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Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
Control of Common Pasture and Hayfield Weeds in Virginia and West Virginia

Annual and perennial weed control in pastures and hayfields is an important aspect of successful forage management. This publication will discuss control measures for many of the common weeds found in Virginia and West Virginia permanent fescue and mixed fescue / bluegrass / orchardgrass pastures and hayfields.

May 1, 2009 427-002
Fertilizing Cool-Season Forages with Poultry Litter versus Commercial Fertilizer

The Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and some other regions produce more manure nutrients than local crops need. This manure has traditionally been applied to row crops and overapplication has led to soil-test phosphorus (P) being well above agronomic optimum in many cases. In 2008, it was estimated that nutrient-management regulations now require that approximately 85 percent of poultry litter be applied off poultry farms, as they do not have sufficient land to beneficially recycle their manure nutrients. There is a substantial area of nutrient-deficient forage production in the Shenandoah Valley that could benefit from this poultry litter. This publication summarizes two years of field research on fertilizing nutrient-deficient forages with poultry or commercial fertilizer. It also evaluates split versus single annual applications of nutrients and addresses a common misconception that poultry litter contains weed seeds.

Sep 16, 2009 418-142
Green Stem Syndrome in Soybean Dec 22, 2009 2912-1430
Identification and Control of Annual Ryegrass in No-Till Corn in Virginia

In Virginia, annual ryegrass has become one of the most troublesome and difficult to control weeds in small grains, as well as in corn and soybeans grown in rotation with small grains. Annual ryegrass control has declined due to the development of resistance to Hoelon, which has been the only treatment available for control in wheat and barley. Lack of control in small grains has allowed annual ryegrass to proliferate and become problematic in no-till corn establishment where high rates of triazine herbicides or sequential applications of nonselective herbicides are frequently required for acceptable control.

May 1, 2009 427-001
Identification and Control of Common Reed (Phragmites australis) in Virginia

Common reed is a tall perennial grass with creeping rhizomes that may make a dense vegetative mat. The leaves are rolled in the shoot, no auricles are present, and the ligule is a fringe of hairs. Leaf blades are 1 to 5 cm wide, 20 to 60 cm long, flat, and glaborous. The leaf margins are rough and the sheaths are overlapping.

May 1, 2009 427-101
Identification and Control of Hemp Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum L.) in Virginia May 1, 2009 450-140
Identification and Control of Honeyvine Milkweed (Ampelamus albidus (Nutt.) Britt.) in Virginia May 1, 2009 450-139
Identification and Control of Horsenettle (Solanum carolinense L.) in Virginia May 1, 2009 450-142
Identification and Control of Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.) in Virginia May 1, 2009 450-141
Identification and Control of Trumpetcreeper (Campsis radicans (L.) Seem ex Bureau) in Virginia May 1, 2009 450-143
Itchgrass Identification and Control in Virginia

On October 3, 2007, the Weed Identification Clinic at Virginia Tech received an itchgrass [Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton] sample from a cornfield in Westmoreland County, near Montross (Figure 1). Currently, itchgrass is considered a federal noxious weed and the Westmoreland County sample is the first record of this plant in the state of Virginia.

May 1, 2009 427-008
Lawn Moss: Friend or Foe?

There are thousands of species of moss worldwide. These very simple plants lack the typical leaf, shoot, root, and seed-forming systems of most higher plants; however, they are some of the hardiest living organisms on the planet (Figure 1). Lawn moss can reproduce sexually (spores, etc.) or asexually (breaking off into smaller pieces that divide and multiply), and their numbers can increase rapidly under the right conditions. They are tolerant of extremely low mowing, so regular clipping of the grass will not remove them. It would seem that these plants would not offer much resistance to our efforts to manage or control them, but as Mother Nature often shows, their simplicity in design and function correlates well with their ability to colonize and persist in some of the most inhospitable growing conditions around your property: sidewalks, driveways, and yes – the lawn.

May 1, 2009 430-536
Palmer Amaranth Control in Cotton: 2008 & 2009 Efficacy Experiments Dec 22, 2009 2912-1428
Palmer Amaranth Control in Soybean: 2009 Efficacy Experiments Dec 22, 2009 2912-1429
Pest Management Guide: Field Crops, 2017 Feb 17, 2017 456-016 (ENTO-221P)
Pest Management Guide: Horticultural and Forest Crops, 2017 Feb 17, 2017 456-017 (ENTO-222P)
Pesticide Applicator Manuals Nov 17, 2011 VTTP-2
Poison Ivy: Leaves of three? Let it be!

