Title Available As Summary Date ID Author
Groundwater Quality and the Use of Lawn and Garden Chemicals by Homeowners May 1, 2009 426-059
Gardening & Your Health, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Gardening with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) can be very difficult, especially when a long day of shoveling, raking, or weed pulling leaves you with a painful or “tingling” hand or wrist. These aches and pains are often caused in part by improper techniques or tools used in gardening.
Jun 1, 2017 426-060 (HORT-245NP)
Gardening and Your Health: Protecting Your Hands and Feet
The skin on hands and feet is like most ornamental plants. Neither likes the extremes of being dried out or kept too wet. Treat skin as tenderly as the most sensitive plants and safeguard your horticultural health.
Apr 29, 2015 426-061 (HORT-135P)
Gardening and Your Health: Sunburn & Skin Cancer
Most people have suffered from at least one bad sunburn. The beginning of a sunburn is shown by hot, pink skin. Later comes swelling, burning pain, and possibly blistering. As the burn leaves, peeling inevitably appears. Peeling means that the skin is thickening up to protect itself from further sun damage. If burned skin continues to get exposed to sun, damage can’t be repaired. Even if damage is not visible, skin cells mutate with each sun exposure. Over a lifetime these mutations may add up to cancer, a problem seen on gardeners who work unprotected in the sun. A severe sunburn is one of the biggest risk factors in getting a melanoma skin cancer.
Mar 18, 2015 426-063 (HORT-133P)
Patriotic Gardens: How to Plant a Red, White and Blue Garden Jul 17, 2015 426-210 (HORT-185)
America's Anniversary Garden: A Statewide Corridor and Entrance Enhancement Program Jul 23, 2015 426-211 (HORT-186P)
Patriotic Gardens: Bulbs for a Red, White, and Blue Spring Garden
Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) developed the America’s Anniversary Garden™ to help individuals, communities, and groups commemorate America’s 400th Anniversary with a signature landscape or garden. These signature gardens have red, white, and blue color schemes. Although the commemoration has passed, this guide continues to be useful for creating a patriotic garden. This is the third in a series of VCE garden design, plant selection, plant installation, and maintenance publications for America’s Anniversary Garden™.
Apr 9, 2015 426-220(HORT-163P)
Patriotic Gardens: Red, White, and Blue Native Plants
In 2007, Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) developed the America’s Anniversary Garden to help individuals, communities, and groups commemorate America’s 400th Anniversary with a signature landscape, garden, or container planting. These signature gardens have red, white, and blue color schemes. Although the commemoration has passed, this guide continues to be useful for creating a patriotic garden.
Jan 14, 2015 426-223 (HORT-86P)
America's Anniversary Garden: Red, White, and Blue in Fall and Winter Gardens
Virginia Cooperative Extension developed the America’s Anniversary Garden to help individuals, communities, and groups commemorate America’s 400th anniversary with a signature landscape or garden. These signature gardens have red, white, and blue color schemes. Other VCE garden design, plant selection, plant installation, and maintenance publications for patriotic gardens are listed in the Resources section.
Apr 10, 2015 426-228(HORT-164P)
Managing Winter Injury to Trees and Shrubs
It is often necessary to provide extra attention to plants in the fall to help them over-winter and start spring in peak condition. Understanding certain principles and cultural practices will significantly reduce winter damage that can be divided into three categories: desiccation, freezing, and breakage.
Apr 9, 2015 426-500 (HORT-121P)
Growing Azaleas and Rhododendrons
The spectacular spring flowers of azaleas and rhododendrons make them among the most popular garden shrubs. However, azaleas and rhododendrons are shrubs for all seasons. Throughout the summer and fall the leaves add a pleasing, deep‑green color to the garden. Some deciduous azaleas add bright fall color before the leaves drop. In winter, some varieties stand out with large, evergreen leaves.
Mar 30, 2015 426-602 (HORT-103P)
Selecting Landscape Plants: Rare and Unusual Trees
There are many tree species that can be successfully grown in Virginia, but are rarely seen in our landscapes. Although not ordinarily recommended or readily available, these trees may be useful to carry out a specific landscape theme, to substitute for an exotic type which is not locally adapted, or may be prized for unusual form, flowers, fruits, bark, or foliage.
