Resources for Vegetables & Specialty Crops
|Potato Aphid on Tomatoes||May 1, 2009||2901-1031|
|Green Peach Aphid on Vegetables||May 1, 2009||2902-1081|
|Do Fall Crucifers Have A Place In Virginia?||Jul 21, 2009||2906-1304|
|Taking Another Look At Globe Artichokes At Virginia Tech||Jul 21, 2009||2906-1306|
|Specialty Crop Profile: Pawpaw (part 2)||Jul 22, 2009||2906-1319|
|Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus||Jul 24, 2009||2906-1326|
|Organic Production of Watermelons||Jan 17, 2019||2906-1342 (SPES-102NP)|
|Chemical Control of European Corn Borer in Bell Pepper||Jul 29, 2009||2906-1355|
|Sampling for European Corn Borer in Bell Pepper||Jul 30, 2009||2906-1356|
|Evaluating Vegetable Transplants||Apr 24, 2015||2906-1358 (AREC-140P)|
|No-till Organic Culture of Garlic Utilizing Different Cover Crop Residues and Straw Mulch for Over-wintering Protection, Under Two Seasonal Levels of Organic Nitrogen||Aug 17, 2009||2906-1389|
|Potato Seed Selection and Management||
Selection of good quality seed is essential for Virginia growers. We often plant under less than ideal growing conditions in cold, wet soils. Seed need to be disease-free, physiologically young, handled gently and stored with care. Select disease-free seed lots. Commercial lots of seed must be inspected upon arrival by the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Inspection Service. Avoid planting seed pieces with scab lesions as seed-borne scab can contaminate fields without a prior history of scab.
|Apr 27, 2015||2906-1391 (HORT-172NP)|
|Use of In-furrow Fungicide Treatments and Seedpiece Dusts for Disease Control in White Potato||Aug 18, 2009||2906-1394|
|Japanese Beetle Pest Management in Primocane-Bearing Raspberries||Sep 15, 2009||2909-1411|
|Leaf‐ Footed Bugs||Dec 21, 2010||3012-1522|
|Growing American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) in Forestlands||Jan 13, 2011||354-313|
|Selected Vegetable Diseases||Jul 2, 2015||426-363(HORT-179P)|
|String Trellising of Tomatoes to Improve Quality and Profits||May 1, 2009||438-017|
|Specialty Crop Profile: Pumpkins||May 1, 2009||438-100|
|Specialty Crop Profile: Ornamental Gourds||May 1, 2009||438-101|
|Specialty Crop Profile: Asparagus||
Asparagus, (Asparagus officinalis), is a hardy perennial vegetable belonging to the Lily Family. It is grown for its succulent early spring vegetative shoots that originate from an underground crown (Figure 1). Nutritionally, asparagus is almost 92 percent water, and it provides fairly high amounts of carbohydrates, vitamin A, riboflavin, niacin, thiamine, and phosphorus. A native of coastal Europe, asparagus has naturalized over much of the eastern United States. With the assistance of man and birds that have spread the seeds, asparagus can be found in gardens, old homesteads, fencerows, roadsides, and railroad right of ways across the state. It is well adapted to most of Virginia, preferring well-drained loam soils and easily tolerating winter cold and summer heat. Asparagus is long lived, and a well-managed planting can last 10 to 15 years. For those considering it as a potential crop, good planning and soil preparation are essential for long-term success.
|Jan 28, 2015||438-102 (HORT-91P)|
|Specialty Crop Profile: Horseradish||May 1, 2009||438-104|
|Specialty Crop Profile: Globe Artichoke||
Globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is an herbaceous perennial that is grown for its tender, edible, immature flower buds. The globe artichoke should not be confused with Jerusalem artichoke, another member of the composite family native to North America, which is grown for its fleshy tubers. Globe artichoke plants can become large: four to five feet tall and wide, with long, heavily serrated silvery green leaves (Figure 1a).
