Resources by Michael Goatley

Title Available As Summary Date ID Author
Low-Maintenance Turfgrass Evaluation, 2008 Report May 1, 2009 2901-1080
Sod Source Selection, Installation, Maintenance, and Producers in Virginia
While high-quality sod is available outside of the VCIA-certified sod program, the consumer is encouraged to be aware of factors that are important in determining sod quality. Quality sod contains excellent turf varieties with good sod strength (i.e., easy to handle for both harvest and installation) and has no serious insect, weed, or disease problems.
Feb 19, 2016 418-040 (CSES-151P)
Groundwater Quality and the Use of Lawn and Garden Chemicals by Homeowners May 1, 2009 426-059
Summer Lawn Management: Watering the Lawn
Water makes up 75 to 85 percent of the weight of a healthy grass plant. It is essential for seed germination, tissue formation, plant cooling, food manufacture, and nutrient absorption and transport. A grass plant loses the most water under conditions of high light intensity, high temperature, low relative humidity, and windy conditions. Without adequate water, the grass plant can’t cool itself and becomes susceptible to wilting, desiccation, and death.
Mar 31, 2014 430-010 (CSES-79P)
Fertilización del Césped en Virginia Jan 20, 2017 430-011s (CSES-166P)
Urban Nutrient Management Handbook Apr 28, 2011 430-350
Winter Management and Recovery Tips to Optimize Athletic Field Safety and Performance for Spring Sports Nov 2, 2009 430-408
Fall Lawn Care
The fall season is an important transition period of turfgrass growth and development, and the management of your warm- and cool-season grasses at this time of year means a great deal in terms of anticipated success in your lawn the following spring.
Jul 2, 2015 430-520(CSES-109P)
"Leave" Them Alone: Lawn Leaf Management Apr 15, 2015 430-521 (CSES-96P)
Maintenance Calendar for Warm-Season Lawns in Virginia Feb 25, 2016 430-522 (CSES-152P)
Maintenance Calendar for Cool-Season Turfgrasses in Virginia Feb 3, 2016 430-523 (CSES-153NP)
Pest Monitoring Calendar for Home Lawns in Virginia May 1, 2009 430-524
Spring and Summer Lawn Management Considerations for Cool-Season Turfgrasses May 1, 2009 430-532
Spring and Summer Lawn Management Considerations for Warm-Season Turfgrasses May 1, 2009 430-533
Lawn Moss: Friend or Foe? May 1, 2009 430-536
Soil Testing for the Lawn and Landscape May 1, 2009 430-540
Water Reuse: Using Reclaimed Water for Irrigation
Water reuse can be defined as the use of reclaimed water for a direct beneficial purpose.
May 1, 2009 452-014
Soil Test Note 17: Lawn Fertilization for Cool Season Grasses May 1, 2009 452-717
Soil Test Note 18: Lawn Fertilization for Warm Season Grasses May 1, 2009 452-718
Powell River Project - Establishment and Maintenance of Quality Turfgrass on Surface-mined Land Feb 12, 2010 460-127
Environmental Best Management Practices for Virginia's Golf Courses Feb 27, 2013 ANR-48NP
Fertilizer Applicator Certification Training Apr 12, 2013 ANR-66
Lawn Care: Hand Tools Safety
Many hand tools such as shovels, hoes, rakes, trimmers, and pruners are widely used in lawn care and landscaping. While these tools appear to be harmless, when used improperly, they can cause injuries that sometimes require medical treatment. In 2006, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported nearly 205,000 cases of injuries and/or illnesses resulting from the use of hand tools.
Nov 5, 2013 BSE-40NP (BSE-98P)
Lawn Care: Powered Hand Tool Safety
In addition to mowers and hand tools, several powered hand tools such as string trimmers, lawn edgers, hedge trimmers, and leaf blowers are widely used in landscaping work. These machines can be dangerous if they are used improperly. A past study has shown that string trimmers and edgers alone cause more than 4,600 injuries that require emergency room treatment each year. About one-third of these cases are eye injuries.
Nov 6, 2013 BSE-41NP (BSE-97P)
Lawn Care: Rotary Mower Safety Nov 5, 2013 BSE-42NP (BSE-96P)
Lawn Care: Tractor Safety
Most tractors used in landscaping, lawn care, and golf course maintenance are compact tractors in the 20 to 40 horsepower range. Although these tractors are considerably smaller than farm tractors, they are susceptible to the same types of accidents, with potential for serious injuries or deaths. Causes for such serious accidents are often the same in both cases, and therefore, the steps to take to avoid the accidents are the same.
