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Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
4-H Forestry Projects May 1, 2009 420-025
A Checklist for Efficient Log Trucking May 1, 2009 420-094
A Logger's Guide to Harvest Planning May 1, 2009 420-088
Calibrating Hand-held and Backpack Sprayers for Applying Pesticides

Hand-held and backpack sprayers are inexpensive tools used to apply pesticides on small acreages. Home gardens, yards, small orchards, and Christmas tree plantations are examples of areas that often require pesticide applications to protect them from weeds, insects, and diseases. Effective pest control depends on applying the proper amount of pesticide. This can only be done if the spray equipment is calibrated accurately.

Sep 9, 2014 456-502 (ANR-93P)
Coloring Christmas Trees Before Harvest Mar 19, 2015 420-638(AREC-116P)
Dealing with Timber Theft

Forestland can provide countless hours of recreational benefits as well as an important source of income. Many landowners take careful steps to ensure that their property is managed to maximize the benefits they receive. However, all of this work can be easily eradicated by one of Virginia’s most dreaded forest pests: timber thieves.

Jan 21, 2015 420-136(AREC-107P)
Design and Operation of a Solar-Heated Dry Kiln Dec 2, 2014 420-030 (ANR-121P)
Economics of Producing an Acre of White Pine Christmas Trees May 1, 2009 420-081
Farm Tractor Logging for Woodlot Owners May 1, 2009 420-090
Forest Harvesting in Virginia, Characteristics of Virginia’s Logging Operations

Virginia’s forests are a vital resource, providing multiple benefits for the
commonwealth’s citizens, forest landowners, and the forest industry. More than
15 million acres, nearly two thirds of the state’s is forested. These forests provide
an estimated $23 billion in total economic output, annually, and provide forestry
related jobs to nearly 145,000 (Rephann 2008). Forest harvesting is often a critical
component of forest management1. Logging operations are essential to implementing
forest management plans and providing income to forest landowners. In 2011, more
than 5,900 timber harvests occurred on more than 248,000 acres of Virginia’s
forested land, and net growth continues to exceed the volume harvested (VDOF 2011).

Feb 10, 2012 ANR-5
Forest Landowner’s Guide To The Measurement Of Timber And Logs

As a forest landowner interested in selling timber, you are naturally interested in the price you will receive
for your product and how that price is determined. The measurement of standing timber and logs may seem
strange and complicated to you, and it is possible that you may be quoted dramatically different prices based
upon differing estimates of the amount of timber you have and the units of measurement used. Methods of
measuring timber and the units of measurement often differ between buyers, and, as a seller, you should have
an understanding of these methods, the units of measurement, and an idea as to a reasonable price for your

Dec 15, 2014 420-085 (ANR-120P)
Forests of Virginia: Importance, Composition, Ecology, Threats, and Management Mar 4, 2016 465-315 (ANR-163P)
Grading Key - Tree Identification Contest #1 May 1, 2009 420-067
Growing American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) in Forestlands Jan 13, 2011 354-313
Guide to Threatened and Endangered Species on Private Lands In Virginia Oct 5, 2010 420-039
Introduction to Growing Christmas Trees in Virginia Apr 24, 2015 420-080 (AREC-122P)
Investing in Sustainable Forestry; A Guide for Virginia’s Forest Landowners May 18, 2011 420-186
Lean Inventory Management in the Wood Products Industry: Examples and Applications Sep 28, 2010 420-148
Lean Thinking: Examples and Applications in the Wood Products Industry

Lean thinking is a process focused on increasing the value added to products and services and the reduction of waste. The term “lean,” coined by Womack during one of his visits to the Japanese carmaker Toyota in the early 1980s (Womack and Jones 2003), has become the universally accepted term for increasing value and reducing waste.

Nov 17, 2011 420-002
Managing Wildlife Damage: Beavers (Castor canadensis) May 1, 2009 420-202
Managing Wildlife Damage: Black Bears (Ursus americanus) May 1, 2009 420-200
Managing Wildlife Damage: Canada Goose (Branta canadensis) May 1, 2009 420-203
Marketing for Wood Products Companies May 1, 2009 420-145
Measuring Standing Trees and Logs

Timber may be sold as stumpage (trees before they are cut) or as harvested products (sawlogs, veneer logs, or pulpwood). If trees are sold as harvested products, the sale is customarily based upon measured volume. Trees marketed as stumpage may be sold by boundary, a measured estimate of stand volume, or individual tree measurements.