Jun 18, 2015 426-604(HORT-107P)
Selecting Landscape Plants: Conifers
Conifers, also known as narrow-leaved or needled evergreens, are planted primarily for the attractiveness of their evergreen foliage. The variety of sizes, shapes, and colors available contributes to their popularity. Conifers range in size from prostrate plants growing only a few inches tall to large trees. Shapes include flat ground covers; horizontal spreaders; upright, pyramidal forms; and even weeping and contorted forms. Foliage color ranges from a gold and cream variegation to all shades of green, gray-green, and blue-green.
Apr 6, 2015 426-605 (HORT-108P)
Selecting Landscape Plants: Broad-Leaved Evergreens
There are a large number of highly ornamental broadleaved evergreens. However, many of them require special attention if they are to develop into attractive, long-lived plants. Wide fluctuations in temperature, prolonged dry periods, drying winds, and bright sunshine are not ideal conditions for most broad-leaved evergreens, yet these conditions frequently occur in Virginia. Good soil preparation and a carefully selected location will help ensure the success of these plants. However, the year-round beauty and special effect that they give to the landscape make them well worth the extra care needed to grow them.
Apr 3, 2015 426-607 (HORT-105P)
Selecting Landscape Plants: Shade Trees
Trees are the basic element for any landscape plan. They set the stage for the entire home grounds design. The type used and their location determine to a great extent what other plantings are appropriate. Providing shade usually requires tall, sturdy, long-living species. Density of foliage, which determines the amount of shading, is important. A tree such as a Norway maple will produce a very dense shade that prevents other plants from growing under it, while a honey locust will produce a light partial shade which is not a hindrance to other plants growing below it. Deciduous trees should be used to shade the south windows of a home in the summer, thus allowing the sun to penetrate in the winter.
Apr 1, 2015 426-610 (HORT-104P)
Selecting Landscape Plants: Flowering Trees May 1, 2009 426-611
Fertilizing Landscape Trees and Shrubs
Maintenance programs should be developed for trees and shrubs in both residential and commercial landscapes. A good maintenance program includes monitoring and controlling insect and disease problems, suppressing weed competition, and making timely applications of water, mulch, and fertilizer. Tree and shrub fertilization is especially important in urban and suburban areas of Virginia where soils have been altered due to construction. These urban soils tend to be heavily compacted, poorly aerated, poorly drained, and low in organic matter. Even where soils have not been affected, fertilization may be needed as part of a maintenance program to increase plant vigor or to improve root or top growth.
Apr 9, 2015 430-018 (HORT-120P)
Selection and Use of Mulches and Landscape Fabrics
The term “mulch” refers to materials spread or left on the soil surface as protective layers, whether organic or inorganic, loose particles or sheets.
Mar 20, 2015 430-019 (HORT-132P)
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites -- The Walnut Tree: Allelopathic Effects and Tolerant Plants Apr 10, 2015 430-021(HORT-113P)
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites -- Air Pollution Apr 8, 2015 430-022 (HORT-123P)
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites — Trees for Landscape Containers and Planters
Planting trees in aboveground containers and planters is becoming a common practice on sites that are not suited for inground planting. Containers differ from raised planters in that they are usually smaller in volume and moveable, whereas planters are generally larger, and often built as part of the permanent hardscape (paving, etc.). The greatest challenge in selecting trees for containers and planters is in choosing trees that can survive temperature extremes, and that can establish roots in a limited volume of substrate (potting soil). Consider several factors when selecting containers and trees including environmental influences, container and planter design, substrate type, and tree characteristics.
Apr 9, 2015 430-023 (HORT-119P)
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites — Trees for Hot Sites
Hot landscape sites require special consideration before trees are planted. Trees can survive, and even thrive, in hot sites if the site is prepared correctly, if heat-tolerant species are selected, and if the trees are properly maintained. A variety of different locations and situations qualify as hot landscape sites.
Apr 9, 2015 430-024 (HORT-118P)
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites — Screening
Using trees as living screens can easily enhance living and working spaces. Before selecting trees for screening, first determine the screen’s purpose, whether functional or environmental. Screening can be used to define an area, modify or hide a view, create privacy, block wind, dust, salt and snow, control noise, filter light, and direct traffic flow.
