced to new areas. This is attributed to its wide host range (more than 70 host plant species) and a lack of natural native enemies.

Feb 3, 2016 ENTO-180NP
Spruce Spider Mite Mar 2, 2015 444-235 (ENTO-108NP)
Squash Bug Mar 25, 2014 ENTO-64NP
Storing Pesticides Safely
Storage Tips
The proper storage of pesticides, both synthetic and botanical, in and around the home is important for many reasons, including protecting human health, preserving the environment, and maintaining chemical effectiveness. One way to minimize storage problems is through good planning.

Buy only the amount of pesticide that you need for a specific job or for the current growing season. The smaller-volume containers, even if more expensive ounce for ounce, may in fact be the "best buy" in the long run by eliminating waste and the need for storage space. If you need to store pesticides on your property, follow these guidelines - for safety's sake!

May 1, 2009 426-705
Striped Cucumber Beetle Feb 25, 2014 ENTO-61NP
The pest caterpillars of cole crops in Virginia

Caterpillars, or the larval stage of Lepidoptera, are probably the most damaging of insect groups that feed on cole crops, such as collard, kale, cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts, and Chinese cabbage. Caterpillars typically feed on foliage reducing marketability or outright killing plants. The most common and damaging caterpillars in Virginia cole crops are diamondback moth (DBM), cabbage looper (CL), and imported cabbageworm (ICW). In addition to these key species, there are several other species of caterpillars that will be observed feeding on cole crops that may or may not be a threat to yield of the crop. These species are summarized in Table 1. Normally pest management is meant to target all caterpillars, treating them as one pest “complex;” however, there are some noteworthy differences between the caterpillar species in their life histories and feeding behaviors where proper identification is sometimes necessary.

Mar 2, 2012 ENTO-2
Thrips Mar 3, 2015 444-281 (ENTO-110NP)
Turf and Garden Tips: What can be done about crayfish in lawns? Aug 16, 2013 CSES-64NP
Twig Girdler/Twig Pruner Mar 16, 2015 2911-1423 (ENTO-124NP)
Understanding Pesticide Labels

Research has shown that consumers find reading and understanding the label to be the most difficult aspect of applying pesticides safely. However, it is essential that you understand the label information before you begin work. The label printed on or attached to a container of pesticide tells you how to use it correctly and warns of any environmental or health safety measures to take.

Jan 14, 2016 426-707 (HORT-201P)
Urban Water-Quality Management: Insect Pests of Water Garden Plants
Aphids are often called plant lice. Several species are troublesome pests on above-water leaves (a), stems, and flower buds of aquatic plants. These sucking insects distort succulent new leaves, causing them to curl, wilt, or turn yellow. Adults are 1/8 inch long and can be winged (c) or wingless (b) with soft pear-shaped bodies with two distinctive cornicles or "tailpipes" protruding from the backs of their abdomens. 
Apr 8, 2015 426-040 (HORT-124P)
Weeds in the Home Vegetable Garden

The most common definition of a weed is a plant out of place. Many plants that are considered weeds in the vegetable garden are beneficial wildflowers in other settings. Some, such as the Venice mallow (or flower-of-an-hour), morning glory, and even thistles, have flowers that rival those intentionally planted in flower beds. Unfortunately, some of the plants, while attractive in the wild, are too aggressive for use in the home garden and can take over the landscape. Seeds of even very obnoxious wild flowers may be sold occasionally, so care must be used in the selection of wildflowers vs. weeds.

Apr 22, 2015 426-364 (HORT-157P)
White Pine Weevil Mar 3, 2015 444-270 (ENTO-113NP)
Whiteflies Mar 3, 2015 444-280 (ENTO-114NP)
Widow Spiders Dec 18, 2012 444-422
Wireworm control experiment in potatoes in Abingdon, VA in 2011 Nov 3, 2011 3110-1596
Yellowjackets Sep 26, 2013 ENTO-49NP