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Entomology

Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
2014 Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations Feb 19, 2014 456-420 (AREC-80NP)
4-H Honey Bee Leaders Guide Book I - The Buzz About Bees:Honey Bee Biology and Behavior Feb 27, 2014 380-071(4H-255NP)
4-H Honey Bee Leaders Guide Book II -- Veils, Smokers, and Supers: Equipment of Beekeepers

To the 4-H Leader: The beekeeping project books (1- 4) are intended to teach young people the basic biology and behavior of honey bees in addition to hands-on management skills. The honey bee project books begin with basic honey bee and insect information (junior level) and advance to instruction on how to rear honey bee colonies and extract honey (senior level). These project books are intended to provide in-depth information related to honey bee management, yet they are written for the amateur beekeeper, who may or may not have previous experience in rearing honey bees.

Mar 19, 2014 380-075 (4H-254NP)
4-H Honey Bee Youth Project Book I -- The Buzz about Bees: Honey Bee Biology and Behavior

The beekeeping project (Books 1 - 4) will teach you the basic biology and behavior of honey bees and give you hands-on management skills. The honey bee project books begin with basic honey bee and insect information (junior level) and advance to instruction on how to rear honey bee colonies and extract honey (senior level). These project books are intended to provide in-depth information related to honey bee management, yet they are written for the amateur beekeeper, whether or not you have previous experience in rearing honey bees.

Mar 18, 2014 380-070 (4H-253NP)
4-H Honey Bee Youth Project Book II -- Veils, Smokers, and Supers: Equipment of Beekeepers

The beekeeping project (Books 1- 4) teaches you the basic biology and behavior of honey bees (junior level) in addition to hands-on management skills. The four honey bee project
books provide instruction on how to rear honey bee colonies beginning with the purchase of a package of bees, continuing through the first year of colony development, and ending with the extraction of honey (senior level). These project books are intended to provide in-depth information related to honey bee management, yet they are written for the amateur
beekeeper, who may or may not have previous experience in rearing honey bees.

Mar 18, 2014 380-074 (4H-252NP)
Adventures with Insects, 4-H Entomology Project Book

Welcome to the 4-H Entomology Project. It will introduce you to many new and exciting experiences. The Entomology Project is fun; it may help you prepare for the study of insects as your life’s work, or help you learn how important insects are in the lives of everyone.
The 4-H project will guide you in this first study of insects. Your Extension agent and 4-H leader are advisors to help you solve your problems. Ask for and follow their advice closely.
Ask your agent or leader for a project book and keep complete and accurate records. This is an important part of the project. You may use additional sheets if necessary. Enjoy your project and plan to participate in 4-H Entomology Unit II.

Mar 18, 2014 444-408 (4H-251NP)
American Cockroach Mar 4, 2010 444-288
Aphids
Aphids, or plant lice, are small, soft-bodied insects. There are hundreds of different species of aphids, some of which attack only one host plant while others attack numerous hosts. Most aphids are about 1/10 inch long (2.54 mm), and though green and black are the most common colors, they may be gray, brown, pink, red, yellow, or lavender. A characteristic common to all is the presence of two tubes, called cornicles, on the back ends of their bodies. The cornicles secrete defensive substances. In some species they are quite long, while in others they are very short and difficult to see.

Aphids feed in clusters and generally prefer new, succulent shoots or young leaves. Some species, known as wooly aphids, are covered with white, waxy filaments, which they produce from special glands.

May 1, 2009 444-220
Aphids in Virginia Small Grains: Life Cycles, Damage and Control

Four species of aphids attack small grains in Virginia -- greenbug, corn leaf aphid, bird cherry-oat aphid, and English grain aphid. In general, these aphids are small pear-shaped insects (1/16 to 1/8 inch long) that are green to nearly black, or sometimes pinkish in color. Immature aphids look just like adults except smaller. Both winged and wing-less forms can occur in the same colony. All grain aphids have a pair of conicles, tailpipe-like projections, on the top side of the tail end. Aphids feed singly or in colonies on upper and lower leaf surfaces and stems. They feed near plant bases when plants are young or during cold weather, and on upper-canopy leaves, stems, and even grain heads later in the season.

May 1, 2009 444-018
Arthropod Pest Management Research on Vegetables in Virginia – 2010

This booklet contains arthropod pest management research conducted on vegetable crops in eastern Virginia in 2010. If not noted otherwise in the individual reports, all research was conducted at the Virginia Tech Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center near Painter, VA and at the Hampton Roads Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Virginia Beach, VA. All plots were maintained according to standard commercial practices. Soil type at the ESAREC is a Bojac Sandy Loam. Soil type at the HRAREC is tetotum loam (average pH: 5.7). Most of the research involves field evaluations of federally‐labeled and experimental insecticides. Much of the information presented herein will be published in a similar format in Arthropod Management Tests: 2011, vol. 36 (Entomological Society of America). We hope that this information will be of value to those interested in insect pest management on vegetable crops, and we wish to make the information accessible. All information, however, is for informational purposes only. Because most of the data from the studies are based on a single season’s environmental conditions, it is requested that the data not be published, reproduced, or otherwise taken out of context without the permission of the authors. The authors neither endorse any of the products in these reports nor discriminate against others. Additionally, some of the products evaluated are not commercially available and/or not labeled for use on the crop(s) in which they were used.

Feb 22, 2011 3102-1532
Arthropod Pest Management Research on Vegetables in Virginia – 2011 Feb 1, 2012 ENTO-1
Arthropod Pest Management Research on Vegetables in Virginia – 2013 Feb 25, 2014 ENTO-60NP
Asian Needle Ant Jan 7, 2013 ENTO-29NP
Asiatic Garden Beetle in Field Corn

Order: Coleoptera

Family: Scarabaeidae

Species: Maladera castanea (Arrow)

Size: The adult beetle is 5/16 to 7/16 of an inch long (slightly smaller than a Japanese beetle adult). A fully developed grub (third instar) measures about 3/4 inch long

Color: The adult is chestnut brown or reddish brown in color and faintly iridescent (Fig. 1). The grub (immature stage) is off white except for a distinct head capsule and three pairs of true legs that vary from in color from orange to dark brown.

Description: The beetle abdomen is covered by a pair of hardened forewings, or elytra, which are not used in flight. Instead, their main purpose is to protect the hind wings, which are folded up under the elytra when the insect is not in flight. The grub has a distinct head capsule and three pairs of true legs and will fold into a 'C' shape when disturbed (Fig. 2). It is very easy to differentiate an Asiatic garden beetle grub from other annual white grub species with the aid of a 10x power hand lens. The grub has a single transverse row of spines on the underside of the last abdominal segment, or raster, and a 'Y' shaped anal slit (Fig. 3).

