Resources for Grains
|Virginia Tech On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots - Eastern Virginia, August 2009||
A Summary of Replicated Research and Demonstration Plots Conducted by Virginia Cooperative Extension in Cooperation with Local Producers and Agribusinesses
|Aug 28, 2009||2908-1409|
|Tools to More Efficiently Manage In-Season Corn Nitrogen Needs||Sep 2, 2009||2909-1410|
|The Minute Pirate Bug (Orius)||Mar 8, 2010||3002-1437|
|Effects of Twin-Row Spacing on Corn Silage Growth Development and Yield in the Shenandoah Valley||Mar 18, 2010||3003-1440|
|Suggested Soybean Seeding Rates for Virginia||Jun 11, 2010||3006-1447|
|Virginia Tech On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots, Eastern Virginia, August 2010||Aug 19, 2010||3008-1457|
|Average Relative Yields of Soybean Tested in the Virginia Official Variety Test 2008-2010||Jan 25, 2011||3101-1530|
|2009-2010 Performance of Sorghum Hybrids in the Virginia‐Carolina Region||Jan 25, 2011||3101-1531|
|2011 Virginia On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots||Aug 12, 2011||3108-1593|
|Distiller's Grains for Dairy Cattle and Potential Environmental Impact||May 1, 2009||404-135|
|No-Tillage Small Grain Production in Virginia||May 1, 2009||424-005|
|Growing Small Grains for Forage in Virginia||May 1, 2009||424-006|
|Growing Hulless Barley in the Mid-Atlantic||May 1, 2009||424-022|
|Growing Bread Wheat in the Mid-Atlantic Region||May 1, 2009||424-024|
|Nitrogen Management for Winter Wheat: Principles and Recommendations||May 1, 2009||424-026|
|Nitrogen and Phosphorous Fertilization of Corn||May 1, 2009||424-027|
|Successful No-Tillage Corn Production||Jul 29, 2009||424-030|
|Corn Planting Dates in the Piedmont and Valley Regions of Virginia: How Early is Early?||May 1, 2009||424-032|
|Corn Planting Dates in the Virginia Coastal Plain: How early is early?||May 1, 2009||424-033|
|Tips for Profitable Variety Selection: How to Use Data From Different Types of Variety Trials||Jul 29, 2011||424-040|
|Virginia On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots, 2005||May 1, 2009||424-050|
|Virginia On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots, 2006||May 1, 2009||424-050-06|
|Deep Tillage Prior to No-Till Corn: Research and Recommendations||May 1, 2009||424-053|
|Understanding Pre-harvest Sprouting of Wheat||
Germination of wheat within the grain head before harvest is called pre-harvest sprouting (PHS).
|May 11, 2009||424-060|
|Agronomy Handbook, 2000||May 1, 2009||424-100||
|Nitrogen Fertilization of Winter Barley: Principles and Recommendations||May 1, 2009||424-801|
|Identification and Control of Annual Ryegrass in No-Till Corn in Virginia||May 1, 2009||427-001|
|Aphids in Virginia Small Grains: Life Cycles, Damage and Control||
Four species of aphids attack small grains in Virginia — greenbug, corn leaf aphid, bird cherry-oat aphid, and English grain aphid. In general, these aphids are small pear-shaped insects (1/16 to 1/8 inch long) that are green to nearly black, or sometimes pinkish in color. Immature aphids look just like adults except smaller. Both winged and wing-less forms can occur in the same colony. All grain aphids have a pair of conicles, tailpipe-like projections, on the top side of the tail end. Aphids feed singly or in colonies on upper and lower leaf surfaces and stems. They feed near plant bases when plants are young or during cold weather, and on upper-canopy leaves, stems, and even grain heads later in the season.
|Nov 13, 2014||444-018|
|Winter Grain Mite||
The adult is relatively large compared to other spider mites and is the only mite of economic importance with the anal pore (a tan to orange spot best seen with microscope, but can be seen with a hand lens) on the upper surface of the abdomen.
