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Plant Diseases

Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
Anthracnose on Snap Beans Jan 29, 2014 450-719 (PPWS-26NP)
Applied Research On Field Crop Disease Control 2004 May 1, 2009 450-564
Applied Research On Field Crop Disease Control 2005 May 1, 2009 450-564-05
Applied Research On Field Crop Disease Control 2006 Apr 28, 2009 424-236
Applied Research On Field Crop Disease Control 2014 Jan 26, 2015 AREC-126NP
Applied Research on Field Crop Disease Control 2007 May 1, 2009 2808-1005
Applied Research on Field Crop Disease Control 2008

Cool temperatures and rainfall delayed planting of cotton and peanut until after 20 April in Virginia. Thereafter, rainfall was widely scattered and soil temperatures averaged above 60 ºF which allowed planting to proceed in a timely manner. Most crops showed good emergence after planting throughout Eastern Virginia, except for some stand losses in early plantings of corn.

May 14, 2009 2905-1294
Applied Research on Field Crop Disease Control 2011 Feb 1, 2012 AREC-12
Applied Research on Field Crop Disease Control 2013 Feb 1, 2012 AREC-12
Applied Research on Field Crop Disease Control 2015

Total rainfall during the summer growing season (May 1-Oct 31) was 24.2 inches with monthly totals as follows: 0.55 inches in May; 7.48 inches in Jun; 4.62 inches in Jul; 2.62 inches in Aug; 5.33 inches in Sep; and 3.56 inches in Oct. Monthly average minimum air temperatures were 58°F in May, 69°F in Jun, 70°F in Jul, 66°F in Aug, 65°F in Sep, and 51°F in Oct. Monthly average maximum air temperatures were 83°F in May, 90°F in Jun, 90°F in Jul, 89°F Aug, 84°F in Sep, and 72°F in Oct. Data were recorded at a weather station located at the Tidewater Research Farm located on Hare Road in Suffolk, Virginia.

Apr 19, 2016 AREC-173NP
Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions I: Background and General Information May 1, 2009 450-301
Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions II: Identification, Biology, and Ecology May 1, 2009 450-302
Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions III: Control with Fungicides May 1, 2009 450-303
Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions IV: Cropping Systems and Cultural Practices May 1, 2009 450-304
Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions V: Monitoring, Tracking, and Scouting May 1, 2009 450-305
Bacterial Leaf Scorch of Landscape Trees Jan 11, 2010 3001-1433
Bean Pod Mottle Virus in Virginia Soybeans Sep 9, 2010 3009-1461
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight for Greenery Producers Oct 13, 2016 PPWS-39NP (PPWS-95NP)
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight for Professionally Managed Landscapes and Public and Historic Gardens in Virginia

Boxwood blight is caused by the fungal pathogen Calonectria pseudonaviculata (syn. Cylindrocladium buxicola). Boxwood blight was first described in the United Kingdom in the mid-1990’s and by 2002 was found in several other European countries and New Zealand. In September 2011 boxwood blight was discovered in North America. Symptoms of the disease include leaf spotting (Fig. 1), elongate, dark cankers on stems (Fig. 2), defoliation, and dieback (Fig. 3). The primary means by which the disease spreads is the inadvertent introduction of infected boxwood to existing plantings. The pathogen can also spread by spores, which readily adhere to equipment and work clothes, and by microsclerotia, which survive in infested soil and plant debris. This document outlines best management practices for landscapers and property managers to reduce the risk of spreading boxwood blight to landscapes and public and historic gardens, and to manage the disease if it is introduced.

Sep 26, 2016 PPWS-49NP (PPWS-84NP)
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight in Virginia Production Nurseries WITHOUT Boxwood Blight Version 2, September 2016

Boxwood blight (also known as box blight), caused by the fungus Calonectria pseudonaviculata, is a serious fungal disease of boxwood that results in defoliation and decline of susceptible boxwood. In Virginia boxwood blight was first identified in a nursery location in Carroll County in 2011. By the fall of 2013 it was found in other commercial nursery/retail operations and landscapes in several counties in Virginia

