Resources for Plant Pathology, Physiology and Weed Science

Title Available As Summary Date ID Author
Prevention and Control of Palmer Amaranth in Soybean
Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), a member of the "pigweed" family, is one of the most troublesome weeds in many southern row crops. Seed can germinate all season and plants can grow to over 6 feet in height. Plants have either male flowers that shed pollen or female flowers that can produce up to 600,000 seed per plant. One Palmer amaranth per meter of row can reduce soybean yield 32%.
Jun 1, 2016 2808-1006 (PPWS-78NP)
Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Fungicides in 2007 May 1, 2009 2810-1016
Fusarium Wilt of Mimosa (Albizia julibrissin)
Fusarium wilt is a common and lethal disease of mimosa (Albizia julibrissin)1, also commonly known as silktree. In the United States this disease occurs in the east from New York southward and also in Louisiana, Arkansas and California. Fusarium wilt is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum forma specialis perniciosum. Albizia spp. are the only known host of F. oxysporum'' f.sp. ''perniciosum''. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. perniciosum colonizes and clogs the tree’s vascular (water-conducting) tissue, and interferes with the movement of plant sap. This results in relatively rapid tree death.
Jan 20, 2015 2811-1020(PPWS-53NP)
Cost and benefit of seed treatments and Temik 15G in furrow for seedling disease and nematode control in Virginia, 2008 Nov 19, 2009 2911-1419
Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Fungicides in 2008 Nov 19, 2009 2911-1420
Bacterial Leaf Scorch of Landscape Trees Jan 11, 2010 3001-1433
Common Diseases of Soybean in the Mid-Atlantic Region Feb 17, 2010 3001-1435
Bean Pod Mottle Virus in Virginia Soybeans Sep 9, 2010 3009-1461
Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Fungicides in 2009 Dec 21, 2010 3012-1520
Managing Fusarium Head Blight in Virginia Small Grains
Fusarium head blight (FHB), or scab, continues to impact small grain crops grown in Virginia. Caused primarily by the fungus Fusarium graminearum (also known as Gibberella zeae), this disease can negatively impact yield and grain quality.
Mar 4, 2011 3102-1535
No-Till Seeding of Forage Grasses and Legumes May 1, 2009 418-007
No-Tillage Small Grain Production in Virginia May 1, 2009 424-005
Growing Hulless Barley in the Mid-Atlantic May 1, 2009 424-022
Growing Bread Wheat in the Mid-Atlantic Region May 1, 2009 424-024
Successful No-Tillage Corn Production Jul 29, 2009 424-030
Agronomy Handbook, 2000 May 1, 2009 424-100
Virginia Cotton Report, 2006: Evaluation of Chemicals and Variety Selection for Control of Nematodes in Cotton May 1, 2009 424-234
Intensive Soft Red Winter Wheat Production May 1, 2009 424-803
Identification and Control of Annual Ryegrass in No-Till Corn in Virginia May 1, 2009 427-001
Control of Common Pasture and Hayfield Weeds in Virginia and West Virginia May 1, 2009 427-002
Itchgrass Identification and Control in Virginia May 1, 2009 427-008
Fall Lawn Care
The fall season is an important transition period of turfgrass growth and development, and the management of your warm- and cool-season grasses at this time of year means a great deal in terms of anticipated success in your lawn the following spring.
Jul 2, 2015 430-520(CSES-109P)
Maintenance Calendar for Warm-Season Lawns in Virginia Feb 25, 2016 430-522 (CSES-152P)
Maintenance Calendar for Cool-Season Turfgrasses in Virginia Feb 3, 2016 430-523 (CSES-153NP)
Pest Monitoring Calendar for Home Lawns in Virginia May 1, 2009 430-524
Spring and Summer Lawn Management Considerations for Cool-Season Turfgrasses May 1, 2009 430-532
Spring and Summer Lawn Management Considerations for Warm-Season Turfgrasses May 1, 2009 430-533
Lawn Moss: Friend or Foe? May 1, 2009 430-536
Nozzles: Selection and Sizing
This fact sheet covers nozzle description, recommended use for common nozzle types, and orifice sizing for agricultural and turf sprayers. Proper selection of a nozzle type and size is essential for correct and accurate pesticide application. The nozzle is a major factor in determining the amount of spray applied to an area, uniformity of application, coverage obtained on the target surface, and amount of potential drift.