May 1, 2009 444-108
Asparagus Beetles

Two species of asparagus beetles are found in Virginia, the asparagus beetle, Crioceris asparagi (L.), and the spotted asparagus beetle Crioceris duodecimpunctata (L.). Adults of the asparagus beetle are 1/4 inch (6.25 mm) long, metallic blue to black, and have wing covers with three or four white spots and reddish margins. The thorax is red and usually marked with two black spots. The spotted asparagus beetle is about 1/3 inch (8.3 mm) long and orange with 12 spots on its wing covers. Larvae of both are olive green to dark gray with a black heads and legs. Larvae measure about 6/100 inch (1.5 mm) at hatching, and as they develop they become plump and attain a length of about 1/3 inch (8 mm). Both have eggs that are approximately 4/100 inch (1 mm) long, oblong, shiny, black,\ and are attached by one end to asparagus spears.

May 1, 2009 444-620
Asparagus Beetles on Asparagus

The asparagus beetle is a sporadic pest that can be aggravating for asparagus growers throughout Virginia. The shoot damage not only reduces the quality of the spears but this beetle is also unique in the pest world, as it is an insect that is controlled because the eggs laid on the shoots is objectionable to consumers. With a little background on this pest most growers are able develop an effective pest management program.

Jul 29, 2009 2906-1352
BALSAM TWIG APHID Homoptera: Aphididae, Mindarus abietinus Aug 5, 2009 2907-1401
Bagworm

Lepidoptera: Psychidae, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis

Plants Attacked: Juniper, arborvitae, other cedars, pine, hemlock, spruce, Chinese elm, honeylocust, primarily. Also on crabapple, maple, sycamore, box elder, willow, linden, poplar, and many others.

May 1, 2009 2808-1008
Baldfaced Hornet Jun 11, 2010 3006-1449
Balsam Woolly Adelgid Jun 16, 2010 3006-1452
Bark Beetles

Order: Coleoptera

Family: Cerambycidae

Size: Larvae up to 3 1/4 inches (80mm) or more.

Color: Adult longhorned beetles are medium to large cylindrical beetles, usually brown, reddish brown, or black in color. They are sometimes mottled or banded with white or gray. Larvae (roundheaded borers) are brown, reddish brown, or black. They are sometimes mottled or banded with white or gray.

May 1, 2009 444-216
Bean Leaf Beetle Biology and Management in Snap Beans

Order: Coleoptera

Family: Chrysomelidae

Species: Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster)

Size: Adults are about 1/4 inch (64 mm) long.

Description: Adults range in color from yellow to a dull red with variable numbers of black spots (Fig. 1). Although some have no spots, most will have four black spots down the center of the back with marginal spots or stripes on the edge of the elytra. The distinguishing characteristic is that all have a distinct black triangle behind the prothorax. Eggs are reddish orange ovals about 3/100 inch (0.8 mm) long and have tapered ends. Larvae are white, cylindrical grubs with a black head and anal plate. They have well-developed thoracic legs as well as anal prolegs. The pupae are white and resemble the adult in size and shape.

May 1, 2009 444-009
Bean Pod Mottle Virus in Virginia Soybeans Sep 9, 2010 3009-1461
Bed Bugs Biology and Behavior Jun 25, 2013 ENTO-8P
Bed Bugs: How to Protect Yourself and Your Home May 14, 2013 ENTO-31NP
Beet Webworm Apr 25, 2011 3104-1542
Beet Webworms Sep 1, 2014 ENTO-77NP
Black Vine Weevil

Plants Attacked

The adults feed on a wide variety of evergreen, deciduous, and herbaceous plants. The larval form is destructive on yew (taxus), hemlock, rhododendron, and several other broad-leaved evergreens. Adults and larvae will sometimes feed on strawberry and impatiens.

Description of Damage

Two kinds of damage are conspicuous: Adults chew marginal notches in leaves, causing damage that quite often is confused with a disease or chemical injury. The adults feed from the outer margin of the leaf inward, creating characteristic notches, and these notches can be used as an early indicator of potential larvae in the soil. Adults cut notches on the margins only; they never create holes on the center of the leaf.
May 1, 2009 444-210
Blister Beetles Apr 25, 2011 3104-1543
Bluegrass Billbug Pest Management in Orchardgrass

The bluegrass billbug, Sphenophorus parvulus, is a weevil native to Virginia. Weevils belong to the family Curculionidae, which is contained within the order for beetles, Coleoptera. Like most weevils, the bluegrass billbug has a relatively narrow range of host plants, feeding on a handful of cool-season grass species.

Jul 1, 2010 444-040
Boxelder bug, Hemiptera: Rhopalidae, Leptocoris trivittatus Jan 24, 2011 3101-1525
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug

Homoptera: Penatomidae: Halyomorpha halys

Distribution and Hosts

The brown marmorated stink bug, (BMSB), is an invasive insect not native to North America. It was accidentally introduced near Allentown, PA in 1996 and has spread since that time. It was found in Virginia in 2004 and by 2010, it was found throughout most of the Commonwealth. The BMSB feeds on a wide range of tree fruits and seedpods as well as many vegetables including tomatoes, peppers, beans, cucurbits, and sweet corn. High densities of this pest species have also been seen in soybeans and corn. However, so far in Virginia, the most severely damaged crops have been tree fruit (apples and peaches). For homeowners, it is mainly a nuisance pest, as it invades houses in the winter looking for a place to over-winter. For businesses such as hotels and restaurants and other commercial settings with public interface, the presence of high numbers of these bugs in the fall can have economic consequences.

May 21, 2009 2902-1100
Buck Moth Oct 8, 2012 ENTO-18NP
Bumble Bee - Hymenoptera, Apidae May 13, 2011 3104-1572
Cabbage Looper Apr 25, 2011 3104-1544
Cabbage Webworm

The cabbage webworm is found throughout the southern United States from Virginia to Florida and west to California. It is rarely a pest in northern climates. In eastern Virginia, it is a common pest on broccoli and cabbage, particularly late in the summer and fall.

May 1, 2009 2811-1022
Cabbage and Seedcorn Maggot
Cabbage maggots canbe very destructive pests of early-season plantings of cole crops: cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, and brussels sprouts. Additional hosts include beet, radish, turnip, and celery.