|Nov 13, 2014||444-037|
|Cereal Leaf Beetle, Biology and Management||
Cereal leaf beetle, a native to Europe and Asia, was first detected in Michigan in 1962. Since that time it has spread throughout most of the mid-western and eastern United States and has become a significant pest of Virginia and North Carolina small grains. This insect can become very numerous in small grain fields and the larvae are capable of reducing grain yield by eating the green leaf tissue.
|Nov 13, 2014||444-350|
|Second Edition Mid-Atlantic Guide to the Insect Pests and Beneficials of Corn, Soybean, and Small Grains||Oct 4, 2012||444-360|
|Managing Stink Bugs in Cotton: Research in the Southeast Region||Sep 23, 2009||444-390|
|Gray Leaf Spot Disease of Corn||
Gray leaf spot disease of corn caused by the fungus Cercospora zeae-maydis, poses a serious threat to corn production in many areas of the eastern United States, including Virginia, and more recently in large areas of the U. S. Corn Belt
|May 1, 2009||450-612|
Common smut of corn is caused by the fungus Ustilago maydis. The fungus causes gall formation on all aboveground parts of corn plant
|May 1, 2009||450-706|
|Grain and Soybean Production and Storage in Virginia: A Summary and Spatial Examination||
Grain and soybean production is a critical component of Virginia agriculture — the state’s No. 1 industry (VDACS 2013). Virginia’s farmers produced more than half a billion bushels of grain and soybeans over the span of 2006 to 2012 (USDA-NASS 2013b)1. The objectives of this publication are to characterize the market for grain production and storage in Virginia.
|Mar 25, 2014||AAEC-60P|
|2014 Virginia On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots||
The demonstration and research plot results discussed in this publication are a cooperative effort by six Virginia Cooperative Extension agents, extension specialists from Virginia Tech, and an assistant professor at the Virginia State University School of Agriculture. We are proud to present this year’s on farm small grain plot work to you. We hope the information in this publication will help farmers produce a profitable crop in 2015.
|Aug 11, 2014||ANR-113NP|
|Weed Control in Hops||
Because hops are long-lived perennials, controlling weeds near plants without causing injury can be challenging. Furthermore, empty spaces between rows can quickly become filled with weeds if left unmanaged. Growers therefore need a year-round weed management plan. An important part of that plan is identifying the common weeds at the site and understanding their life cycles. Once weeds have been identified, a management plan can be developed using cultural, chemical, or integrated approaches.
|Mar 11, 2015||ANR-144NP|
|2012 Virginia On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots||Jul 20, 2012||ANR-19NP|
|2016 Virginia On-Farm Wheat Test Plots||Aug 10, 2016||ANR-217NP|
|2016 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots||
The research and demonstration plots discussed in this publication are a cooperative effort by nine Virginia Cooperative Extension employees, a faculty member at Virginia State University, numerous producers, and many members of the agribusiness community. The field work and printing of this publication are mainly supported by the Virginia Corn Check-Off Fund through the Virginia Corn Board. Anyone who would like a copy should contact their local extension agent, who can request a copy from the Essex County Extension office.
|Dec 9, 2016||ANR-235NP|
|Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2016||
These demonstration and research plot results are a collaborative effort of Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) Agents and Specialists, area producers, and agribusiness. The purpose of this publication is to provide research-based information to aid in the decision-making process for soybean producers in Virginia. It provides an unbiased evaluation of varieties, management practices, and new technologies through on-farm replicated research using producer equipment and time. These experiments enable producers to make better management decisions based on research and provide greater opportunities to improve yields and profits, which improves quality of life for them and their families.
|Jan 13, 2017||ANR-244NP|
|2017 Virginia On-Farm Wheat Test Plots||Aug 14, 2017||ANR-284NP|
|Good Production Practices: Name That Feed||
To demonstrate the importance of properly labeling feeds.