Sep 30, 2016 PPWS-33NP (PPWS-86NP)
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight in the Virginia Home Landscape: Version 2, September 2016 Sep 30, 2016 PPWS-29NP (PPWS-85NP)
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight: Best management practices for Virginia retail nurseries WITH boxwood blight Version 2, August 2016 Sep 30, 2016 PPWS-34NP (PPWS-89NP)
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight: Best management practices for Virginia retail nurseries WITHOUT boxwood blight Version 2, September 2016 Sep 30, 2016 PPWS-35NP (PPWS-88NP)
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight: Best management practices for boxwood blight in Virginia production nurseries WITH boxwood blight Version 2, September 2016 Sep 30, 2016 PPWS-32NP (PPWS-87NP)
Botryosphaeria Canker and Dieback of Trees and Shrubs in the Landscape Mar 16, 2015 450-726 (PPWS-50)
Botrytis Blight of Peony Sep 26, 2016 450-602 (PPWS-93NP)
Boxwood Blight: A New Disease of Boxwood Found in the Eastern U.S. Jan 5, 2012 PPWS-4
Brown Rot on Peach and Other Stone Fruits Mar 25, 2015 450-721 (PPWS-64P)
Common Diseases of Soybean in the Mid-Atlantic Region

Common diseases of soybean are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi and nematodes. Some diseases are spread by insect vectors and nematodes while others are spread by wind, splashing rain, or movement in soil. The best way to determine if disease control would be profitable is to first identify the diseases that are capable of causing  conomic yield losses. Symptoms of disease include plant damage caused by a pathogen and the reaction of plants to infection. Signs are the visible evidence of the pathogen. Some diseases have characteristic symptoms and signs that are identifiable in the field.

Feb 17, 2010 3001-1435
Comparison of Yield, Maturity, Value and Susceptibility to TSWV in Virginia- and Runner-type Varieties of Peanut in 2004 May 1, 2009 450-567
Corn Smut May 1, 2009 450-706
Downy Mildew in Cucurbits: Occurence of QOI Resistance in the USA and Impact on Managing Disease

Strains of the cucurbit downy mildew fungus resistant to QoI (also known as strobilurin) fungicides were detected in GA and NC in fall 2004 and in FL in spring 2005. The genetic mutation detected is the same as that in QoI-resistant cucurbit powdery mildew fungal strains.

Aug 12, 2009 2906-1385
Entomosporium Leaf Spot of Photinia

Photinia, a shrub belonging to the plant family
Rosaceae, is a popular landscape shrub in the
southeastern U.S. Several species are grown, but
the most popular is the hybrid Photinia ×fraseri, or
“redtip”, so named for its bright red, immature foliage.
The biggest drawback to growing photinia is a leaf
spot disease caused by the fungus Diplocarpon mespili
(syn. Entomosporium mespili) to which redtip is
highly susceptible.

Sep 30, 2016 450-609 (PPWS-82P)
Fusarium Wilt of Mimosa (Albizia julibrissin)

Fusarium wilt is a common and lethal disease of mimosa (Albizia julibrissin)1, also commonly known as silktree. In the United States this disease occurs in the east from New York southward and also in Louisiana, Arkansas and California. Fusarium wilt is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum forma specialis perniciosum. Albizia spp. are the only known host of F. oxysporum'' f.sp. ''perniciosum''. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. perniciosum colonizes and clogs the tree’s vascular (water-conducting) tissue, and interferes with the movement of plant sap. This results in relatively rapid tree death.

Jan 20, 2015 2811-1020(PPWS-53NP)
Galls and Rust made by Mites

Galls are abnormal growths of plant tissue induced by insects and other organisms. Gall-making parasites release growth-regulating chemicals as they feed, causing adjacent plant tissues to form a gall. The parasite then develops within the relative security of the gall. Galls come in an endless variety of forms. Many are strikingly colored or curiously shaped. Each gall-making species causes a gall structurally different from all others. By noting the type of host plant and the structure of the gall, one can identify the gall-making mite without actually seeing it.