|Jan 28, 2015||438-108 (HORT-92P)|
|Specialty Crop Profile: Rhubarb||May 1, 2009||438-110|
|Forced-Air Produce Cooler||
Field heat removal from freshly harvested produce is critical for subsequent handling and storage. Heat removal should be done immediately after harvest to maximize storage potential of the produce. The longer heat removal is delayed, the shorter the shelf life. Force air cooling has been design to remove field heat to bring the produce temperature down to the storage temperature.
|Jan 28, 2015||442-060 (AREC-118P)|
|Pepper Maggot in Sweet (Bell) Pepper||May 1, 2009||444-005|
|European Corn Borer in Sweet (Bell) Pepper||May 1, 2009||444-006|
|Diamondback Moth||Nov 27, 2018||444-007 (ENTO-293NP)|
|Bean Leaf Beetle Biology and Management in Snap Beans||May 1, 2009||444-009|
|Colorado Potato Beetle||Nov 27, 2018||444-012 (ENTO-292NP)|
|Fall Armyworm in Vegetable Crops||Mar 18, 2019||444-015 (ENTO-311NP)|
|Asparagus Beetles||Sep 27, 2017||444-620 (ENTO-243NP)|
|Anthracnose on Snap Beans||
Anthracnose is a major disease of the common snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and can occur on other legumes. It is caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. When environmental conditions are favorable, crop losses can be as high as 100 percent on susceptible cultivars of snap beans.
|Jan 29, 2014||450-719 (PPWS-26NP)|
|Pest Management Guide: Field Crops, 2019||Jan 31, 2019||456-016 (ENTO-288P)|
|Pest Management Guide: Horticultural and Forest Crops, 2019||Dec 20, 2018||456-017 (ENTO-290)|
|2019 Mid-Atlantic Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations||
This guide lists vegetable varieties that are available and are adapted to the mid-Atlantic region, gives an overview of cultural practices, and list chemicals recommended to manage pests, diseases and weeds in vegetable crops. New varieties of vegetables are constantly being developed throughout the world. While all efforts are made to have comprehensive lists, not all varieties that are adapted will be listed.
|Jan 25, 2019||456-420 (SPES-103P)|
|User Notes for Small-scale Virginia Commercial Hops Production Enterprise Budgets and Financial Statements||Feb 26, 2019||AAEC-170NP|
|The Basics of Hardwood-Log Shiitake Mushroom Production and Marketing||
Shiitake mushroom production offers an income opportunity for Virginia’s small-farm operators and smallwoodlot owners while providing enjoyment for others. It is also a relatively simple food-production activity, like gardening, that can be a hobby or used for teaching. This publication describes a technique for shiitake production and marketing that can be used and adapted by Virginia farmers, hobbyists, or teachers. It describes common techniques based on the available research, as well as areas of disagreement and typical difficulties producers may face, such as pests. In addition to production methods, this publication describes some of the basics of the finances and marketing of shiitake mushrooms for those interested in using them for income production.
|Apr 3, 2014||ANR-102P|
|IMPACT: Virginia Potato Disease Advisory Impact||
Potatoes are a major food crop on the Eastern Shore of Virginia, with average annual cash receipts of $14 million (2011-13).
|Nov 13, 2014||ANR-105P|
|Southeastern U.S. 2019 Vegetable Crop Handbook||
New varieties and strains of particular varieties of vegetables are constantly being developed throughout the world. Since it is impossible to list and describe all of them, only some of the better performing commercial types are listed in the specific crop section, either alphabetically or in order of relative maturity from early to late. These varieties are believed to be suitable for commercial production under most conditions.
|Feb 13, 2019||AREC-66NP (SPES-106NP)|
|Irrigation Scheduling in Humid Climates Using the Checkbook Method||Jan 30, 2019||BSE-239P|
|Soybean Growth and Development||
Proper management of the soybean crop requires knowledge of how environmental conditions and pests affect growth during vegetative and reproductive stages. For example, too little or too much soil moisture at certain stages may hinder growth and lower yield, and insect pests may damage the crop at one stage but not another. The information below can help you determine the proper timing of various management practices.