Nov 5, 2013 BSE-43NP (BSE-100P)
Lawn Care: Utility-Type Vehicle Safety
Utility-type vehicles are popular, multipurpose equipment used for different applications in the lawn care industry. Their hauling capability and versatility have increased their popularity, and they are widely used in rural, suburban, and urban settings for a variety of lawn care, agricultural, construction, and industrial applications.
Nov 5, 2013 BSE-44NP (BSE-99P)
Guidelines for Protecting Youth Workers: Promote Safe Practices and Protect Youth Workers
A large number of teenage workers in the U.S. engage in summer jobs for reasons such as personal development, gaining work experience, developing work skills, and generating funds for furthering their education and for spending money.
Aug 13, 2014 BSE-46NP (BSE-107P)
Rotary Mowers Safety: Lawncare Training Guide
Mowing lawns continues to be one of the most popular summer job opportunities for youth given the affordable cost and ease in operation of most rotary mowers. However, easy access and widespread use of mowers often creates a false sense of security among the users of these machines. Data from a seven-year period (1996-2003) showed the highest rate of hospitalization from lawn mower injuries was for youth workers ages 15 to 19. The Consumer Product Safety Commission reported that more than 37,000 riding mower injuries occurred from 2003 through 2005 alone. During the same period, there were 95 fatalities due to riding mower tip-over. The purpose of this training guide is to reduce the number of mower accidents and injuries by familiarizing young workers with rotary mowers and their safe operation.
Aug 12, 2014 BSE-47P (BSE-110P)
Tractor Safety: Lawn Care Training Guide, Safe Use of Tractors
Tractors are versatile equipment used in a variety of jobs ranging from hauling goods to lawn care to agriculture. While they are extremely versatile, they can be very dangerous unless they are used with care following safe practices
Sep 25, 2014 BSE-48NP (BSE-111P)
Utility Type Vehicles: UTV Maintenance and Safe Use Lawn Care Training Guide
Utility type vehicles (UTVs) are popular equipment used in a variety of settings, including the lawn care industry. Their hauling capacity and versatility have increased their popularity, and they are widely used in rural, suburban, and urban settings for a variety of lawn care, agricultural, construction, and industrial applications. Considering that UTVs are widely used in the green industry, it is extremely important that young workers in the industry become familiar with the safe operation of UTVs. The purpose of this training guide is to familiarize young workers with the safe use of UTVs.
Jun 6, 2014 BSE-49NP (BSE-108P)
Powered Hand Tools Safety: Lawncare Training Guide
In addition to rotary mowers, many powered hand tools such as string trimmers, lawn edgers, hedge trimmers, and leaf blowers are widely used in lawn care. While these devices are very useful in making jobs easier and more efficient, they can be dangerous if used without proper training and care. In 1989 the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission reported that power lawn trimmers and edgers alone have caused about 4,600 injuries annually that required medical attention. About one-third of these were eye-related.
Sep 24, 2014 BSE-50P (BSE-112P)
Hand Tools Safety: Lawn Care Training Guide Hand Tool Care and Safe Use
Many hand tools such as rakes, shovels, and pruners are used widely in lawn care operations. While these non-powered tools are not known to cause major injuries, they have the potential for injuries that may require absence from work and/or medical assistance when they are used improperly.
Sep 15, 2014 BSE-51P (BSE-113P)
Lawn Fertilization in Virginia
Fertilization of lawns is essential for the production of quality turf in Virginia. However, exceeding recommended fertilizer application rates or improper application timing can negatively impact surface water and groundwater quality.
Dec 11, 2015 CSES-135P
2017-2018 Virginia Turfgrass Variety Recommendations
The Maryland-Virginia Turfgrass Variety Recommendation Work Group meets each Spring to consider the previous year’s data from Virginia and Maryland National Turfgrass Evaluation Program (NTEP) and ancillary trials and to formulate these recommendations. Virginia and Maryland variety recommendations are essentially identical except for specialized grasses and research situations that differ due to adaptation and state regulation.
Jun 30, 2017 CSES-17NP (CSES-195NP)
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Soil Testing Oct 25, 2012 CSES-34NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Watering The Lawn Oct 26, 2012 CSES-35NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Dethatching Your Lawn Oct 26, 2012 CSES-36NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Lawn Composting Oct 29, 2012 CSES-37NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Aerating Your Lawn Oct 29, 2012 CSES-38NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Mowing Your Lawn Oct 29, 2012 CSES-39NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Fighting Weeds Oct 29, 2012 CSES-40NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Choosing The Right Grass Oct 29, 2012 CSES-41NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Fighting Lawn Pests Oct 29, 2012 CSES-42NP
A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Dealing With Lawn Disease Oct 29, 2012 CSES-43NP
Turf and Garden Tips: What can be done about crayfish in lawns? Aug 16, 2013 CSES-64NP