Those who experience the blisters, swelling, and extreme itching that result from contact with poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans), poison oak (Toxicodendron pubescens), or poison sumac (Toxicodendron vernix) learn to avoid these pesky plants. Although poison oak and poison sumac do grow in Virginia, poison ivy is by far the most common. This publication will help you identify poison ivy, recognize the symptoms of a poison ivy encounter, and control poison ivy around your home.

May 1, 2009 426-109
Prevention and Control of Palmer Amaranth in Cotton Mar 25, 2015 2805-1001 (PPWS-60NP)
Prevention and Control of Palmer Amaranth in Soybean Jun 1, 2016 2808-1006 (PPWS-78NP)
Pyridine Herbicide Carryover: Causes and Precautions May 9, 2012 VTTP-6NP
Sensor-Based, Variable-Rate Nitrogen Applications in Virginia

Variable-rate applications (VRA) of nitrogen (N) fertilizers are a new option to assist producers with real-time fertilizer rate decisions. Two commercially available systems that allow variable-rate nitrogen applications are GreenSeeker (Trimble Navigation Limited; www. ntechindustries.com/greenseeker-home.html) and the OptRx Crop Sensor (Ag Leader Technology; www. agleader.com/products/directcommand/optrx/). A discussion of the science behind these systems, potential economic benefits, and other methodologies to make VRA is discussed in Virginia Cooperative Extension publication 442-505, “Precision Farming Tools: Variable-Rate Application” (Grisso et al. 2011). 

Aug 8, 2014 CSES-90P
Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare, L.) Weed Control

The purpose of this publication is to provide performance data of the many soybean varieties offered for sale in Virginia.  These data should be of benefit to producers and agribusinesses in making selections of varieties for their use.  It is realized that not all varieties that are offered for sale in Virginia are included in these tests.  There is no implication that varieties not included are inferior in any way, but only that they have not been tested. 

Nov 16, 2012 AREC-29NP
Successful No-Tillage Corn Production Jul 29, 2009 424-030
The Nutritive Value of Common Pasture Weeds and Their Relation to Livestock Nutrient Requirements

Weeds constantly invade crop fields and pastures; therefore, it is important to know the potential quality of individual weed species in making management decisions concerning weed control. It is frequently assumed that weeds have low nutritive value and livestock will not eat weeds, so expensive and time-consuming measures are often used for their control.12 Some weeds are toxic or poisonous to livestock, and certain weeds are unpalatable – causing a reduction in total intake.9 Several weed species have thorns or spines that can injure the grazing animal’s mouth and/or irritate its eyes, which may lead to pinkeye.9 Other weeds can cause the milk and meat of livestock to have a negative taste or odor. Weeds also compete with cultivated crops and forages for moisture, light, and nutrients, but many weeds are nutrient-rich and digestible.9 The objective of this review paper is to recognize the nutritional values of weeds commonly found in pastures.2

Aug 6, 2009 418-150
Virginia Master Naturalist, Basic Training Course, Botany Feb 6, 2014 ANR-10NP (ANR-97NP)
Water Garden Plants Sep 29, 2011 3109-1594
Weed Control in Hops Mar 11, 2015 ANR-144NP
Weed Management Update in Small Fruit

One question that I have frequently received this year, just like last year, concerns the availability of Surflan (common name oryzalin). Surflan is a commonly-applied preemergence herbicide for control of annual grasses like crabgrass and foxtail, along with certain annual broadleaf weeds like chickweed, pigweed, and lambsquarters.

Jul 24, 2009 2906-1328
Weed Management in Small Fruit Crops

For small fruit growers, the challenge of weed management is one of the greatest they will face to successfully grow these crops. Factors such as climate, weed introductions and adaptability, and years of agricultural activity have come together to select for weed species that are aggressive and persistent. Without management, weeds compete with crops for light, nutrients and water, resulting in stressed plants, poor fruit quality and yield.

Jul 24, 2009 2906-1327