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Grains

Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
1997 Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials May 1, 2009 424-031
1998 Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials May 1, 2009 424-031-98
1999 Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials May 1, 2009 424-031-99
2000 Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials May 1, 2009 424-031-00
2001 Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials May 1, 2009 424-031-01
2002 Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials May 1, 2009 424-031-02
2003 Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials May 1, 2009 424-031-03
2004 Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials May 1, 2009 424-031-04
2005 Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials May 1, 2009 424-031-05
2007 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots May 1, 2009 424-038-07
2008 Virginia Corn Silage Hybrid Trials May 1, 2009 2812-1029
2008 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots May 1, 2009 2812-1025
2009 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots

The research and demonstration plots discussed in this publication are a cooperative effort by thirteen Virginia Cooperative Extension Agents and Specialists, numerous producers, local soil and water conservation districts, and many members of the agribusiness community. The fieldwork and printing of this publication is mainly supported by the Virginia Corn Check-Off Fund through the Virginia Corn Board. Anyone who would like a copy should contact their local extension agent, who can request a copy from the Northumberland County Extension office.

Jan 27, 2010 3001-1434
2009-2010 Performance of Sorghum Hybrids in the Virginia‐Carolina Region Jan 25, 2011 3101-1531
2010 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots Dec 21, 2010 3012-1521
2010 Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots Jan 24, 2011 3101-1524
2011 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots (formerly VCE pub #3012-1521)

Corn hybrid selection is becoming increasingly challenging.  With more seed companies and more GMO options and seed treatment packages than ever before, it can be very difficult to decide which hybrids to plant.  We evaluated early season hybrids (107 day RM or less) and mid season hybrids (108-112 day RM) at 5 locations and full season hybrids (113 day RM or more) at 3 locations.  In a year where rainfall patterns in general favored later hybrids, across all locations the mid season and full season hybrids averaged 20 bushels per acre or more than the early season hybrids.  Corn producers should continue to plant hybrids across all maturity ranges as a method for spreading out risk to adverse weather.

Dec 9, 2011 ANR-2
2011 Virginia On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots

The demonstration and research plot results discussed in this publication are a cooperative effort by six Virginia Cooperative Extension agents, extension specialists from Virginia Tech, and an assistant professor at the Virginia State University School of Agriculture.  We are proud to present this year’s on-farm small grain plot work to you.  The 2010-11 small grain season resulted in some excellent yields as timely planting, timely rainfall, and a cool, relatively dry grain fill period were all very positive for the wheat and barley crops.  With July 2012 wheat futures prices currently trading over $7.00 per bushel, the outlook for the 2012 crop is good.  We hope the information in this publication will help farmers produce a profitable crop.

Aug 12, 2011 3108-1593
2011 Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots Jan 17, 2012 ANR-8
2012 Performance of Sorghum Hybrids in Virginia Nov 26, 2012 AREC-30NP
2012 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots Nov 29, 2012 ANR-31NP
2012 Virginia On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots

The demonstration and research plot results discussed in this publication are a cooperative effort by four Virginia Cooperative Extension agents, extension specialists from Virginia Tech, and an assistant professor at the Virginia State University School of Agriculture. We are proud to present this year’s on-farm small grain plot work to you. The 2011-12 small grain season was challenging. Wet conditions in the fall hampered planting and caused stand losses in some fields. Precipitation was well below normal and temperatures were well above normal for January through mid April. Dry conditions decreased tillering and overall growth of the crop. Widespread rainfall on April 22nd basically saved the crop. Some late season diseases developed in some fields. With July 2013 wheat futures prices currently trading over $8.00 per bushel, the outlook for the 2013 crop is very good. We hope the information in this publication will help farmers produce a profitable crop.

Jul 20, 2012 ANR-19NP
2012 Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots Jan 11, 2013 ANR-37NP
2013 Tri-State Grain Sorghum Performance Tests Mar 26, 2014 AREC-83NP
2013 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots Dec 4, 2013 ANR-96NP
2013 Virginia On-Farm Wheat Test Plots Jul 31, 2013 ANR-78NP
2014 Virginia On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots

The demonstration and research plot results discussed in this publication are a cooperative effort by six Virginia Cooperative Extension agents, extension specialists from Virginia Tech, and an assistant professor at the Virginia State University School of Agriculture. We are proud to present this year’s onfarm small grain plot work to you. We hope the information in this publication will help farmers produce a profitable crop in 2015.