Seedcorn maggots are known to attack asparagus, cabbage, turnip, radish, onion, beet, spinach, potato, and sprouting corn seeds. Seedcorn maggots can also be very damaging to beans and peas and new plantings of alfalfa.

May 1, 2009 444-231
Carpenter Ant - Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Camponotus spp. May 13, 2011 3104-1573
Carpenter Bee Jun 11, 2010 3006-1450
Carpet Beetles - Coleoptera: Dermestidae May 16, 2011 3104-1588
Catalpa Sphinx Caterpillar

Catalpa sphinx caterpillars, also known as “Catalpa worms”, are major defoliators of catalpa. With their chewing mouthparts, they strip away large portions of the leaves. In heavy infestations they can completely defoliate the entire tree. Apparently trees on high ground with poor soil are rarely, if ever, attacked. In some years, depending on the region, many trees will have all their leaves stripped away by the end of the summer. This may be followed by years with no defoliation observed at all. The fluctuation between outbreak and no defoliation is largely due to the
activity of parasites.

Nov 20, 2009 2911-1421
Celery Leaftier Apr 25, 2011 3104-1545
Centipede - Chilopoda May 13, 2011 3104-1574
Click Beetle - Coleoptera: Elateridae May 13, 2011 3104-1575
Clothes Moths - Lepidoptera: Tineidae May 13, 2011 3104-1576
Colorado Potato Beetle

Scientific Name: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Leptinotarsa decemlineata

Size: Adults are ~ 3/8 inch long by 1/4 inch wide; mature larvae are 1/2 inch long.

Color: The adult thorax is orange with black spots and the wing covers have five yellowish white and five black alternating stripes running lengthwise (Fig. 1); the larvae are reddish in color with two rows of black spots along each side (Fig. 2); and eggs are yellow (Fig. 3).

Description: The adult beetle is convex above; larvae are smooth, soft-bodied, and humpbacked; and individual eggs somewhat resemble small sausages standing on end.

May 1, 2009 444-012
Common Ticks of Virginia Jul 2, 2009 2906-1396
Como Identificar Infestaciones de Chinches

Los chinches no aparecen por arte de magia. Ellos aparecen porque usted los trae a su hogar. Entonces usted como cree que los trajo a su hogar, en sus maletas después de un viaje, o en algún mueble que usted compró en una tienda de garaje? La mayoría de la gente sospecha que tiene chinches cuando encuentran inexplicables picaduras en su cuerpo. En la mayoría de los casos estas personas se va a dormir sintiéndose bien pero cuando se levanta la mañana siguiente se encuentra con molestas picaduras.

May 3, 2012 ENTO-5P
Compact Soil Sampling Strategy for White Grubs

Annual white grubs (WG) are early-season pests attacking corn seeds and seedlings (Figure 1). Heavy WG infestations can cause stand and yield losses of up to 20%. Because grubs occur in the soil, their presence in fields and subsequent damage to corn may go unnoticed until too late. Also, 30% overwintering mortality in WG densities is typical in VA. Insecticidal seed treatments such as clothianidin (PonchoTM) and thiamethoxam (CruiserTM) are the tools of choice for controlling soil insect pests. Growers typically must decide whether to purchase insecticide-treated seed well in advance of spring planting.

Jun 30, 2011 2802-7027
Confused Flour Beetle - Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, Tribolium confusum May 13, 2011 3104-1577
Corn Earworm Biology and Management in Soybeans

Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, is the most common and destructive insect pest of soybeans grown in Virginia. Although infestation severity varies, about one-third of our acreage is treated annually. This costs farmers 1.5 to 2 million dollars annually, and requires the application of many pounds of insecticide to crop lands. We may never eliminate this pest from Virginia soybeans, but knowledge of the biology and use of best management practices can help limit insecticide controls to those fields that meet economic threshold criteria. This publication provides current information on corn earworm biology, prediction of outbreaks, pest advisories, scouting procedures, and recently revised economic thresholds.

May 1, 2009 444-770
Corn Earworm on Vegetables Mar 22, 2011 3103-1537
Cottony Maple Scale

Cottony Maple Scale (Homoptera: Coccidae), Pulvinaria innumerabilis

PLANTS ATTACKED: Maples and dogwood primarily, but also many woody ornamentals.

May 1, 2009 2808-1011
Cucumber Beetles

Plants Attacked: Cucumber, cantaloupe, winter squash, pumpkin, gourd, summer squash, and watermelon, as well as many other species of cucurbits. Cucumber beetles may also feed on beans, corn, peanuts, potatoes, and other crops.

May 1, 2009 2808-1009
Cutworms Apr 25, 2011 3104-1547
Diamondback Moth in Virginia

The Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), is considered to be the most destructive insect pest of crucifer crops worldwide. DBM larvae feed on leaves of crucifer crops such as cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, collards, kale, kohlrabi, Chinese cabbage, and Brussels sprouts. All plant growth stages from seedling to head are susceptible to attack. DBM larvae can reach high densities and cause substantial defoliation as well as contamination and malformation of heads in cabbage, broccoli, and cauliflower. The absence and reduction of effective natural enemies, especially parasitoids, as well as insecticide resistance, contribute to the status of DBM as a pest.

May 1, 2009 444-007
Dogwood Borer

Lepidoptera: Sesiidae, Synanthedon scitula

PLANTS ATTACKED: Dogwood, pecan, elm, hickory, and willow

May 1, 2009 2808-1010
Dogwood Twig Borer

Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Obrea tripunctata

Plants Attacked

Elm, dogwood, viburnum, and many fruit trees.

Description of Damage

The larvae tunnel in live twigs and feed down the center of the branch, making a long series of closely placed round holes for the exudation of frass. Periodically, the larvae cut off portions of the twig from within and continue to feed inside the twig on the green wood working their way down.

May 1, 2009 444-625
Droplet Chart / Selection Guide

When choosing nozzles/droplet sizes for spray applications, applicators must consider both coverage needed and drift potential. As a rule, smaller droplets provide better coverage, but larger droplets are less likely to drift.

Sep 25, 2014 442-031 (BSE-149P)
Drugstore and Cigarette Beetles, Drugstore Beetle: Coleoptera: Anobiidae, Stegobium paniceum Cigarette Beetle: Coleoptera: Anobiidae, Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius) Jan 24, 2011 3101-1526
Earwigs, Dermaptera: Forficulidae Jan 24, 2011 3101-1527
Eastern Tent Caterpillar

The larval or caterpillar stage is brown and is quite hairy. It has a white stripe running down the back that is bordered by yellow brown. In addition the caterpillar has a row of blue spots down each side. The adult moth is a dark tan color with two pale stripes on each of the front wings. Although similar they are not the same insect as a gypsy moth.