|Oct 28, 2015||APSC-98P|
|Mid-Atlantic Grain Sorghum Performance Tests 2014||
The 2014 grain sorghum OVT tests contained 52 hybrids; 41 hybrids were planted as a full season crop and 21 as double crop. Full season and double cropping tests were conducted at three locations, at the Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center (TAREC) in Suffolk, VA, in a farmer field near Windsor, VA, in Isle of Wight County, and at the Virginia State University’s Randolph Farm near Petersburg, VA.
|Mar 6, 2015||AREC-133NP|
|2016 Virginia Peanut Production Guide||
Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included in this publication as a convenience to the reader. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in this publication does not imply endorsement by Virginia Tech nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. Individuals who use agricultural chemicals are responsible for ensuring that the intended use complies with current regulations and conforms to the product label. Be sure to obtain information about usage regulations and examine a current product label before applying any chemical.
|Jan 28, 2016||AREC-157NP|
|Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation results, 2015||
Along with agronomic and grade information, data on kernel and pod quality are essential for release of new peanut cultivars to ensure acceptability by the entire peanut trade. The present report contains the quality data collected on 5 Virginia-type cultivars that currently are on the market and 31 advanced breeding lines tested in the Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation (PVQE) small plots in 2015.
|Apr 1, 2016||AREC-172NP|
|2016 Insect Pest Management in Virginia Cotton, Peanut, and Soybean||Jan 20, 2017||AREC-200NP|
|2016 Virginia Grain Sorghum Performance Tests||Feb 17, 2017||AREC-201NP|
|Virginia Soybean Performance Test 2016||Mar 29, 2017||AREC-209NP|
|2018 Virginia Peanut Production Guide||Jan 29, 2018||AREC-229NP|
|2012 Performance of Sorghum Hybrids in Virginia||Nov 26, 2012||AREC-30NP|
|2013 Tri-State Grain Sorghum Performance Tests||
The 2013 grain sorghum OVT tests contained 45 hybrids planted as a full season crop and 22 as double crop. Full season tests were conducted at three locations, at the Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center (TAREC) in Suffolk, VA, in a farmer field near Homeville, VA, in Sussex County, and at the Virginia State University’s Randolph Farm near Petersburg, VA. The double crop sorghum trials were conducted at two locations, at the TAREC and in a farmer field near Windsor, VA, in the Isle of Weight County.
|Mar 26, 2014||AREC-83NP|
|Double Cropping Soybeans In Virginia||
Double cropping is simply growing and harvesting two crops in one year. In the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, soybeans are commonly double-cropped after a winter small-grain crop, usually wheat. However, double cropping is not limited to the small-grain-soybean system. Other crops, such as grain sorghum or even corn, could fit into a double-cropping system with small grains. Soybean can be grown after other winter crops, such as canola, or after a spring crop, such as snap beans. As long as both crops can complete their development in time to allow profitable production of the entire system, numerous double-cropping systems are possible.
|Mar 11, 2015||CSES-102NP (CSES-104NP)|
|Roadside Survey of Continuous No-till and Cover Crop Acres in Virginia||
In 2009, the Chesapeake Clean Water Ecosystem Restoration Act (HB 3852/S 1816) was passed, and was intended to strengthen certain standards for the Chesapeake Bay, particularly, to address nonpoint source pollution. Nonpoint source pollution includes that of urban, suburban and agricultural runoff. Cited in the bill was the need to establish and codify the Bay-wide pollution budget, or Total Maximum Daily Loads, (TMDL) for nitrogen, phosphorous and sediment that EPA was in process of developing for the Bay. Hence all states and their perspective watersheds would have pollution caps for all sources of pollution.
|Oct 13, 2014||CSES-103NP|
|Virginia Cover Crops Fact Sheet Series No. 1: Beneficial Uses of Cover Crops||
The general purpose of a cover crop is to improve the soil, the broader environment, or other crops in rotation, not for direct harvest. Cover crops, depending on which are selected, are capable of providing many diverse assets. This publication provides a short description of these main benefits.