Aug 11, 2014 ANR-113NP
Agronomy Handbook, 2000 May 1, 2009 424-100
Aphids in Virginia Small Grains: Life Cycles, Damage and Control

Four species of aphids attack small grains in Virginia -- greenbug, corn leaf aphid, bird cherry-oat aphid, and English grain aphid. In general, these aphids are small pear-shaped insects (1/16 to 1/8 inch long) that are green to nearly black, or sometimes pinkish in color. Immature aphids look just like adults except smaller. Both winged and wing-less forms can occur in the same colony. All grain aphids have a pair of conicles, tailpipe-like projections, on the top side of the tail end. Aphids feed singly or in colonies on upper and lower leaf surfaces and stems. They feed near plant bases when plants are young or during cold weather, and on upper-canopy leaves, stems, and even grain heads later in the season.

May 1, 2009 444-018
Average Relative Yields of Soybean Tested in the Virginia Official Variety Test 2008-2010 Jan 25, 2011 3101-1530
Cereal Leaf Beetle, Biology and Management

Cereal leaf beetle, a native to Europe and Asia, was first detected in Michigan in 1962. Since that time it has spread throughout most of the mid-western and eastern United States and has become a significant pest of Virginia and North Carolina small grains. This insect can become very numerous in small grain fields and the larvae are capable of reducing grain yield by eating the green leaf tissue.

May 1, 2009 444-350
Corn Fertility Update – Spring 2010 Jun 11, 2010 3006-1448
Corn Planting Dates in the Piedmont and Valley Regions of Virginia: How Early is Early? May 1, 2009 424-032
Corn Planting Dates in the Virginia Coastal Plain: How early is early? May 1, 2009 424-033
Corn Smut May 1, 2009 450-706
Deep Tillage Prior to No-Till Corn: Research and Recommendations May 1, 2009 424-053
Distiller's Grains for Dairy Cattle and Potential Environmental Impact

Ethanol is produced when starch in corn grain is fermented. Most other constituents in the grain remain unchanged. The end product of the corn is distiller’s grains or DDGS (distiller’s grains with solubles). The DDGS retain the original fatty acids, protein, and phosphorus. In addition, variability in the grain nutrient content used in the fermentation process and the actual process itself results in a feed with variable nutrient content. Distiller’s grains can be fed either in the wet (less than 25 percent dry matter) or dry (greater than 85 percent dry matter) form. Wet DDGS are difficult to store and must be fed within a few days of production. The wet DDGS can be the most cost-effective, however, if used close to where they are produced.

May 1, 2009 404-135
Effects of Twin-Row Spacing on Corn Silage Growth Development and Yield in the Shenandoah Valley Mar 18, 2010 3003-1440
Grain and Soybean Production and Storage in Virginia: A Summary and Spatial Examination Mar 25, 2014 AAEC-60P
Gray Leaf Spot Disease of Corn May 1, 2009 450-612
Growing Bread Wheat in the Mid-Atlantic Region

The more than 55 million people who live in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States want to purchase processed grain foods such as bread and other dough products made from hard, or bread, wheat. 

May 1, 2009 424-024
Growing Hulless Barley in the Mid-Atlantic May 1, 2009 424-022
Growing Small Grains for Forage in Virginia

Cereal crops are used throughout the world for livestock feed. When they are managed properly they provide excellent grazing and high-quality silage or hay.

May 1, 2009 424-006
Identification and Control of Annual Ryegrass in No-Till Corn in Virginia

In Virginia, annual ryegrass has become one of the most troublesome and difficult to control weeds in small grains, as well as in corn and soybeans grown in rotation with small grains. Annual ryegrass control has declined due to the development of resistance to Hoelon, which has been the only treatment available for control in wheat and barley. Lack of control in small grains has allowed annual ryegrass to proliferate and become problematic in no-till corn establishment where high rates of triazine herbicides or sequential applications of nonselective herbicides are frequently required for acceptable control.