Apr 9, 2015 430-025 (HORT-117P)
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites — Wet and Dry Sites
To grow, all trees require air, light, water and nutrients. Some trees can survive over a wide range of climatic and soil conditions, whereas others are very site specific. Both wet and dry sites present establishment and growth challenges, making selection of the right tree for the right site very important.
Apr 8, 2015 430-026 (HORT-114P)
Trees and Shrubs for Acid Soils
The trees and shrubs on your new home site are growing poorly, so you take samples to the Extension office and the agent suggests a soil test. Test results show that your soil has a pH of 4.5, which is rated as strongly acid. The agent suggests you either take corrective action to raise the pH or grow different plants. What do the test results mean? What are “acid soils” and what does pH measure? Why does this matter to your plants? How can you correct the situation or what alternative trees and shrubs can you grow?
Apr 8, 2015 430-027 (HORT-115P)
Trees for Parking Lots and Paved Areas May 1, 2009 430-028
Trees and Shrubs that Tolerate Saline Soils and Salt Spray Drift
Concentrated sodium (Na), a component of salt, can damage plant tissue whether it contacts above or below ground parts. High salinity can reduce plant growth and may even cause plant death. Care should be taken to avoid excessive salt accumulation from any source on tree and shrub roots, leaves or stems. Sites with saline (salty) soils, and those that are exposed to coastal salt spray or paving de-icing materials, present challenges to landscapers and homeowners.
Apr 8, 2015 430-031 (HORT-111P)
Getting Started in the Nursery Business: Nursery Production Options
The nursery industry in Virginia has enjoyed an extended period of growth and expansion. Consequently, there is considerable interest in and some potential for new business opportunities in the industry. Another consequence of this period of economic growth is an increase in competition within the industry to supply the growing demand for landscape plants. Those interested in getting into the nursery business are strongly encouraged to invest their time and energy into learning as much as they can about the modern nursery industry, and the many options now available in nursery production, before they invest any money in facilities and operations.
Apr 27, 2015 430-050 (HORT-89P)
24 Ways to Kill a Tree
Few residential trees die of “old age.” Mechanical damage and improper tree care kill more trees than any insects or diseases. Avoid making the tree-damaging mistakes shown in the diagram below. Few of these items alone would kill a tree, but multiple problems will certainly stress, and could eventually kill, a tree.
Apr 8, 2015 430-210 (HORT-112P)
Tree and Shrub Planting Guidelines
Select trees and shrubs well-adapted to conditions of individual planting sites. Poorly-sited plants are doomed from the start, no matter how carefully they’re planted.
Mar 3, 2015 430-295 (HORT-106P)
Pruning Crapemyrtles May 1, 2009 430-451
A Guide to Successful Pruning: Pruning Basics and Tools May 1, 2009 430-455
A Guide to Successful Pruning, Pruning Deciduous Trees May 1, 2009 430-456
A Guide to Successful Pruning, Pruning Evergreen Trees May 1, 2009 430-457
A Guide to Successful Pruning: Stop Topping Trees! May 1, 2009 430-458
A Guide to Successful Pruning, Pruning Shrubs May 1, 2009 430-459
A Guide to Successful Pruning, Decidous Tree Pruning Calendar May 1, 2009 430-460
A Guide to Successful Pruning, Evergreen Tree Pruning Calendar May 1, 2009 430-461
A Guide to Successful Pruning, Shrub Pruning Calendar May 1, 2009 430-462
Virginia Cut Holly Production: Planning and Site Selection May 1, 2009 430-465
Virginia Cut Holly Production: Alternative Ground Cover May 1, 2009 430-466
Virginia Cut Holly Production: Orchard Layout and Planting May 1, 2009 430-467
Virginia Cut Holly Production: Holly Pollination and Honey Bees May 1, 2009 430-468
Virginia Cut Holly Production: Pest Management May 1, 2009 430-469
Virginia Cut Holly Production: Pruning, Harvesting and Marketing May 1, 2009 430-470
Virginia Cut Holly Production: Vegetation Control May 1, 2009 430-471
Soil Test Note 20: Home Shrubs and Trees May 1, 2009 452-720