Jan 31, 2014 442-032 (BSE-103P)
Root-knot Nematode in Field Corn May 1, 2009 444-107
Farm Security - “Treat it Seriously” – Security for Plant Agriculture: On-Farm Assessment and Security Practices Mar 9, 2011 445-005
Plant Disease Diagnostic Form
Plant Disease Diagnostic Form
May 13, 2016 450-097 (ENTO-198NP)
Identification and Control of Honeyvine Milkweed (Ampelamus albidus (Nutt.) Britt.) in Virginia
A perennial with slender, twining stems that may reach 10 feet in length.
May 1, 2009 450-139
Identification and Control of Hemp Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum L.) in Virginia May 1, 2009 450-140
Identification and Control of Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.) in Virginia
Perennial weed with persistent rhizomes that may be spread or transported by cultivation equipment or also in burlaped nursery stock infested with rhizomes.
May 1, 2009 450-141
Identification and Control of Horsenettle (Solanum carolinense L.) in Virginia
A perennial from rhizomes with conspicuous spines on leaves and stems reaching 3 feet in height.
May 1, 2009 450-142
Identification and Control of Trumpetcreeper (Campsis radicans (L.) Seem ex Bureau) in Virginia
Perennial woody vine that may reach 40 feet or more in length.
May 1, 2009 450-143
Problem-free Shrubs for Virginia Landscapes
The most effective form of plant disease control in the landscape is prevention. Disease prevention can be as simple as choosing the right plant for the right place at planting time. This fact sheet was developed as a guide to shrubs that generally experience few problems in Virginia landscapes. Using these species for new plantings should help you avoid troublesome disease and insect problems in your landscape.
Jun 27, 2016 450-236 (PPWS-69P)
Problem-free Trees for Virginia Landscapes
Many of the tree species commonly planted in Virginia landscapes suffer from disease problems. Although some diseases can be cured, most must be controlled on a preventative basis. The best option for new plantings is to choose species that have a low risk of developing disease. Listed below, in alphabetical order, are some choices of problem-free trees for Virginia landscapes.
Oct 19, 2016 450-237 (PPWS-70P)
Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions I: Background and General Information May 1, 2009 450-301
Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions II: Identification, Biology, and Ecology May 1, 2009 450-302
Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions III: Control with Fungicides May 1, 2009 450-303
Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions IV: Cropping Systems and Cultural Practices May 1, 2009 450-304
Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions V: Monitoring, Tracking, and Scouting May 1, 2009 450-305
Soybean Disease Control: Response of Soybeans to Foliar Sprays of Fungicides in 2005 May 1, 2009 450-561
Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Foliar Fungicides in 2006
The spread of soybean rust northward through states along the Atlantic Coast began on soybeans in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida. The disease was first reported in South Carolina on 21 August, North Carolina on 14 September, and Virginia on 9 October. The epidemic of 2006 was far reaching in that disease outbreaks occurred on soybeans as far north as Illinois and Indiana and east to Virginia
May 1, 2009 450-562
Iris Leaf Spot
Iris leaf spot (also called Heterosporium leaf spot) is the most common disease of iris in Virginia. It is caused by the fungus Cladosporium iridis (syn. Heterosporium iridis). Leaf spotting is most conspicuous on the upper half of the leaf following bloom. Although this pathogen is most common on bulbous iris, it can also cause severe damage to rhizomatous iris, and has also been reported on Gladiolus, Freesia and Narcissus species.
Nov 1, 2016 450-600 (PPWS-90NP)
Juniper Tip Blights Mar 30, 2017 450-601 (PPWS-91 NP)
Botrytis Blight of Peony
Botrytis blight is a common fungal disease that confronts the peony grower each spring. The fungus Botrytis cinerea blights stems, buds, and leaves and can cause plants to look unsightly, especially in wet springs. This fungus causes disease on a wide variety of herbaceous and woody ornamentals, as well as vegetables and small fruits. It is sometimes referred to as “gray mold” because of the conspicuous, fluffy, gray fungal growth that forms on infected plant parts.
Sep 26, 2016 450-602 (PPWS-93NP)
Powdery Mildew of Ornamental Plants
Powdery mildew fungi attack a variety of ornamental plants grown in Virginia.
May 1, 2009 450-603
Leaf and Flower Gall of Azalea and Camellia
Leaf and flower gall is a disease that is common on azaleas and camellias in the spring. The disease has also been reported on other members of the plant family Ericaceae. It occurs in home landscapes and nurseries, and is often seen on flame azaleas in the forest in the spring. The disease is caused by species of the fungus Exobasidium.