May 1, 2009 444-274
Eggplant Lace Bug Apr 25, 2011 3104-1548
Emerald Ash Borer

Coleoptera: Buprestidae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire

Plants Attacked: Emerald ash borer (EAB) attacks all species of ash trees that grow in Virginia. Only Asian species of ash trees have shown any resistance to this pest.

May 1, 2009 2904-1290
Emerald Ash Borer Control for Foresters and Landowners Sep 4, 2014 ENTO-76NP
Environmental Best Management Practices for Virginia's Golf Courses Feb 27, 2013 ANR-48NP
Euonymus Scale
Female scales have a pear-shaped, dark brown scale covering. Males are more slender than the females and are white with a yellow cap on one end. The male scale covering has three ridges running its length. Both sexes are easily observable on plants and are normally 1/16 inch long. All stages are yellow when observed beneath the scale covering.
May 1, 2009 444-277
European Corn Borer

Description of Damage

European corn borer (ECB) is a major pest of corn grown for grain in Virginia. This pest is found throughout the commonwealth, but its population density fluctuates from year to year in a given locality. Typical damage to corn plants caused by this insect are reduced plant vigor leading to subsequent ear drop and stalk lodging.


Identification

When fully grown, ECB larvae are 3/4 to 1 inch in length and creamy-white to pink in color. The larval head capsule is dark brown and, on top of each abdominal ring or segment, there are several small dark brown or black spots. (Figure 1)
May 1, 2009 444-232
European Corn Borer in Sweet (Bell) Pepper

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a significant pest to over 200 different plant species. In Virginia, it is the number one pest of pepper, Capsicum annuum L. This pest can damage over 50 percent of pepper fruit if control measures are not taken.

May 1, 2009 444-006
European Hornet

The European hornet is a stout hornet approximately 1-inch long. The color of the head and thorax is dark reddish brown with deep yellow and brown black markings on the abdomen. The  markings on the abdomen are similar to the markings found on yellow jackets. The European hornet resembles the cicada killer wasp but is more robust and has more hair on the thorax and
abdomen (but is not as hairy as a bee).

Nov 20, 2009 2911-1422
Fall Armyworm in Vegetable Crops

Scientific Name: Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)
Size: Caterpillars vary in length from 1/2 inch (2mm) as first instar larvae to 3/4 to 1 inch (35 to 50mm) as mature larvae (See Fig. 1). Adult moths have a wingspan of 1.2 to 1.6 inches (32 to 40mm).

Color: Larvae vary in color from light tan or green to dark brown (nearly black) [base color ranging from yellow-green to a dark brown to gray] with three yellowish-white lines down the sides and back from head to tail and four dark circular spots on the upper portion of each abdominal segment. Front of the head is marked with a prominent inverted white Y, but this characteristic is not always a reliable identifier. The forewing of adult male moths is generally shaded gray and brown, with triangular white spots at the tip and near the center of the wing. The forewings of females are less distinctly marked, ranging from a uniform grayish brown to a fine mottling of gray and brown. The hind wing is iridescent silver-white with a narrow dark border in both sexes.

Description: Larvae are hairless and smooth skinned (See Fig. 1).

May 1, 2009 444-015
Fall Webworm

Distribution and Hosts Native to North America, the fall webworm occurs throughout the United States and southern Canada. Its hosts include more than 100 species of deciduous forest, shade, and fruit trees, with preferences varying from region to region.

May 1, 2009 2808-1013
Farm Security - “Treat it Seriously” – Security for Plant Agriculture: On-Farm Assessment and Security Practices

Acts of terrorism have heightened our awareness of the need for increased personal and farm security. The greatest security risk to farms, greenhouses and nurseries where plants are grown is the unauthorized access to farm chemicals and application equipment.

Mar 9, 2011 445-005
Farm Security - “Treat it Seriously” – Security for Plant Agriculture: Producer Response for Plant Diseases, Chemical Contamination, and Unauthorized Activity

Acts of terrorism have heightened our awareness of the need for security, both at home and on the farm or nursery. This publication and the checklist that accompanies it will help you be proactive with regard to farm security.

Mar 9, 2011 445-004
Field Guide to Stink Bugs Jul 29, 2009 444-356
Fine Tuning a Sprayer with "Ounce" Calibration Method

This extension publication discusses guidelines to quickly evaluate the performance of a sprayer. Sprayer calibration, nozzle discharge, spray pattern uniformity, speed checks, pump performance and plumbing arrangements are evaluated with minimal calculations.

Tractor-mounted, pull-type, pick-up-mounted and self-propelled sprayers are available from numerous sources. Rising chemical costs and new low rate chemicals are making accurate application more important than ever before. Proper calibration must be a primary management consideration whether one is a farmer or a custom applicator. Since most pesticides are applied with hydraulic sprayers, users should also know proper application methods, chemical effects on equipment, and correct cleaning and storage methods for hydraulic sprayers.

May 1, 2009 442-453
Firebrat - Thysanura: Lepismatidae May 13, 2011 3104-1578
Flea Beetles Apr 25, 2011 3104-1549
Fungus Gnat - Diptera: Sciaridae May 13, 2011 3104-1579
Gardening and Your Health: Ticks

During early spring and summer, as the weather warms up and the garden springs back to life from its winter dormancy, many gardeners -- and ticks -- eagerly return to their outdoor activities. Gardeners should be aware of the risks and know how to protect themselves from becoming hosts to disease-carrying ticks.

May 1, 2009 426-066
Giant Resin Bee

Scientific Name: Hymenoptera: Megachilidae Megachile sculpturalis Smith

Size: about 0.75 inch (1.9 cm) Color: Black and yellow-brown Description: Giant resin bees are large with a cylindrical body and large jaws. They have a dark head and abdomen with yellow-brown hair on the face, thorax, and the first segment of the abdomen behind the "waist." The wings are a transparent brown color that darkens toward the tips. Male giant resin bees have a truncated, squared abdomen while the females have a more tapered, pointed abdomen.

Giant resin bees can be distinguished from bumblebees and carpenter bees by their cylindrical bodies and the appearance of their abdomens. Giant resin bees do not have hairy abdomens like bumblebees, nor are their abdomens shiny like carpenter bees.