May 1, 2009 427-001
Intensive Soft Red Winter Wheat Production

New and successful techniques have been developed for intensive soft red winter wheat management by a multidisciplinary research and Extension team at Virginia Tech. Research was started in the early 1980's and continues today. The guidelines presented in this manual and the accompanying videotape are based on that research.

May 1, 2009 424-803
Managing Stink Bugs in Cotton: Research in the Southeast Region

Stink bug pests across the south eastern cotton belt consist of three main species: the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say); the green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say); and the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.)  Due to the diverse environmental conditions across this production region, population levels of these species vary widely across seasons, states, and fields. In North Carolina and Virginia, green and brown stink bugs are the primary species, while southern green and brown stink bugs predominate in Georgia,and all three species are commonly observed in South Carolina.

Sep 23, 2009 444-390
Nitrogen Fertilization of Winter Barley: Principles and Recommendations May 1, 2009 424-801
Nitrogen Management for Winter Wheat: Principles and Recommendations May 1, 2009 424-026
Nitrogen Soil Testing For Corn in Virginia

An adequate supply of plant-available nitrogen (N) is crucial for efficient corn production, and corn N requirements are greater than any other nutrient. For example, a corn crop yielding 150 bushels per acre typically contains about 165 lbs N in the grain and stover, or approximately 1.1 lbs N/bu grain. These calculations are based on actual N uptake, and allowances must be made for actual fertilizer use efficiency and soil N availability.

May 1, 2009 418-016
Nitrogen and Phosphorous Fertilization of Corn May 1, 2009 424-027
No-Tillage Small Grain Production in Virginia May 1, 2009 424-005
Second Edition Mid-Atlantic Guide to the Insect Pests and Beneficials of Corn, Soybean, and Small Grains Oct 4, 2012 444-360
Small Grain Forage Variety Testing, 2014 Jun 27, 2014 CSES-91NP
Small Grains In 2010 Aug 4, 2010 3007-1455
Small Grains In 2011

The following tables present results from barley and wheat varietal tests conducted in Virginia in
2009-2011. Small-grain cultivar performance tests are conducted each year in Virginia by the
Virginia Tech Department of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences and the Virginia
Agricultural Experiment Station. The tests provide information to assist Virginia Cooperative
Extension Service agents in formulating cultivar recommendations for small grain producers and
to companies developing cultivars and/or marketing seed within the state. Yield data are given
for individual locations and across locations and years; yield and other performance
characteristics are averaged over the number of locations indicated in parenthesis near the
column heading. Performance of a given variety often varies widely over locations and years
which makes multiple location-year averages a more reliable indication of expected performance
than data from a single year or location. Details about management practices for barley and
wheat are listed for each experimental location.

Jul 21, 2011 3007-1456
Small Grains in 1994 Jun 10, 2009
Small Grains in 1995 Jun 10, 2009
Small Grains in 1996 May 1, 2009 424-001-96
Small Grains in 1997 May 1, 2009 424-001-97
Small Grains in 1998 May 1, 2009 424-001
Small Grains in 1999 May 1, 2009 424-001-99
Small Grains in 2000 May 1, 2009 424-001-00
Small Grains in 2001 May 1, 2009 424-001-01
Small Grains in 2002 May 1, 2009 424-001-02
Small Grains in 2003 May 1, 2009 424-001-03
Small Grains in 2004 May 1, 2009 424-001-04
Small Grains in 2005 May 1, 2009 424-001-05
Small Grains in 2006 May 1, 2009 424-001-06
Small Grains in 2007 May 1, 2009 424-001-07
Small Grains in 2008 May 1, 2009 2808-1007
Small Grains in 2009 Aug 5, 2009 2908-1403
Small Grains in 2012 Jul 27, 2012 CSES-18NP
Small Grains in 2013 Aug 7, 2013 CSES-62NP
Small Grains in 2014 Aug 1, 2014 CSES-97NP
Successful No-Tillage Corn Production Jul 29, 2009 424-030
Suggested Soybean Seeding Rates for Virginia Jun 11, 2010 3006-1447
The Minute Pirate Bug (Orius) Mar 8, 2010 3002-1437
Tips for Profitable Variety Selection: How to Use Data From Different Types of Variety Trials

Selecting an appropriate, high-yielding variety is one of the most important management decisions that producers make. Yield potential is clearly important, but the decision is complicated by such factors as the cropping system, the need for disease resistance, end-use quality goals, year-to-year climatic variation, and the need to select multiple varieties in order to reduce risk by spreading out flowering and maturity dates.