Standing-tree and log volumes can be measured using a scale stick designed to fit Virginia timber conditions. With it you can measure the diameter of a tree, the number of 16-foot logs or the length of pulpwood in a tree, and the diameter and length of sawlogs. Tables printed on the stick provide for varying board-foot volumes for standing trees and for sawlogs of varying lengths.

Jul 14, 2009 420-560
Moving Toward Sustainable Forestry: Strategies for Forest Landowners Dec 15, 2014 420-144 (AREC-108NP)
Pensamiento Lean: Ejemplos y Aplicaciones en la Industria de Productos de Madera

Lean thinking is a process focused on increasing the value added to products and services and the reduction of waste. The term “lean,” coined by Womack during one of his visits to the Japanese carmaker Toyota in the early 1980s (Womack and Jones 2003), has become the universally accepted term for increasing value and reducing waste.

May 9, 2013 420-002S (ANR-17S)
Personal Selling for the Forest Products Industry May 1, 2009 420-146
Powell River Project - Coal-resource Contracting Terms for Productive Postmining Forests Feb 26, 2010 460-143
Powell River Project - Establishing Groundcover for Forested Postmining Land Uses Feb 19, 2010 460-124
Powell River Project - Growing Christmas Trees on Reclaimed Surface-mined Land Sep 2, 2009 460-116
Powell River Project - How to Restore Forests on Surface-mined Land

Most coal-bearing lands in the Appalachian region were forested prior to mining. The region’s forests are predominantly upland oak-hickory and Appalachian mixed hardwoods. These forests provide many benefits to landowners and the public. Solid wood and paper products are perhaps the most tangible benefits, but a predictable flow of high-quality water from forested watersheds into regional streams is another vital benefit provided by the region’s forests. Forests also fix carbon from the atmosphere, provide wildlife food and cover, and provide recreational opportunities and an aesthetically pleasing environment.

Mar 30, 2011 460-123
Powell River Project - Mine Permitting to Establish Productive Forests as Post-Mining Land Uses Sep 29, 2009 460-141
Powell River Project - Recovery of Native Plant Communities After Mining

This publication summarizes research on the impacts of reclamation practices on re-establishment of native Appalachian forest ecosystems and describes practices
that may be used during reclamation to encourage re-establishment of native hardwood-forest plant communities.

Feb 25, 2010 460-140
Powell River Project - Reforestation Guidelines for Unused Surface Mined Lands in the Eastern United States

More than a million acres in the Appalachian region were surface mined for coal under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) (US OSM 2008). Much of this land was reclaimed using practices intended to stabilize the surface, prevent erosion, and establish herbaceous vegetation suitable for grazing livestock, but most is not used for grazing. Other areas were reclaimed to post-mining uses such as wildlife habitat or unmanaged forest using similar techniques, but with shrubs and trees able to survive heavy grass cover and compacted mine soils.

Mar 24, 2011 460-144
Powell River Project - Restoring the Value of Forests on Reclaimed Mined Land Dec 4, 2009 460-138
Principles of Regeneration Silviculture in Virginia Aug 25, 2009 420-405
Safe and Efficient Practices for Trucking Unmanufactured Forest Products May 8, 2009 420-310
Selection and Care of Christmas Trees May 1, 2009 420-641
Shortleaf Pine: An Option for Virginia Landowners May 1, 2009 420-165
Skidder Safety and Efficiency: A Discussion Leader's Guide

This handbook is designed to accompany the Skidder Safety and Efficiency training DVD available from Virginia Cooperative Extension www.ext.vt.edu, Forest Resources Association www. forestresources.org, and the Virginia SHARP Logger Program www.sharplogger.vt.edu. The following pages contain a transcription of the video narrative, along with suggestions for discussion topics.