May 1, 2009 444-206
Gloomy Scale Sep 25, 2013 ENTO-44NP
Grasshoppers Apr 25, 2011 3104-1550
Green Peach Aphid on Vegetables

Homoptera: Aphididae, Myzus persicae

Distribution. The green peach aphid can be found worldwide and is considered a pest of numerous vegetable crops throughout the Commonwealth of Virginia.

May 1, 2009 2902-1081
Green Stink Bug Apr 11, 2014 ENTO-67NP
Groundwater Quality and the Use of Lawn and Garden Chemicals by Homeowners

The people of Virginia use nearly 400 million gallons of groundwater each day to meet industrial, agricultural, public, and private water demands. One-third of Virginia's citizens rely on groundwater as their primary source of fresh drinking water, and 80 percent of Virginians use groundwater to supply some or all of their daily water needs. Groundwater is an important resource, but it is a hidden one and, therefore, is often forgotten. In fact, until recent incidents of groundwater contamination, little attention was paid to the need to protect Virginia's groundwater.

May 1, 2009 426-059
Gypsy Moth Management for Homeowners on Small Properties

The gypsy moth, native to Europe and Asia, is a major invasive pest of hardwood forests in the U. S. Introduced into Massachusetts in 1869, the gypsy moth has rapidly moved into other regions of the country and is responsible for large amounts of defoliation each year. Most of Virginia is generally infested by this pest. Visit http://fubyss.ento.vt.edu/vagm/ to read more about the gypsy moth biology and control.

May 1, 2009 2811-1021
Gypsy Moth in Virginia: An Update

Most Virginians are aware that the gypsy moth is a serious pest of hardwoods in our state. Although this insect has maintained a low profile the past few years, there was a general resurgence in moth populations in 2000. This population increase serves as a reminder that, in areas where gypsy moth has become established, this pest is still present in the environment even when populations are too low to be noticed.

Gypsy moth is a native of Europe, Asia, and northern Africa. It was accidentally released in the U.S. over 130 years ago by a Frenchman who wanted to cross it with native silk moths. From its original introduction near Boston, Massachusetts, this pest has spread into the mid-Atlantic and Midwestern states (Fig. 1).

May 1, 2009 444-750
Hag Moth Caterpillar Oct 9, 2012 ENTO-19NP
Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Jun 11, 2010 3006-1451
Hickory Horned Devil Oct 9, 2012 ENTO-20NP
History, Distribution and Pest Status of the Mexican bean beetle Mar 25, 2014 ENTO-62NP
Hornworms on Tomato Apr 25, 2011 3104-1551
House Fly Maggot - Diptera: Muscidae May 13, 2011 3104-1580
How to Identify a Bed Bug Infestation

You cannot just “get” bed bugs. They have to be brought into your home. So what is your first clue that you have brought bed bugs home (say after a trip, or after purchasing a piece of used furniture that you bought at a garage sale)? Most people become suspicious of a bed bug infestation when they find unexplained bites on their bodies.

May 3, 2012 ENTO-4P
Hunting Billbug Pest Management in Orchardgrass Jul 1, 2010 444-041
Imported Cabbageworm Apr 25, 2011 3104-1552
Improving Pest Management with Farmscaping Dec 6, 2013 ENTO-52NP(ENTO-55NP)
Indian Meal Moth - Lepidoptera: Pyralidae May 13, 2011 3104-1582
Insect Identification Lab Sep 25, 2013 ENTO-45NP
Insect Pests of Christmas Trees Slide Show Oct 1, 2009 2909-1415
Insect Pests of Ornamental Plants Slide Show Sep 25, 2009 2909-1414
Insect and Mite Pests of Boxwood Sep 25, 2013 ENTO-42NP
Japanese Beetle

Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Popillia japonica

Distribution:  The Japanese beetle is found throughout Virginia and in most of the Eastern United Stages. In regions west of the Mississippi it is found in isolated pockets. Japanese beetles were first found in New Jersey in 1916 and have spread from that point since. The Japanese beetle has been well established in Virginia since the early 1970’s.

May 1, 2009 2902-1101
Japanese Beetle Pest Management in Primocane-Bearing Raspberries Sep 15, 2009 2909-1411
Japanese Beetle in Field Corn

Scientific Name: Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae Popillia japonica Newman

Size: Adult is 1/3 to 1/2 inch long; the fully developed grub or larva is 1/2 to 1 inch long.

Color: The adult is shiny metallic green with copperbrown wing covers and is characterized by the presence of five tufts of white hairs which protrude from under the wing covers along each side of the abdomen, with two additional tufts of white hairs on the tip of the abdomen (Fig. 1); the grub has a distinct head capsule that is dark brown to orange in color with the rest of the body an off-white or grayish color due to the presence of soil or fecal matter in the hindgut (Fig. 2).

May 1, 2009 444-106
Japanese Weevil

Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Pseudocneorhinus bifasciatus

Plants Attacked

The Japanese weevil has a long list of hosts, but is especially found on cherry laurel, broad-leaved evergreens, pyracantha, privet, barberry, euonymus, and many others.

Description of Damage

Foliage is more or less chewed, beginning as marginal notches and increasing to large rounded sections of the leaves being consumed. Holes are always cut inward from the margin, never in the inner part of the leaf. Larvae feed on roots of plants in the soil, but their habits are not well known, nor is the extent of the injury they produce. Injury is not distinguishable from that caused by black vine weevil, fullers rose beetle, and other species.

May 1, 2009 444-624
Lace Bugs - Hemiptera: Tingidae May 13, 2011 3104-1581
Leafhoppers Apr 25, 2011 3104-1553
Leafminers Apr 25, 2011 3104-1554
Leaf‐ Footed Bugs Dec 21, 2010 3012-1522
Leatherwing (Soldier) Beetles Dec 10, 2013 ENTO-53NP
Lilac Borer/Ash Borer

Life Cycle: As winter passes, the immature larvae is in the stem of lilac and ash near the surface of the soil. Feeding and continued development begins in early spring and is completed by early summer. It then pupates in the stems and in three weeks emerges as the adult (early May through early July). Oviposition occurs shortly after emergence and mating. The eggs are laid about the base of lilac canes or on ash stems. The hatching larvae bore into the host and become half grown by cold weather. There is one generation per year.