Oct 18, 2016 450-605 (PPWS-92NP)
Entomosporium Leaf Spot of Photinia
Photinia, a shrub belonging to the plant family Rosaceae, is a popular landscape shrub in the southeastern U.S. Several species are grown, but the most popular is the hybrid Photinia ×fraseri, or “redtip”, so named for its bright red, immature foliage. The biggest drawback to growing photinia is a leaf spot disease caused by the fungus Diplocarpon mespili (syn. Entomosporium mespili) to which redtip is highly susceptible.
Sep 30, 2016 450-609 (PPWS-82P)
Gray Leaf Spot Disease of Corn
Gray leaf spot disease of corn caused by the fungus Cercospora zeae-maydis, poses a serious threat to corn production in many areas of the eastern United States, including Virginia, and more recently in large areas of the U. S. Corn Belt
May 1, 2009 450-612
Rose Rosette Disease
Rose rosette disease (RRD), a disease believed to be caused by the recently identified Rose rosette virus, has been spreading through much of the wild rose population of the Midwestern, Southern, and Eastern United States for years.
Sep 17, 2012 450-620 (PPWS-10P)
Corn Smut
Common smut of corn is caused by the fungus Ustilago maydis. The fungus causes gall formation on all aboveground parts of corn plant
May 1, 2009 450-706
Anthracnose on Snap Beans
Anthracnose is a major disease of the common snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and can occur on other legumes. It is caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. When environmental conditions are favorable, crop losses can be as high as 100 percent on susceptible cultivars of snap beans.
Jan 29, 2014 450-719 (PPWS-26NP)
Brown Rot on Peach and Other Stone Fruits
Brown rot is one of the most destructive diseases of peach and nectarine in Virginia, and also occurs on other stone fruits such as apricot, cherry, and plum. When environmental conditions favor this disease, crop loss can be devastating.
Mar 25, 2015 450-721 (PPWS-64P)
Reducing Pesticide Use in the Home Lawn and Garden
Pesticide use affects the quality of human health, the environment, and nontarget organisms in the ecosystem. Therefore, any pesticide application warrants a careful assessment of the expected benefits and risks. Too often, however, homeowners use pesticides inappropriately or without careful consideration of alternatives. This fact sheet outlines general pest control tactics that can easily be implemented for home lawns and gardens, along with other information that home owners can use to make sound pest management decisions. The intent is to ensure that homeowners are aware of alternative control tactics and pesticide characteristics, and that pesticides are used properly and only when necessary.
Apr 29, 2015 450-725 (PPWS-56P)
Botryosphaeria Canker and Dieback of Trees and Shrubs in the Landscape
Most trees and shrubs are susceptible to dieback and cankers caused by several species of the fungal genus Botryosphaeria. Botryosphaeria fungi are typically opportunistic pathogens. Opportunistic pathogens only cause disease on plants that are stressed. Therefore, avoiding plant stress, which predisposes plant tissue to infection and colonization by this fungal group, is the best strategy to prevent Botryosphaeria disease problems.
Mar 16, 2015 450-726 (PPWS-50)
Pest Management Guide: Field Crops, 2017 Feb 17, 2017 456-016 (ENTO-221P)
Pest Management Guide: Horticultural and Forest Crops, 2017 Feb 17, 2017 456-017 (ENTO-222P)
Pest Management Guide: Home Grounds and Animals, 2017
This 2017 Virginia Pest Management Guide provides the latest recommendations for controlling diseases, insects, and weeds for home grounds and animals. The chemical controls in this guide are based on the latest pesticide label information at the time of writing. Because pesticide labels change, read the label directions carefully before buying and using any pesticide. Regardless of the information provided here, always follow the latest product label instructions when using any pesticide.
Mar 15, 2017 456-018 (ENTO-220P)
2017 Mid-Atlantic Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations
New varieties and strains of vegetables are constantly being developed throughout the world and it is impossible to list and describe all of them, only those that are available and are adapted to the mid-Atlantic region are listed in this publication.
Mar 6, 2017 456-420 (AREC-203P)
Virginia Master Naturalist, Basic Training Course, Botany (Introductory Version)
Plants can be defined as multicellular photosynthetic organisms with reproductive structures that are more complex than single cells. By this definition, algae are not considered plants because they are either unicellular or their reproductive structures are essentially unicellular, and fungi, too, are excluded because they are not photosynthetic.