|May 5, 2015||CSES-120NP|
|Virginia Cover Crops Fact Sheet Series No. 2: Cover Crop Performance Evaluation in Field and Controlled Studies||
Cover crops increase soil organic matter, reduce erosion, suppress weeds, forage for nutrients, and reduce fertilizer costs (Clark, 2007). Cover crop species vary greatly and provide varied benefits. Performance evaluation of cover crop species and mixtures is needed in Virginia.
|May 5, 2015||CSES-121NP|
|The Mid-Atlantic Nutrient Management Handbook||
Delaware, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia, and Virginia, the five states in the Mid-Atlantic region, all require Certified Nutrient Management Plans to be completed for certain agricultural programs.
|Jun 9, 2015||CSES-122P|
|Nitrogen and Sulfur Leaching Potential in Virginia||
Early summer often means locally heavy and sporadic rainfall as thunderstorms deliver intense rains, and 2015 appears to be no different with many areas in eastern Virginia receiving 3+ inches of rain in a few days (Figure 1). These storms also often coincide with the timing of sidedress nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) applications on corn. While some rainfall after sidedress is very beneficial to facilitate N movement into soil, heavy rain (2+ inches) often leaves us wondering how much, if any, of that recently-applied N remains and if additional N is needed.
|Jun 19, 2015||CSES-125NP|
|The Nutrient Value of Straw||
The mature and dried stem, leaves, and chaff remaining after barley and wheat are harvested is known as straw. Many farmers around Virginia harvest straw by baling in small bales, large round bales, or large square bales that range in weight from 40 to 1,000 lbs. plus per bale.
|Jun 19, 2015||CSES-126NP|
|Small Grain Forage Variety Testing, 2015||
A forage production trial of commercial barley, oats, rye, triticale, and wheat cultivars has been conducted yearly from 1994-2015 at the Northern Piedmont AREC, Orange. Results from the 2014-15 crop season are presented in this report.
|Jun 24, 2015||CSES-127NP|
|Small Grains in 2015||
The following tables present results from barley and wheat varietal tests conducted in Virginia in 2013-2015. Small-grain cultivar performance tests are conducted each year in Virginia by the Virginia Tech Department of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences and the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station.
|Jul 29, 2015||CSES-129NP|
|Virginia Tech Corn Silage Testing 2015||
This report contains the results for performance trials from commercial corn hybrids produced for silage at four locations in Virginia in 2015 as well as two and three year average performance, when available. In order to avoid problems with comparisons over sites and years, multi-year yields are presented as a percentage of the total called relative yield at that particular site-year combination. All locations were planted with a Wintersteiger PlotKing 2600 planter and harvested with commercial silage equipment. Yields are presented on a dry matter and 35% dry matter basis for comparison. Quality analysis was performed using a Foss NIR XDS Rapid Content Analyzer. All hybrids entered in the Virginia trials were submitted for testing by commercial companies. The locations at which particular hybrids were entered were specified by the company. Companies entering hybrids were charged a fee for each hybrid per location to support the Virginia Corn Silage Performance Trials.
|Nov 6, 2015||CSES-148NP|
|Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials in 2015||
Performance trials of commercial corn hybrids were conducted at six locations in Virginia in 2015. The Mt. Holly location consisted of both an irrigated and non-irrigated test. All locations were planted with a Wintersteiger PlotKing 2600. All locations were harvested with a Massey-Ferguson 8XP plot combine. Yields have been adjusted to 15.5% moisture. Grain test weight, moisture, and plot grain weights were measured with a GrainGauge® manufactured by HarvestMaster. A list of the companies participating in the trials is shown in the above table. All hybrids entered in the Virginia trials were those submitted by commercial companies. The locations at which particular hybrids were entered were specified by the company. Companies entering hybrids were charged a fee for each hybrid per location to support the Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials.
