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Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
4-H Horse Judging Project Record Book Level 1 Mar 4, 2016 4H-316NP (4H-568P)
4-H Horse Judging Project Record Book Level 2

This project book will be used to further the education of 4-H members who are interested in horse judging and have already completed the 4-H Horse Judging Project Record Book Level 1.

Mar 2, 2016 4H-317NP (4H-569P)
Addressing the Consequences of Predator Damage to Livestock and Poultry May 1, 2009 410-030
Basic Information Agents need to know about Virginia’s 4-H Horse Program Jul 20, 2016 4H-307NP (APSC-125NP)
Catastrophic Livestock and Poultry Carcass Disposal Nov 19, 2013 ANR-76NP (ANR-90NP)
Easy Keepers: Managing Horses Prone to Obesity

“Easy Keepers” are horses that will maintain or even gain weight under conditions where other horses will lose weight. They are often considered a pleasure to own because they need less feed to maintain an appropriate body condition; however, these horses can easily become obese, which leads to other potentially life-threatening conditions. The challenge becomes meeting their nutritional needs in protein, vitamins, and minerals, without over-feeding calories.

May 1, 2009 2805-1002
Equine Boarding Operations in Northern Virginia, 2008 Survey Results

As of 2005, the horse industry contributed approximately $39 billion in direct economic impacts to the U.S. economy on an annual basis. When considering indirect and induced spending, that number increased to $102 billion. There are an estimated 9.2 million horses in the United States owned by nearly 2 million people (American Horse Council, 2005). These numbers represent a strong growth in the horse industry across the country from 1996 (American Horse Council, 1996) to 2005 and in Virginia the trend is no different. Evaluation of surveys of horses in Virginia estimated that 215,000 horses are located on 41,000 operations throughout the Commonwealth. This reflects a 26% growth in the number of horses and a 41% growth in the number of equine operations between 2001 and 2006. Virginia equine operations spent $783 million caring for equines in 2006, as compared to $505 million in 2001. Boarding fees accounted for 5.4% of equine expenditures, actually reflecting a decrease from 6.3% in 2001. Loudoun, Fauquier, and Albemarle ranked as the top three counties for number of horses and total value of the animals, respectively (NASS, 2006).

May 1, 2009 2808-1014
Equine Emergency Preparedness in Virginia Apr 16, 2010 406-500
Equine Evacuation Sites during Emergencies Nov 17, 2016 ANR-228NP
Fall Panicum Toxicity In Horses

Fall Panicum is a common annual warm season grass that can be hepatotoxic (cause liver disease) in horses under certain growing conditions. Toxicity in horses was documented in Virginia in 2004 when fourteen horses were diagnosed with liver disease as a result of consuming Fall Panicum hay. Currently, there have been several cases of suspected toxicity in horses grazing Fall Panicum in Northern Virginia pastures since late summer 2015. The trigger that causes toxicity and the amount of grass required to cause illness are not well understood, thus proper identification and treatment are essential for recovery.

Oct 16, 2015 APSC-116NP
Feeding and Management of Weanling Horses for Healthy Skeletal Development

Weaning is a critical period for the foal. It is growing rapidly and its skeletal system, which includes bones, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments, is still developing. For the weanling to reach its full potential as an adult, you must manage its total nutritional environment. This publication answers some questions related to the nutritional management of weanlings that you, as a horse
producer, should consider.

May 1, 2009 406-007
General Horse Information Agents Need To Know Jul 20, 2016 4H-308 (APSC-127P)
Hay Preferences for Horse Owners in Northern and Central Virginia

With over 215,000 horses on over 41,000 operations in Virginia (USDA/NASS 2007), the horse industry is an important segment that should be considered when it comes to making, buying, and selling hay. An understanding of what horse owners want may help hay producers create a product that will sell more quickly at a premium price and aid in the retention of customers.

May 1, 2009 2807-1004
Health Care for Horses

Thoughtful and planned care will allow your horse to live a longer and healthier life. Good equine husbandry is based upon the principle of preventive care: problem prevention rather than problem treatment.

May 1, 2009 406-308
Horse Manure Management

Manure management is a vital part of modern day horse ownership. Many horses spend a significant portion of their day in stalls, accumulating large amounts of manure and stall waste. Horse owners generally have a limited amount of time to spend caring for their equine charges; thus, efficient manure removal and disposal is crucial.

May 1, 2009 406-208
Maintaining Healthy Horse Pastures

This publication is a one page poster regarding Maintaining Healthy Horse Pastures. Download pdf in right sidebar.