Jan 31, 2014 ANR-12NP
Environmental Best Management Practices for Virginia's Golf Courses Feb 27, 2013 ANR-48NP
Late Blight of Tomato and Potato Jan 20, 2012 ANR-6
Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2016
Proper soil fertility management ensures sufficient nutrients for maximum cotton production. Obtaining and maintaining appropriate soil nutrient concentrations is imperative, as fertilizer inputs are the largest component of production budgets for Virginia cotton farmers. At the same time, excessive nutrient application wastes money, wastes natural resources, and can negatively impact yields and environmental quality.
Feb 22, 2016 AREC-124NP (AREC-165NP)
Impact of Cotton Monoculture, Variety Selection, and Chemical Inputs on Disease Control, 2011 Jan 27, 2012 AREC-13
Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation results, 2015
Along with agronomic and grade information, data on kernel and pod quality are essential for release of new peanut cultivars to ensure acceptability by the entire peanut trade. The present report contains the quality data collected on 5 Virginia-type cultivars that currently are on the market and 31 advanced breeding lines tested in the Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation (PVQE) small plots in 2015.
Apr 1, 2016 AREC-172NP
Peanut Variety & Quality Evaluation Results 2016
Due to suitability to the environmental conditions and existence of a strong peanut industry tailored to process primarily the large-seeded Virginia-type peanut, growers in Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina generally grow Virginia-type cultivars. In the view of a common interest in the Virginia-type peanut, the three states are working together through a multi-state project, the Peanut Variety Quality Evaluation (PVQE), to evaluate advanced breeding lines and commercial cultivars throughout their production regions.
Dec 20, 2016 AREC-198NP
2012 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - Agronomic and Grade Data Jan 16, 2013 AREC-32NP
Growing 'Titan': A Large-Seeded, Virginia-Type Peanut for Specialty Markets Jun 18, 2013 AREC-42P
2011 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results, Agronomic and Grade Data Jan 9, 2012 AREC-5
2011 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - Quality Data Aug 28, 2012 AREC-6
2013 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - Agronomic and Grade Data Jan 16, 2014 AREC-64NP
2013 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - II. Quality Data
Along with agronomic and grade information, data on kernel and pod quality are essential for release of new peanut cultivars to ensure acceptability by the entire peanut trade. The present report contains the quality data collected on 10 Virginia-type commercially available cultivars and 26 advanced breeding lines tested in the Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation (PVQE) small plots in 2013.
Mar 14, 2014 AREC-85NP
Managing Troublesome Crop Weeds: Current Practices Jul 25, 2017 PPWS-101NP
Integrated Pest Management for Plant Diseases in the Home Garden and Landscape, Learning Module I: Integrated Pest Management Apr 22, 2015 PPWS-14NP
Integrated Pest Management for Plant Diseases in the Home Garden and Landscape, Learning Module II: The Plant Disease Triangle Apr 22, 2015 PPWS-15NP
Impatiens Downy Mildew May 21, 2013 PPWS-19NP
Peanut Crop Physiology Related Projects at Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center 2010 Dec 16, 2011 PPWS-2
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight in the Virginia Home Landscape: Version 2, September 2016
This Best Management Practice document is a set of guidelines for home growers of landscape boxwood to avoid introduction of the boxwood blight pathogen into a landscape or, if the disease is already present in a landscape, to manage the disease in the most effective manner and avoid spread of the disease to new locations.
Sep 30, 2016 PPWS-29NP (PPWS-85NP)
Virginia Boxwood Blight Task Force
To provide leadership in safeguarding and protecting the ornamental horticulture industry, historical gardens and landscape plantings from boxwood blight.
May 20, 2014 PPWS-30
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight: Best management practices for boxwood blight in Virginia production nurseries WITH boxwood blight Version 2, September 2016
This Best Management Practice document is a set of guidelines for home growers of landscape boxwood to avoid introduction of the boxwood blight pathogen into a landscape or, if the disease is already present in a landscape, to manage the disease in the most effective manner and avoid spread of the disease to new locations.
Sep 30, 2016 PPWS-32NP (PPWS-87NP)
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight in Virginia Production Nurseries WITHOUT Boxwood Blight Version 2, September 2016
This Best Management Practice document is a set of guidelines for home growers of landscape boxwood to avoid introduction of the boxwood blight pathogen into a landscape or, if the disease is already present in a landscape, to manage the disease in the most effective manner and avoid spread of the disease to new locations.
Sep 30, 2016 PPWS-33NP (PPWS-86NP)
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight: Best management practices for Virginia retail nurseries WITH boxwood blight Version 2, August 2016
This Best Management Practice document is a set of guidelines for home growers of landscape boxwood to avoid introduction of the boxwood blight pathogen into a landscape or, if the disease is already present in a landscape, to manage the disease in the most effective manner and avoid spread of the disease to new locations.