May 1, 2009 444-278
Locust Leafminer, Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Odontota dorsalis (Thunberg) Jan 25, 2011 3101-1528
Longhorned Beetles/Roundheaded Borers

Order: Coleoptera

Family: Cerambycidae

Size: Larvae up to 3 1/4 inches (80mm) or more.

Color: Adult longhorned beetles are medium to large cylindrical beetles, usually brown, reddish brown, or black in color. They are sometimes mottled or banded with white or gray. Larvae (roundheaded borers) are brown, reddish brown, or black. They are sometimes mottled or banded with white or gray.

May 1, 2009 444-215
Magnolia Soft Scale

Homoptera: Coccidae, Neolecanium carnuparuum

Plants Attacked

Magnolia

Description of Damage

Heavy magnolia soft scale infestations cause stunting of twigs and undersize leaves, visibly weakening the trees. Small trees may be killed. Large trees lose branches and tree shape may become irregular.

May 1, 2009 444-623
Managing Stink Bugs in Cotton: Research in the Southeast Region

Stink bug pests across the south eastern cotton belt consist of three main species: the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say); the green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say); and the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.)  Due to the diverse environmental conditions across this production region, population levels of these species vary widely across seasons, states, and fields. In North Carolina and Virginia, green and brown stink bugs are the primary species, while southern green and brown stink bugs predominate in Georgia,and all three species are commonly observed in South Carolina.

Sep 23, 2009 444-390
Mexican Bean Beetle Dec 13, 2013 ENTO-51NP
Mexican Bean Beetle Apr 25, 2011 3104-1555
Millipedes Sep 25, 2013 ENTO-43NP
Monitoring and Management of Beet Armyworm and Other Rind-feeding Larvae in Watermelon

The following are categories of plants known to thrive in the southeastern/Hampton Roads area of
Virginia that also support bees. *Plants identified as major honey plants for bees

Apr 21, 2011 3104-1540
Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle in Virginia

Multicolored Asian Lady beetles enter the house through small openings around windows, doors, and utility access points. In addition, they can enter the house by cracks in the siding and trim and through attic vents. Sealing those entry sites is the best method to keep them from becoming indoor pests later. Conduct a thorough energy audit of your house, as places where cold air can enter the house are places where this lady beetle can gain access. Fill all cracks and leaks with a fine quality silicone or silicone-latex caulk.

May 1, 2009 444-275
Nosema and Honey Bee Colony Health Mar 31, 2014 ENTO-66NP
Nozzles: Selection and Sizing

This fact sheet covers nozzle description, recommended use for common nozzle types, and orifice sizing for agricultural and turf sprayers. Proper selection of a nozzle type and size is essential for correct and accurate pesticide application. The nozzle is a major factor in determining the amount of spray applied to an area, uniformity of application, coverage obtained on the target surface, and amount of potential drift.

Jan 31, 2014 442-032 (BSE-103P)
Obscure Scale - Hemiptera: Diaspididae, Melanaspis obscura (Comstock) May 13, 2011 3104-1583
Onion Thrips Apr 25, 2011 3104-1556
PINE NEEDLE SCALE Homoptera: Diaspididae, Phenaeaspis pinifoliae Aug 5, 2009 2907-1400
PINE SAWYERS (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Monochamus sp.) Aug 5, 2009
Pales Weevil

Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Hylobius pales (Herbst)

Plants Attacked: Pales weevil feeds on all pines within its range. It will also feed, although to a lesser extent, on Douglas-fir, fir, hemlock, juniper, larch, northern white-cedar, and spruce.

May 1, 2009 2902-1102
Parasitic Wasps Aug 8, 2014 ENTO-74NP
Parsleyworm Apr 25, 2011 3104-1557
Pepper Maggot in Sweet (Bell) Pepper

The pepper maggot, Zonosemata electa (Say) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to eastern North America and is thought to have moved from the weedy perennial horse nettle, Solanium carolinense L., to domesticated crops like the bell pepper. Pepper maggot occurrence in pepper is patchy and sporadic. However, infestation can reach 100 percent of the fruit with only a single maggot causing the destruction of an entire pepper fruit.

May 1, 2009 444-005
Pepper Weevil Mar 25, 2014 ENTO-63NP
Pepper Weevil Apr 25, 2011 3104-1558
Performance of Insecticides on Brown Marmorated Stink Bug on Vegetables Dec 14, 2012 ENTO-28NP
Periodical Cicada

In Virginia both the 17-and 13-year cicadas damage many ornamental and hardwood trees. Oaks are commonly attacked but the most seriously damaged are newly planted fruit and ornamental trees such as apple, dogwood, peach, hickory, cherry, and pear. Pines and other conifers are not commonly attacked.

May 1, 2009 444-276
Pest Management Guide: Field Crops, 2014 Feb 3, 2014 456-016 (ENTO-37P)
Pest Management Guide: Home Grounds and Animals, 2014 Jan 28, 2014 456-018 (ENTO-36P)
Pest Management Guide: Horticultural and Forest Crops, 2014 Jan 28, 2014 456-017 (ENTO-38P)
Pest Monitoring Calendar for Home Lawns in Virginia May 1, 2009 430-524
Pesticides and Aquatic Animals: A Guide to Reducing Impacts on Aquatic Systems May 1, 2009 420-013
Pickleworm Apr 25, 2011 3104-1559
Pine Bark Adelgid: Hemiptera Adelgidae: Pineus strobi (Htg.) Aug 5, 2009 2907-1402
Pine Shoot Beetle

Order: Coleoptera

Family: Scolytidae

Species: Tomicus piniperda (Linnaeus)

Size: The adults are 1/8 to 1/4 inch long. The larvae are legless and can be up to 1/4 inch long.

Color: Pine shoot beetles are dark brown. The larvae have a dark brown head and creamy white body.

Description: Pine shoot beetles are in the same family as bark beetles and resemble bark beetles in appearance with their cylindrical shape.

May 1, 2009 444-291
Pine Tortoise Scale, Hemiptera: Coccidae, Toumeyella numismaticum Jan 25, 2011 3101-1529
Plumbing Systems of Agricultural Sprayers

The plumbing systems of agricultural sprayers are usually considered foolproof. Sprayer problems may occur if plumbing and/or modifications are improperly done or maintenance is ignored. Retrofitting, addition of electrical control systems, and replacement of pumps or nozzles require proper knowledge of the plumbing system and the implications of these changes to sprayer performance. Routine maintenance of the plumbing system is essential.

Oct 1, 2014 442-452 (BSE-171P)
Potato Aphid on Tomatoes

Homoptera: Aphididae, Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Distribution

The potato aphid is found throughout the United States and southern Canada but is only considered a serious pest in the northeast and north central regions of the United States.