|Nov 12, 2015||CSES-149NP|
|Corn Emergence Evaluation||
There is much emphasis placed on the importance of stand uniformity and emergence in producing high yielding corn. Stand uniformity refers to spacing while uniformity of emergence refers to how even emergence is within the field.
|Feb 25, 2016||CSES-157NP|
|Small Grain Forage Variety Testing, 2016||
A forage production trial of commercial barley, oats, rye, triticale, and wheat cultivars has been conducted yearly from 1994-2016 at the Northern Piedmont AREC, Orange. Results from the 2015-16 crop season are presented in this report.
|Jun 27, 2016||CSES-165NP|
|Small Grains in 2016||Jul 27, 2016||CSES-167NP|
|Virginia Tech Corn Silage Testing 2016||
This report contains the results for performance trials from commercial corn hybrids produced for silage at four locations in Virginia in 2016 as well as two and three year average performance, when available. In order to avoid problems with comparisons over sites and years, multi-year yields are presented as a percentage of the total called relative yield at that particular site-year combination. All locations were planted with a Wintersteiger PlotKing 2600 planter and harvested with commercial silage equipment. Yields are presented on a dry matter and 35% dry matter basis for comparison. Quality analysis was performed using a Foss NIR XDS Rapid Content Analyzer. All hybrids entered in the Virginia trials were submitted for testing by commercial companies. The locations at which particular hybrids were entered were specified by the company. Companies entering hybrids were charged a fee for each hybrid per location to support the Virginia Corn Silage Performance Trials.
|Oct 21, 2016||CSES-173NP|
|Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials in 2016||
Performance trials of commercial corn hybrids were conducted at six locations in Virginia in 2016. The Mt. Holly location consisted of both an irrigated and non-irrigated test. All locations were planted with a Wintersteiger PlotKing 2600. All locations were harvested with a Massey-Ferguson 8XP plot combine. Yields have been adjusted to 15.5% moisture. Grain test weight, moisture, and plot grain weights were measured with a GrainGauge® manufactured by HarvestMaster. A list of companies participating in the trials is provided before the table of contents. All hybrids entered in the Virginia trials are those submitted by commercial companies. The locations at which particular hybrids were entered were specified by the company. Companies entering hybrids were charged a fee for each hybrid per location to support the Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials.
|Nov 11, 2016||CSES-174NP|
|Yellow Corn in Virginia – Spring 2017||
According to Meteorologist Scott Minnick with the NOAA-National Weather Service in Wakefield, VA, May 2017 is “yet another wet and cloudy May for the record books. With the rain on [May 31, 2017], Norfolk moved up to the 3rd wettest May on record.” The 2017 growing year is almost identical to last year (the wettest May on record for Norfolk, VA), with a dry March and April leading into a record breaking cool and wet May as corn tries to establish roots. Young corn largely depends on residual and starter fertilizer prior to sidedress applications and these fractions can be impacted greatly with excessive rain.
|Jul 10, 2017||CSES-193NP|
|Small Grain Forage Variety Testing, 2017||
A forage production trial of commercial barley, oats, rye, triticale, and wheat cultivars has been conducted yearly from 1994-2017 at the Northern Piedmont AREC, Orange. Results from the 2016-17 crop season are presented in this report.
|Jul 24, 2017||CSES-194NP|
|Small Grains in 2017||Jul 28, 2017||CSES-198NP|
|Virginia Tech Corn Silage Testing 2017||Nov 30, 2017||CSES-203NP|
|Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials in 2017||Dec 5, 2017||CSES-206NP|
|Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2017||Mar 23, 2018||CSES-232NP|
|2017 Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots||Jan 4, 2018||CSES-223NP|
|2017 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots||Jan 4, 2018||CSES-224NP|
|Determining Harvesting Time for Corn Silage||May 5, 2016||DASC-82NP|