|Nov 13, 2015||CSES-134NP|
|Internationalizing the Land Grant Mission: Lessons from Senegal||Mar 20, 2018||CSES-207P|
|Diagnosing stink bug injury to vegetables||
In the mid-Atlantic U.S. vegetable crops are attacked by several different stink bug species (1). The primary pest species include: the invasive brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys, which has become the dominant species in most landscapes (2), brown stink bug, Euschistus servus Say, which is the most common species attacking tomatoes; green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris Say (3); and harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica, which is primarilly a pest of brassica vegetables only (4). All stink bugs are piercing sucking feeders that insert their stylets into the fruit, pods, buds, leaves, and stems of plants.
|Nov 13, 2015||ENTO-173NP|
|Survey of Pest Management Practices of Virginia Sweet Corn Growers – 2017||Dec 5, 2017||ENTO-248NP|
|Corn earworm monitoring in commercial sweet corn fields in Virginia – 2017||Mar 5, 2018||ENTO-266NP|
|Flea Beetles Attacking Brassica Plants in Virginia||Mar 27, 2018||ENTO-267NP|
|Food Safety Modernization Act Produce Safety Rule: Worker Health, Hygiene and Training||Jun 5, 2017||FST-278NP|
|Hops in Virginia – 2014 Grower Survey||
Hops (Humulus lupulus) are an essential component of beer production. Though hops have been grown in Virginia since the 1700s, Virginia hop production has been relatively insignificant until the past decade. Most major hop production in the U.S. takes place in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. However, in recent years, the number of craft breweries in Virginia has increased, and interest in local hop production has grown. The number of requests from current and potential growers seeking information and resources from Virginia Cooperative Extension has also increased steadily. Unfortunately, prior to 2014, no means were available to formally assess the scope of the industry, and national hop acreage reports did not provide data for Virginia.
|Mar 6, 2015||HORT-167P|
|Hops in Virginia: Need-to-Know Information about Extension Resources||Jan 24, 2018||HORT-182NP (HORT-287NP)|
|Hops in Virginia: Need-to-Know Information about the Industry||
Background: Hops were grown in Virginia even in the days of Thomas Jefferson, but production eventually shifted away from the east coast in favor of the Pacific Northwest. For the past few decades, hops have not been grown commercially on a substantial level in Virginia. However, beginning several years ago when the craft brewing industry surged, renewed interest in hops production led to a rapid increase in the number of hobby and commercial hops growers. A fall 2014 survey showed approximately 50 growers in the state, but as of 2015 many new growers have been added to the ranks. Much of the production is clustered in Northern Virginia and the I-81 and I-64 corridors, but growers can be found in all regions of the state stretching from Southeast to Southwest Virginia.
|Jan 24, 2018||HORT-183NP (HORT-288NP)|
|Vertical Gardening Using Trellises, Stakes, and Cages||
Vertical gardening is the practice of “gardening up,” in which a variety of structures are used to elevate plant growth to take advantage of vertical space. Vertical gardening is well-suited to urban areas where space is limited and gardeners are interested in using space most efficiently. Balconies, decks, patios, windowsills, fence lines, and backyard gardens are excellent places to practice vertical gardening. This publication will describe the use of vertical gardening techniques to get the most out of growing vegetables and other plants in these small spaces.
|May 7, 2015||HORT-189NP|
|Wine Making for the Home Gardener||
Wine making has increased in popularity as a hobby for home gardeners who have taken the science and craft beyond the grape vineyard to the bramble patch, vegetable garden, and flower garden. The American Homebrewers Association estimates that more than one million Americans brew beer or make wine at home at least once a year.
|Feb 4, 2016||HORT-213NP|
|What in the World? International Produce Takes a Stand at Virginia Farmers Markets||May 25, 2016||HORT-225NP|
|Evaluation of Blackberry Varieties in Virginia||
Blackberries (Rubus spp.) are of interest among strawberry and vegetable growers in Virginia looking to diversify their crops. Including blackberries in farm plans could allow these growers to keep their farms and pick-your-own activities open to customers for a longer duration, increasing agritourism and sales; however, Virginia growers lack information on blackberry varieties that perform well in the state.