May 1, 2009 2901-1031
Potato Tuberworm Apr 25, 2011 3104-1560
Problem-free Shrubs for Virginia Landscapes May 1, 2009 450-236
Problem-free Trees for Virginia Landscapes May 1, 2009 450-237
Raspberry Crown Borer Apr 25, 2011 3104-1561
Red Imported Fire Ant (RIFA) Mar 5, 2010 444-284
Redheaded Pine Sawfly Jun 16, 2010 3006-1453
Rednecked Cane Borer, Agrilus ruficollis (F.) Apr 25, 2011 3104-1562
Rhubarb Curculio Apr 25, 2011 3104-1563
Root-knot Nematode in Field Corn

Order: Tylenchida

Family: Heteroderidae

Species: Meloidogyne incognita (southern root-knot nematode), M. arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode), M. javanica (Javanese root-knot nematode), M. hapla (northern root-knot nematode; not found in corn)

Size: Adult females are up to 1/16 inch in diameter.

Color: Adult females are a translucent cream color.

Description: Adult females are pear shaped and sedentary.

May 1, 2009 444-107
Rose Chafer Apr 25, 2011 3104-1564
Rose Rosette Disease Sep 17, 2012 450-620 (PPWS-10P)
Rose Scale Apr 25, 2011 3104-1565
Sampling Methods for Varroa Mites on the Domesticated Honeybee

Varroa mites (Fig. 1) are serious pests of the apiculture industry throughout the Americas. The mites were first reported in the United States in Florida in 1987, apparently as an accidental introduction along with illegally imported South American queen bees. By 1989, the mite was found in 19 of the southern states and has continued to spread throughout the United States and much of Canada. To date, the varroa mite has killed one-half of the managed honeybee colonies and almost all of the feral honeybee colonies in North America. If a varroa mite infestation is left untreated, it can kill a bee colony within one to three years. As a result, the varroa mite is considered to be one of the most severe threats to the apiculture industry.

May 1, 2009 444-103
Sap Beetles Apr 25, 2011 3104-1546
Sawtoothed Grain Beetle - Coleoptera: Silvanidae May 13, 2011 3104-1584
Scale Insects

Scale insects are a peculiar group and look quite different from the typical insects we encounter day to day. Small, immobile, with no visible legs or antennae, they resemble individual fish scales pressed tightly against the plant on which they are feeding. There are over l50 different kinds of scales in Virginia. Many are common and serious pests of trees, shrubs, and indoor plants.

May 1, 2009 2808-1012
Second Edition Mid-Atlantic Guide to the Insect Pests and Beneficials of Corn, Soybean, and Small Grains Oct 4, 2012 444-360
Signs of Subterranean Termite Infestation Mar 1, 2010 444-501
Silverfish and Firebrats Oct 9, 2012 ENTO-24NP
Slugs in Field Corn

Scientific Names: Deroceras reticulatum (gray garden slug) (Fig. 1), Deroceras laeve (marsh slug) (Fig. 2), Arion subfuscus (dusky slug) (Fig. 3)

Size: Mature slugs vary in size from 1/2 inch to several inches in length; however, the typical size range of slugs found in cornfields is about 1/2 to 1 1/4 inches.

Color: Mature slugs are gray to brownish-gray, depending on the species. Immature slugs resemble adults in color (Fig. 4).

May 1, 2009 444-109
Southeastern U.S. 2014 Vegetable Crop Handbook Feb 6, 2014 AREC-66NP
Spider Mites
Aphids, or plant lice, are small, soft-bodied insects. There are hundreds of different species of aphids, some of which attack only one host plant while others attack numerous hosts. Most aphids are about 1/10 inch long (2.54 mm), and though green and black are the most common colors, they may be gray, brown, pink, red, yellow, or lavender. A characteristic common to all is the presence of two tubes, called cornicles, on the back ends of their bodies. The cornicles secrete defensive substances. In some species they are quite long, while in others they are very short and difficult to see.

Aphids feed in clusters and generally prefer new, succulent shoots or young leaves. Some species, known as wooly aphids, are covered with white, waxy filaments, which they produce from special glands.

May 1, 2009 444-221
Spiders of Medical Concern in Virginia Aug 8, 2014 ENTO-73NP
Springtails Oct 9, 2012 ENTO-23NP
Spruce Spider Mite

Distribution and Hosts

The spruce spider mite  (Acari: Tetranychidae, Oligonychus unuguis (Jacobi)) lives in all areas of Virginia and is widely distributed throughout the temperate regions of the United States and Canada. It attacks spruce, arborvitae, juniper, hemlock, pine, Douglas fir, Fraser fir, and larch, among others.
May 1, 2009 444-235
Squash Bug Mar 25, 2014 ENTO-64NP
Squash Vine Borer Apr 25, 2011 3104-1566
Stalk Borer Apr 25, 2011 3104-1567
Stinging Caterpillars: Slug Caterpillars and Flannel Moths Aug 8, 2014 ENTO-75NP
Stink Bugs

Adults and nymphs suck sap, feeding primarily on buds and seedpods. This feeding results in weakened plants and malformed buds and fruit. On okra and bean pods, the damage appears as pimples or wart-like growths. On tomatoes and peppers, white marks, often resembling halos, appear on the fruit. On pecans and beans, the damage shows up as brown spots on the nutmeat or seed. On some tree fruit, stink bugs can cause a deforming condition called cat facing on the fruit.

May 1, 2009 444-621
Striped Cucumber Beetle Feb 25, 2014 ENTO-61NP
Subterranean Termite Biology and Behavior Mar 5, 2010 444-502
Subterranean Termite Treatment Options Mar 5, 2010 444-500
Successful No-Tillage Corn Production Jul 29, 2009 424-030
Sugarcane beetle in corn Jun 28, 2012 ENTO-13NP
Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Aquatic Insect Biodiversity and Conservation May 1, 2009 420-531
Tarnished Plant Bug Apr 25, 2011 3104-1568
The Minute Pirate Bug (Orius) Mar 8, 2010 3002-1437
The pest caterpillars of cole crops in Virginia

Caterpillars, or the larval stage of Lepidoptera, are probably the most damaging of insect groups that feed on cole crops, such as collard, kale, cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts, and Chinese cabbage. Caterpillars typically feed on foliage reducing marketability or outright killing plants. The most common and damaging caterpillars in Virginia cole crops are diamondback moth (DBM), cabbage looper (CL), and imported cabbageworm (ICW). In addition to these key species, there are several other species of caterpillars that will be observed feeding on cole crops that may or may not be a threat to yield of the crop. These species are summarized in Table 1. Normally pest management is meant to target all caterpillars, treating them as one pest “complex;” however, there are some noteworthy differences between the caterpillar species in their life histories and feeding behaviors where proper identification is sometimes necessary.