Sep 30, 2016 PPWS-34NP (PPWS-89NP)
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight: Best management practices for Virginia retail nurseries WITHOUT boxwood blight Version 2, September 2016
This Best Management Practice document is a set of guidelines for home growers of landscape boxwood to avoid introduction of the boxwood blight pathogen into a landscape or, if the disease is already present in a landscape, to manage the disease in the most effective manner and avoid spread of the disease to new locations.
Sep 30, 2016 PPWS-35NP (PPWS-88NP)
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight for Greenery Producers
Best management practices for boxwood blight (also called “box blight”) for greenery producers are practices recommended to avoid the introduction and spread of boxwood blight, caused by the fungus Calonectria pseudonaviculata (syn. Cylindrocladium pseudonaviculatum). The recommendations in this document are designed to avoid spread of boxwood blight within a planting or to new locations when pruned tips are collected, sold and/or used for holiday greenery1. These recommendations are relevant to anyone involved in the greenery (“tipping”) industry, including small and large-scale greenery producers, home growers who sell boxwood tips, and people who tip-prune boxwood on other people’s property. Care must be taken at all levels of greenery production to prevent the spread of the boxwood blight pathogen and avoid economic losses associated with this disease.
Oct 13, 2016 PPWS-39NP (PPWS-95NP)
Boxwood Blight: A New Disease of Boxwood Found in the Eastern U.S. Jan 5, 2012 PPWS-4
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea, L.) Nutrition
Maintaining the right soil pH for each crop ensures optimal nutrient uptake by plants. For peanut, the recommended pH range is 5.8 – 6.2. If soil pH is higher than 6.2, manganese (Mn) or boron (B) deficiency may occur; if pH is less than 5.8, zinc (Zn) toxicity problems could be favored. Therefore, taking soil samples correctly is very important for correcting soil pH. A single composite sample should be taken for each 5 irrigated and 10 rainfed acres. This sample should be composed of 20 or more subsamples collected from an imaginary grid uniformly covering the land area. The subsamples should be well mixed together and only a small composite sample should be retained and sent to the soil lab.
Sep 1, 2014 PPWS-40NP
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight for Professionally Managed Landscapes and Public and Historic Gardens in Virginia
Boxwood blight is caused by the fungal pathogen Calonectria pseudonaviculata (syn. Cylindrocladium buxicola). Boxwood blight was first described in the United Kingdom in the mid-1990’s and by 2002 was found in several other European countries and New Zealand. In September 2011 boxwood blight was discovered in North America. Symptoms of the disease include leaf spotting (Fig. 1), elongate, dark cankers on stems (Fig. 2), defoliation, and dieback (Fig. 3). The primary means by which the disease spreads is the inadvertent introduction of infected boxwood to existing plantings. The pathogen can also spread by spores, which readily adhere to equipment and work clothes, and by microsclerotia, which survive in infested soil and plant debris. This document outlines best management practices for landscapers and property managers to reduce the risk of spreading boxwood blight to landscapes and public and historic gardens, and to manage the disease if it is introduced.
Sep 26, 2016 PPWS-49NP (PPWS-84NP)
Plant Injury From Herbicide Residue
In recent years, an increased number of cases of injury from herbicide residue in straw/hay, manure, and compost have been diagnosed in the Virginia Tech Plant Disease Clinic. Growers are surprised and dismayed to learn that manure, straw, mulch, or other amendments intended to improve their garden or landscape might have such unforeseen consequences. Of particular concern to organic growers are herbicide residues.
Aug 22, 2016 PPWS-77P
Best Management Practices for Bioenergy Crops: Reducing the Invasion Risk Jan 5, 2012 PPWS-8P
Pyridine Herbicide Carryover: Causes and Precautions May 9, 2012 VTTP-6NP
On the Cover of “Science” Sep 7, 2011
Greetings – Welcome to the annual PPWS newsletter! Sep 7, 2011
Alumni Spotlight Sep 7, 2011
Recent Faculty Hires Sep 7, 2011
Theses and Dissertations Sep 7, 2011
Awards, Scholarships, and Recognition Sep 7, 2011
Faculty and Staff Updates Sep 7, 2011
APS Potomac Division Meeting Sep 7, 2011
Second Annual MPS Mini-Symposium Sep 7, 2011
AREC-Ag Industry Tour Sep 7, 2011
Westwood Lab at International Parasitic Plant Conference Sep 7, 2011
PPWS News 2011 Sep 7, 2011