Jul 29, 2011 424-040
Tools to More Efficiently Manage In-Season Corn Nitrogen Needs Sep 2, 2009 2909-1410
Understanding Pre-harvest Sprouting of Wheat May 11, 2009 424-060
Using the Virginia Cooperative Extension Climate Analysis Web Tool to Monitor, Predict, and Manage Corn Development

How a corn crop develops is affected by many factors: fertilization, rainfall, sunny or cloudy weather, hybrid or maturity group, etc. But these factors generally play second fiddle to temperature in determining when a corn crop tassels or is ready to harvest. Many years of observation have shown that plant development at any point during the season is affected very predictably by how warm or cool the season has been to that point. This knowledge, combined with projections about the remainder of the growing season, can sometimes be used to make mid-season adjustments in management and to predict harvest schedules.

May 1, 2009 424-055
Virginia Corn Hybrid Management Trials 1993 Jun 19, 2009 424-031-93
Virginia Corn Hybrid Management Trials 1994 Jun 19, 2009 424-031-94
Virginia Corn Hybrid Management Trials 1995 Jun 19, 2009 424-031-95
Virginia Corn Hybrid Management Trials 1996 Jun 19, 2009 424-031-96
Virginia Corn Hybrid Management and Trials 2006 May 1, 2009 424-031-06
Virginia Corn Hybrid Management and Trials 2007 May 1, 2009 424-031-07
Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials in 2008 May 1, 2009 2812-1024
Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials in 2009 Dec 1, 2009 2911-1425
Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials in 2010

Background Information

Performance trials of commercial corn hybrids were conducted at six locations in Virginia in 2010. The Mt. Holly location consisted of both an irrigated and non-irrigated test. All locations were planted with a Wintersteiger PlotKing
2600. All locations were harvested with a Massey-Ferguson 8XP plot combine. The Blackstone site was abandoned due to drought stress. Yields have been adjusted to 15.5% moisture. Grain test weight, moisture, and plot grain weights were
measured with a GrainGauge® manufactured by HarvestMaster. A list of the companies participating in the trials is shown in the above table. All hybrids entered in the Virginia trials were those submitted by commercial companies. The locations at which particular hybrids were entered were specified by the company. Companies entering hybrids were charged a fee for each hybrid per location to support the Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials.

Nov 15, 2010 3011-1519
Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials in 2011 Dec 1, 2011 CSES-2
Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials in 2012 Nov 19, 2012 CSES-49NP
Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials in 2013 Nov 18, 2013 CSES-72NP
Virginia Corn Silage Testing Program 2004 May 1, 2009 424-037-04
Virginia Corn Silage Testing Program 2005 May 1, 2009 424-037-05
Virginia Corn Silage Testing Program 2006 May 1, 2009 424-037-06
Virginia Corn Silage Testing Program 2007 May 1, 2009 424-037-07
Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots 2006 May 1, 2009 424-038-06
Virginia On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots, 2005 May 1, 2009 424-050
Virginia On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots, 2006 May 1, 2009 424-050-06
Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2013 Jan 22, 2014 ANR-101NP
Virginia On-Farm Wheat Test Plots, 2007 May 1, 2009 424-050-07
Virginia Tech Corn Silage Testing 2009

This report contains the results for performance trials from commercial corn hybrids produced for silage at three locations in Virginia in 2009 as well as two and three year average performance, when available. In order to avoid problems with comparisons over sites and years, multi-year yields are presented as a percentage of the total at that particular site-year combination called relative yield. All locations were planted with a Wintersteiger PlotKing 2600 planter and harvested with commercial silage equipment. Yields are presented on a dry matter and 35% dry matter basis for comparison. All hybrids entered in the Virginia trials were submitted for testing by commercial companies or by Virginia Tech. The locations at which particular hybrids were entered were specified by the company. Companies entering hybrids were charged a fee for each hybrid per location to support the Corn Silage Performance Trials.