May 26, 2009 420-122
Species for Christmas Tree Planting in Virginia May 1, 2009 420-082
Sustainable Forestry: A Guide for Virginia Forest Landowners Feb 3, 2016 420-139 (ANR-157P)
The ABCs of Cost Allocation in the Wood Products Industry: Applications in the Furniture Industry Sep 17, 2010 420-147
The Role of Logging Business Owners in Forest Certification
Many forest products companies and landowners participate in forest certification programs. Forest certification programs set standards for sustainable forest management and verify that they are being met. Certification programs can demonstrate to consumers that certified forest products come from trees that were grown and harvested sustainably. Participants in certification programs commit to meeting sustainable forest management standards and are periodically audited by a third party to verify compliance.
May 22, 2013 ANR-51NP
The Virginia GIS County Data Series

The Virginia GIS (geographic information system) County Data Series is part of an effort by the Virginia Geospatial Extension Program to facilitate increased awareness of and access to geospatial products and services by educators, local governments, state agencies, and other entities. This extensive collection of GIS data provides some of the most up-to-date and accurate framework data available. 

May 1, 2009 303-104
Tree Crops For Marginal Farmland -- Christmas Trees

This publication describes the most effective practices used to grow Christmas trees in the southern United States and the cost of those practices. It includes a financial analysis with typical costs and expected returns.

Only eastern white pine and Virginia pines are discussed in this guide. But other species, such as Scotch pine and Fraser fir, also can be grown profitably in some locations in the South. To use this publication to best advantage, read it straight through. Take special note of the cultural practices described and their estimated costs. Think about potential markets for the harvest. Read how to evaluate your potential investment, and think about the other benefits of tree crops. Read the case studies to get a better idea of how these investments can be evaluated. To conduct a financial analysis of your own situation, carefully estimate all the production costs, then take your estimates to the local Extension agent or farm management agent for assistance.

May 1, 2009 446-605
Tree Crops for Marginal Farmland: Loblolly Pine

The Tree Crops for Marginal Farmland Project seeks to provide farmers with basic information about grow­ing and marketing tree crops. Tree crops have many advantages for farmers with marginal or unused land. The cost of inputs is relatively low, economic returns may be quite competitive with alternatives, and there are important environmental benefits.

There are five introductory guides in this series, and each has an accompanying videotape. They provide information on a specific tree crop which can be grown on small or medium-sized tracts of marginal or unused farmland. All these crops are common to areas of the southeastern United States, but their economic poten­tial should be investigated by farmers.

Jun 23, 2009 446-609
Tree Identification Contest #1 May 1, 2009 420-066
Trees In Your Backyard May 1, 2009 420-070
Trees and Shrubs that Tolerate Saline Soils and Salt Spray Drift Apr 8, 2015 430-031 (HORT-111P)
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: An Overview May 1, 2009 420-150
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Benefits to Communities and Landowners May 1, 2009 420-153
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Effects on Plant and Animal Communities May 1, 2009 420-152
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Effects on Water Quality May 1, 2009 420-151
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Factors Influencing Adoption May 1, 2009 420-154
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Planning, Establishment, and Maintenance May 1, 2009 420-155
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Resources for Virginia Landowners May 1, 2009 420-156
Urban Forestry Issues May 1, 2009 420-180
Value, Benefits, and Costs of Urban Trees May 1, 2009 420-181
Virginia 4-H Forestry Judging Project Book May 1, 2009 420-125
Virginia Geospatial Extension Program -- GPS Utility: A User Guide for Natural Resource Professionals and Educators

GPS Utility is an easy-to-use software application that allows you to manage, manipulate, and map your GPS information. This is a “point-and-click” software package that is fairly user-friendly

May 1, 2009 303-202
Virginia Geospatial Extension Program -- Navigator: A User Guide for Natural Resource Professionals May 1, 2009 303-201
Virginia Geospatial Extension Program -- The Garmin eTrex Legend: An Introductory Handbook for Natural Resource Professionals and Educators May 1, 2009 303-204
Virginia Geospatial Extension Program -- USA PhotoMaps: a User Guide for Natural Resource Professionals and Educators Nov 5, 2009 303-203
Virginia Logger Safety Checklist Booklet

This booklet contains sample forms, sample policies, and guidelines for maintaining safety records.  Formats are suggested and can be modified by each operation.  Use of this booklet and completion of suggested forms will assist with OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Act) requirements as related to logging operations.  A list of agencies and contacts is included for additional information and consultation.

Aug 5, 2011 3108-1592
Welcome to the Woods! A Guide for New Virginia Woodland Owners May 13, 2015 ANR-136P
Wood Magic: A wood science curriculum for fourteen-to eighteen-year-olds Nov 9, 2009 388-809
Wood Magic: A wood science curriculum for nine to eleven year olds Nov 9, 2009 388-807