May 1, 2009 418-105
Nutrient Management for Small Farms Oct 8, 2010 442-305
Nutritional Supplementation for Horses on Pasture in Virginia

Horse owners are becoming more educated about pasture management and forage selection. As a result, they are improving the quality of the forages their horses are grazing. Yet, even when a pasture is well managed, horses may require nutritional supplementation to meet their needs.

May 1, 2009 406-477
On Farm Mortality Disposal Options for Livestock Producers Jul 31, 2013 2909-1412 (ANR-77NP)
Options for Clearing Land: Pasture Establishment for Horses

You have considered the ramifications of clearing your land (To Clear or Not To Clear – That Is the Question, Virginia Cooperative Extension publication 465-340), and you have decided to go forward. Now this publication addresses a question many new landowners ask: How do I clear land?

May 1, 2009 465-341
Selection and Location of Poultry and Livestock Manure Storage

If you raise dairy cows, broilers, layers, turkeys, horses, beef cattle, sheep, goats, alpacas, or swine for income or a hobby, you will have to deal with the manure they produce. The amount of manure produced by the birds or animals you keep depends on their type, age, size, and diet.

Nov 19, 2009 442-307
Tapping the Horse Hay Market

Many horse managers have a keen eye for hay quality, but their buying habits may seem fickle because they need forages to fit an array of unique preferences and animal performance requirements.

Jan 9, 2017 ANR-241NP
To Clear or Not To Clear -- That Is the Question

There are several reasons why someone might want to clear woodland. Pasture for livestock, space for horseback riding, creating a vista, making space for a garden, increasing lawn size, or establishing a field for hay or other crops are but a few. Regardless of the reason, it is important to carefully evaluate all options and thoroughly understand the ramifications.

May 1, 2009 465-340
VIRGINIA 4-H HORSE PROJECT: PROGRESSIVE RIDING SERIES UNIT 1 Basic Horsemanship Feb 19, 2016 406-053 (4H-559P)
VT Policy Guidelines for Open vs. 4-H Horse Events Jun 27, 2014 4H-306NP
Virginia 4-H Horse Project Measurement Card Jun 27, 2014 406-050 (4H -305NP)
Virginia 4-H State Horse Program

An educational organization for youth, ages 5-19, for those who love horses. Horse ownership not required!

Mar 2, 2016 4H-570NP
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Equine Release, Waiver, and Indemnification Statement Jun 19, 2014 388-035 (4H-304NP)
Virginia's Horse Pastures: Forage Establishment

Well-managed pastures can provide a relatively inexpensive and high-quality feed source for horses in Virginia. In contrast, poorly managed pastures are less adequate nutritionally and can reduce environmental quality. Proper pasture management starts with forage establishment. The establishment phase of forage production is critical since all other management practices depend on a healthy sod. Forage establishment begins long before the actual seeding. Successful forage establishment requires a great deal of planning and attention to detail.

May 1, 2009 418-103
Virginia's Horse Pastures: Forage Species for Horse Pastures

Virginia is located in the transition area between the cool temperate and subtropical zones of the United States. Thus, Virginia can produce a wide range of pasture plants, but varying temperatures and soil conditions require that different pasture species be grown in various parts of the state. Total moisture availability and temperatures are favorable to productive pasture, but shortterm drought combined with high temperatures often limits forage growth during the summer months. Choosing the correct forage species is the first step in successful pasture management. Forages used in Virginia's horse pastures should be:

May 1, 2009 418-102
Virginia's Horse Pastures: Grazing Management

Sound grazing management can decrease feeding expenses and stable cleaning and other chores, leaving more time for the recreational enjoyment of horses. In addition, pastures also help to maintain healthy horses by providing exercise and fresh air. Although properly managed pastures can be beneficial to both the horse and owner; improperly managed pastures can be a serious environmental concern. Poor grazing management results in the loss of groundcover that can lead to soil erosion, the degradation of water quality in neighboring streams and ponds, and increased weed pressure in pastures.

May 1, 2009 418-101
Virginia's Horse Pastures: Renovating Old Pastures

Pasture renovation can be defined as a series of practices that result in long-term improvement in the health, productivity, and botanical composition of pastures. These practices include interseeding legumes and grasses, fertilization, liming, weed control, and improved grazing management. Successful renovation requires planning, timelines, and attention to detail. Before reseeding pastures it is important to determine why the previous stand did not persist. It is essential that these problems be addressed in the long-term pasture management plan.

May 1, 2009 418-104