Dec 11, 2009 2912-1426
Virginia Tech Corn Silage Testing 2010

This report contains the results for performance trials from commercial corn hybrids produced for silage at
four locations in Virginia in 2010 as well as two and three year average performance, when available. In
order to avoid problems with comparisons over sites and years, multi-year yields are presented as a
percentage of the total at that particular site-year combination called relative yield. All locations except the
Washington County location were planted with a Wintersteiger PlotKing 2600 planter and harvested with
commercial silage equipment. Washington County was planted with an Almaco 2-row cone planter and
harvested with commercial silage equipment. Yields are presented on a dry matter and 35% dry matter
basis for comparison. All hybrids entered in the Virginia trials were submitted for testing by commercial
companies. The locations at which particular hybrids were entered were specified by the company.
Companies entering hybrids were charged a fee for each hybrid per location to support the Virginia Corn
Silage Performance Trials.

Nov 15, 2010 3011-1518
Virginia Tech Corn Silage Testing 2011

Annual corn silage hybrid testing in Virginia. This report contains the results for performance trials from commercial corn hybrids produced for silage at four locations in Virginia in 2011 as well as two and three year average performance, when available.

Nov 15, 2011 CSES-1
Virginia Tech Corn Silage Testing 2012

Annual corn silage hybrid testing in Virginia. This report contains the results for performance trials from commercial corn hybrids produced for silage at four locations in Virginia in 2011 as well as two and three year average performance, when available.

Nov 26, 2012 CSES-45NP
Virginia Tech Corn Silage Testing 2013

Annual corn silage hybrid testing in Virginia. This report contains the results for performance trials from commercial corn hybrids produced for silage at four locations in Virginia in 2013 as well as two and three year average performance, when available.

Oct 21, 2013 CSES-71NP
Virginia Tech On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots - Eastern Virginia, August 2009

The demonstration and research plot results discussed in this publication are a cooperative effort by seven Virginia Cooperative Extension agents, several extension specialists from Virginia Tech, area
producers, and agribusinesses. We are proud to present this year’s on-farm wheat plot work to you. The 2008-09 wheat season was a tough one for producers. Below normal temperatures in the fall and winter
reduced tillering, and wet conditions in the spring delayed harvest and resulted in low quality and yields in many areas. With wheat prices down considerably and input costs relatively high, wheat producers
will need to really focus on maximum economic yields during 2009-10 to produce profitable wheat.

Aug 28, 2009 2908-1409
Virginia Tech On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots, Eastern Virginia, August 2010 Aug 19, 2010 3008-1457
Virginia Tech On-Farm Wheat Test Plots 2008 May 1, 2009 2808-1015
Wheat Planted Without Fertilizer: Fall 2008

There is apparently a significant acreage of winter wheat that was planted without any fertilizer applied at planting. The “plan” for this wheat may be to see if wheat prices increase and/or fertilizer prices decrease through the winter to levels that enable growers to make a profit. While this type of plan is very understandable with the wheat crop economics that have existed from September through the first of December, careful evaluation of the crop and selective use of fertilizers and weed control can increase potential yields and profits. The following discussion offers some ideas for advisers and growers to consider.

May 1, 2009 2812-1023
Winter Grain Mite

Order: Acarina

Family: Penthaleidae

Species: Penthaleus major (Dugès)

Size: Adult, 1 mm long; eggs, .25 mm long..

Color: Adult is dark brown to almost black with red legs (Figs. 1 and 2); nymph is brownish with orange legs; a young larva is bright pink to orange but darkens to light brown after one day; freshly deposited eggs are smooth, kidney shaped, and reddish orange, but within minutes become wrinkled and after several days become a straw yellow color.

Description: The adult is relatively large compared to other spider mites and is the only mite of economic importance with the anal pore (a tan to orange spot best seen with microscope, but can be seen with a hand lens) on the upper surface of the abdomen.

May 1, 2009 444-037