Mar 2, 2012 ENTO-2
Thrips
Adult thrips are small, pale-yellow insects (occasionally black) with elongated bodies, and fringed wings.

Life Cycle

Their life cycle consists of an egg, nymph, pre-pupa, pupa and an adult. The exact time required for thrips to complete their life cycle varies with species, temperature and the host plant. Western flower thrips complete their life cycle, from egg to adult, in approximately 10 days at 80° F. Adults insert eggs in leaf tissue which hatch in approximately three days. Nymphs feed for four to five days and then drop from the plant to pupate in the soil. Adults emerge after two days of pupation and begin feeding.
May 1, 2009 444-281
Tulip Tree Leaf Miner (Sassafras Weevil)

Rice-shaped holes about 1/16 inches result from adult feeding. Larval feeding forms mines, usually two per leaf. If they are both on the same side of midrib, one is extensive, and the other dwarfed. If the insect lays eggs on opposite sides of the midrib, both mines develop normally.

May 1, 2009 444-279
Twig Girdler/Twig Pruner

In the larval stage, both the twig girdler and twig pruner are creamy white in color and up to 2 inches in length. They look like typical roundheaded borers in that their heads and bodies are cylindrical in shape and they have legs that are reduced to very small claws. The adult twig girdler is about 5/8 inch long and has a pair of long antennae. The color is brown with irregular patches of fine gray hairs and the antennae are spines on the segments closest to the head.

Nov 20, 2009 2911-1423
Using Pitfall Traps to Monitor Insect Activity

Pitfall traps are excellent tools for detecting first activity and monitoring the season-long activity of walking and crawling soil and litter arthropods, especially those that are active at night. Pitfall traps can be used in sampling programs for row crops, orchards, turf, pastures, woodlands, and landscapes.

May 1, 2009 444-416
Vegetable Weevil Apr 25, 2011 3104-1569
Velvet Ants Oct 9, 2012 ENTO-22NP
Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2014 Feb 7, 2014 AREC-62NP
Virginia Pine Sawfly

Adults resemble flies yet have four wings instead of two.
Small white oval eggs are inserted into the edge of needles at equally spaced
intervals, but in only one needle fascicle. Newly hatched larvae are pale
green, with black head capsules, and are 3 mm long. Full grown larvae are
spotted or marked with longitudinal black stripes and are from 16 to 23 mm
long. Cocoons for pupation are spun in the litter or soil surface under the
trees.

Nov 20, 2009 2911-1424
Wax Scale

Homoptera: Coccidae, Ceroplastes ceriferus

Plants Attacked

Wax scale has well over 50 hosts, especially Japanese and Chinese hollies, pyracantha, spirea, ivy, hemlock, euonymus, and boxwood.

Description of Damage

Infestations seldom kill plants directly, but seriously weaken them, reduce growth, and cause decline. Deposits of honeydew give rise to rampant growth of the black sooty mold fungus, particularly on burford and Chinese holly.

May 1, 2009 444-622
Wheel Bug - Hemiptera: Reduviidae, Arilus cristatus May 13, 2011 3104-1585
White Grubs in Vegetable Gardens Apr 25, 2011 3104-1570
White Pine Weevil

Distribution and Hosts

The white pine weevil (WPW) is found throughout Virginia. Its preferred hosts are eastern white pine and Norway spruce, but it can attack Scotch and other pines as well.

Description of Damage

The WPW usually attacks only the upright terminal leader. The previous year¹s leader (first whorl) and the new growth both die from the attack. Damage is first evident in March or early April when overwintering females chew holes in the leader for feeding and egg laying. These holes, eight inches to ten inches below the terminal bud, produce resinous bleeding that eventually dries to a white crust. By late May or early June, the larval damage is evident as the current year¹s leader droops like a shepherds crook, turns pale yellow and then brown. In July, the attacked shoot will have 1/8-inch diameter exit holes and tunnels and sawdust under the bark. A lateral shoot will eventually take over as the terminal leader but may have to be trained and have competing shoots removed. Trees of medium size, four feet to 40 feet, are most commonly attacked. WPW is a serious pest of forest plantations, Christmas tree farms, yard plantings, and landscapes.
May 1, 2009 444-270
Whiteflies
Whiteflies are white insects with pale yellow bodies that are approximately 2 mm long. They belong to the order Homoptera and are close relatives of aphids, scales, mealybugs, hoppers and cicadas.

Life Cycle

The life cycle consists of an egg, 4 nymphal instars, a pupal and an adult stage. Depending on the species and environmental conditions, eggs require 10-12 days to hatch, and completion of life cycle from egg to adult takes 30-40 days. Nymphal instars behave in a manner similar to scale insects. The first nymphal instars are active and they are sometimes called crawlers. The remaining nymphal instars are sedentary and may mimic immature scales.
May 1, 2009 444-280
Whitefringed Beetles Apr 25, 2011 3104-1571
Widow Spiders Dec 18, 2012 444-422
Wireworm Pest Management in Potatoes

Wireworms are the subterranean larval stage of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae). They are pests of many agricultural crops including corn, sorghum, small grains, tobacco, and various vegetables, but are particularly damaging to potatoes, since the marketable portion of that crop is in the soil. Wireworms are found throughout the world, and species vary greatly across regions. In Virginia, three important pest species of agricultural crops are the corn wireworm, Melanotus communis, the tobacco wireworm, Conoderus vespertinus, and a related species, C. lividus (Fig. 1). A field survey of more than 60 fields in eastern Virginia from 2002 to 2004 revealed that 80% of wireworms collected were the corn wireworm, M. communis. This is the primary soil pest attacking potatoes in Virginia.

May 1, 2009 2812-1026
Wireworm control experiment in potatoes in Abingdon, VA in 2011 Nov 3, 2011 3110-1596
Wolf Spider - Araneae: Lycosidae May 13, 2011 3104-1586
Yellow Ant - Hymenoptera: Formicidae May 13, 2011 3104-1587
Yellowjackets Sep 26, 2013 ENTO-49NP