May 8, 2015 ENTO-147NP
Gray Leaf Spot Disease of Corn May 1, 2009 450-612
IMPACT: Virginia Potato Disease Advisory Impact Nov 13, 2014 ANR-105P
IMPACT: Virginia Winter Fruit School Impact May 13, 2015 AREC-135NP
Impact of Cotton Monoculture, Variety Selection, and Chemical Inputs on Disease Control, 2011 Jan 27, 2012 AREC-13
Iris Leaf Spot

Iris leaf spot (also called Heterosporium leaf spot) is the
most common disease of iris in Virginia. It is caused by
the fungus Cladosporium iridis (syn. Heterosporium
iridis). Leaf spotting is most conspicuous on the
upper half of the leaf following bloom. Although this
pathogen is most common on bulbous iris, it can also
cause severe damage to rhizomatous iris, and has also
been reported on Gladiolus, Freesia and Narcissus
species.

Nov 1, 2016 450-600 (PPWS-90NP)
Late Blight of Tomato and Potato Jan 20, 2012 ANR-6
Leaf and Flower Gall of Azalea and Camellia Oct 18, 2016 450-605 (PPWS-92NP)
Managing Fusarium Head Blight in Virginia Small Grains

Fusarium head blight (FHB), or scab, continues to impact small grain crops grown in Virginia. Caused primarily by the fungus Fusarium graminearum (also known as Gibberella zeae), this disease can negatively impact yield and grain quality. Grain may also contain toxins (mycotoxins) produced by the fungus and reduce the price received for grain at local mills and elevators. Corn and small grain residues remaining in the field prior to small grain planting are known to provide a place for the fungus
to overwinter and proliferate during favorable environmental conditions.

Mar 4, 2011 3102-1535
Pest Management Guide: Field Crops, 2016 Jan 26, 2016 456-016 (ENTO-167P)
Pest Management Guide: Horticultural and Forest Crops, 2016 Jan 26, 2016 456-017 (ENTO-163P)
Plant Disease Diagnostic Form May 13, 2016 450-097 (ENTO-198NP)
Powdery Mildew of Ornamental Plants May 1, 2009 450-603
Problem-free Shrubs for Virginia Landscapes Jun 27, 2016 450-236 (PPWS-69P)
Problem-free Trees for Virginia Landscapes Oct 19, 2016 450-237 (PPWS-70P)
Reducing Pesticide Use in the Home Lawn and Garden Apr 29, 2015 450-725 (PPWS-56P)
Rose Rosette Disease Sep 17, 2012 450-620 (PPWS-10P)
Selected Vegetable Diseases Jul 2, 2015 426-363(HORT-179P)
Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare, L.) Diseases Head mold

The purpose of this publication is to provide performance data of the many soybean varieties offered for sale in Virginia.  These data should be of benefit to producers and agribusinesses in making selections of varieties for their use.  It is realized that not all varieties that are offered for sale in Virginia are included in these tests.  There is no implication that varieties not included are inferior in any way, but only that they have not been tested. 

Aug 21, 2012 AREC-20NP
Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare, L.) Insects Corn earworm [Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)]

The purpose of this publication is to provide performance data of the many soybean varieties offered for sale in Virginia.  These data should be of benefit to producers and agribusinesses in making selections of varieties for their use.  It is realized that not all varieties that are offered for sale in Virginia are included in these tests.  There is no implication that varieties not included are inferior in any way, but only that they have not been tested. 

Aug 31, 2012 AREC-21NP
Soybean Disease Control: Response of Soybeans to Foliar Sprays of Fungicides in 2005 May 1, 2009 450-561
Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Foliar Fungicides in 2006 May 1, 2009 450-562
Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Fungicides in 2009 Dec 21, 2010 3012-1520
Successful No-Tillage Corn Production Jul 29, 2009 424-030
Troubleshooting The Soybean Crop Nov 16, 2012 AREC-25NP
Use of In-furrow Fungicide Treatments and Seedpiece Dusts for Disease Control in White Potato

On the Eastern Shore of Virginia, potato growers plant potatoes in early spring for summer harvest. Fungicide dusts have been typically used to protect the potato seedpiece from infection when planted in cool, wet soil in the early spring.

Aug 18, 2009 2906-1394
Virginia Boxwood Blight Task Force May 20, 2014 PPWS-30
Virginia Master Naturalist, Basic Training Course, Botany Feb 6, 2014 ANR-10NP (ANR-97NP)
Virginia Master Naturalist, Basic Training Course, Botany (Introductory Version) Jan 31, 2014 ANR-12NP