|Oct 7, 2016||HORT-226P|
|GAPs and FSMA – an Overview for Hop Growers in Virginia||
Food safety is a hot topic for hop growers and brewers. With multiple acronyms for various practices, standards, and regulations: GAPs, FSMA, PSR, PCR, and more; the confusion is understandable. Let’s examine where the small-acreage hop grower fits in. This fact sheet serves as an orientation to these standards,regulations, and practices as they may apply to hops; it is in no way a complete set of guidelines or substitute for training.
|Dec 20, 2016||HORT-237NP|
|A Guide to the Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) Certification Process||Jan 24, 2018||HORT-252NP (HORT-285NP)|
|Guide to Identifying Food Safety Hazards in Greenhouse Systems||
According to the United States Department of Agriculture 2012 Census of Agriculture, sales from greenhouse-grown food crops equaled around $800 million in the U.S. Crops grown included tomatoes, lettuce, cucumbers, peppers, and berries, with hydroponic production operations making up about 64% of the total production (cwt) (USDA Census of Agriculture, 2012). Demand for greenhouse-grown produce continues to increase, providing growers with unique opportunities to tap into this expanding market. Although greenhouse systems provide a more protected environment than field-grown systems, it is important to understand the unique food safety risks and possible sources of contamination when growing produce in these systems. Identifying food safety hazards are necessary to implementing practices that reduce the risk of contamination during the pre-plant, production, harvest, and post-harvest handling stages. Use the checklist below to guide you in asking important questions targeting possible risks at each of the greenhouse system stages.
|Jul 10, 2017||HORT-254NP|
|Accessing Virginia’s Regional Wholesale Market Sector: Fresh Produce Food Safety Considerations||Nov 17, 2017||HORT-271NP|
|Accessing Virginia’s Market Sectors: Fresh Produce Purchasing Considerations||Nov 17, 2017||HORT-272NP|
|Accessing Virginia’s Retail Market Sector: Fresh Produce Food Safety Considerations||Nov 27, 2017||HORT-273NP|
|Accessing Virginia’s Restaurant Market Sector: Fresh Produce Food Safety Considerations||Nov 17, 2017||HORT-274NP|
|Accessing Virginia’s Public School (K-12) Market Sector: Fresh Produce Food Safety Considerations||Nov 27, 2017||HORT-275NP|
|Accessing Virginia’s Hospital Market Sector: Fresh Produce Food Safety Considerations||Nov 27, 2017||HORT-276NP|
|Accessing Virginia’s Direct-to-Consumer Market Sector: Fresh Produce Food Safety Considerations||Nov 27, 2017||HORT-277NP|
|Accessing Virginia’s College & University Market Sector: Fresh Produce Food Safety Considerations||Nov 27, 2017||HORT-278NP|
|Accessing Virginia Market Sectors: Establishing a Marketing Perspective||Nov 27, 2017||HORT-279NP|
|Sweetpotato Production and Variety Performance in Southeast Virginia, 2015-2016||May 8, 2018||HORT-282P|
|2017 Virginia Hop Grower Survey: Results||Jan 31, 2018||HORT-289NP|
|Low Tunnels in Vegetable Crops: Beyond Season Extension||May 30, 2018||HORT-291P|
|Results for the 2017 VSU Blueberry Variety Field Trial||Mar 20, 2019||SPES-108NP|
|Fresh Hops Harvesting and Handling Tips||Jun 29, 2018||SPES-43NP|
|Frost/Freeze Protection in Strawberry||Aug 27, 2018||SPES-56NP|
|Insecticide and Acaricide Research on Vegetables in Virginia -2017||Dec 17, 2018||SPES-85NP|
|Irrigation Considerations for Commercial Hop Producers||Mar 7, 2019||SPES-95P|