|A Glossary of Water-Related Terms||
The definitions and associated explanations of water-related terms presented here are intended to provide the reader with a working knowledge of terms that apply to Virginia's water resources. The list is designed to assist the user in understanding and interpreting water related information that may come from sources as varied as governmental agencies, environmental groups, or the news media. While terms and definitions are fairly consistent, some terminology presented here could be defined differently to describe water resources issues in other locations.
|May 1, 2009||442-758|
|A Summary of Agricultural Air Quality Perceptions in Virginia||Apr 20, 2010||3004-1442|
|Agricultural Land Application of Biosolids in Virginia: Managing Biosolids for Agricultural Use||May 1, 2009||452-303|
|Agricultural Land Application of Biosolids in Virginia: Production and Characteristics of Biosolids||May 1, 2009||452-301|
|Agricultural Land Application of Biosolids in Virginia: Regulations||May 1, 2009||452-302|
|Agricultural Land Application of Biosolids in Virginia: Risks and Concerns||May 1, 2009||452-304|
|Agricultural Management Practices And Soil Quality: Measuring, assessing, and comparing laboratory and field test kit indicators of soil quality attributes.||May 1, 2009||452-400|
Composting is a degradation process brought about by bacteria and fungus organisms. Large amounts of organic kitchen, garden, lawn, and/or farm refuse can be reduced in a relatively short time to a pile of black, crumbly humus which makes an ideal soil conditioner. Compost added regularly to soil will inevitably benefit the soil. The soil's structure will improve, since humus contains substances which cause aggregation (sticking together) of soil particles. In a clay soil this means that the microscopic individual particles will be clumped together and more air spaces will be opened up between clumps. Without these air spaces the clay particles stick tightly to each other, forming a nearly impenetrable barrier to water and gases.
|Feb 27, 2013||HORT-49P|
|Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 10: Dry Swale||Sep 6, 2013||426-129 (BSE-86P)|
|Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 11: Wet Swale||
A wet swale (WS) is an engineered, best management
|Sep 9, 2013||426-130 (BSE-89P)|
|Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 12: Filtering Practices||
A stormwater filtering practice (FP) treats stormwater
|Sep 9, 2013||426-131 (BSE-87P)|
|Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 13: Constructed Wetlands||
A constructed wetland (CW) is a low-cost and sustainable,
|Sep 9, 2013||426-132 (BSE-91P)|
|Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 14: Wet Ponds||
Wet ponds (WP) are ponds or lakes which provide treatment
|Sep 9, 2013||426-133 (BSE-79P)|
|Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 15: Extended Detention Ponds||
Extended detention ponds (EDs) are dry detention ponds
|Sep 9, 2013||426-134 (BSE-82P)|
|Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 1: Rooftop Disconnection||
Rooftop disconnection (RD) is one of the simplest means of reducing stormwater from residential lots. RD takes roof runoff that has been collected in gutters and piped directly to streets, storm drains, and streams and redirects it away from impervious surfaces to landscaped areas (figure 1). Rooftop disconnection is a very sustainable best management practice (BMP) because it controls pollutants in runoff near their source. Redirected runoff from downspouts is infiltrated, filtered, treated, or reused prior to draining into a stormwater conveyance system.
|Sep 5, 2013||426-120 (BSE-93P)|
|Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 2: Sheet Flow to Open Space||Sep 6, 2013||426-121 (BSE-83P)|
|Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 3: Grass Channels||Sep 6, 2013||426-122 (BSE-88P)|
|Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 4: Soil Restoration||Sep 6, 2013||426-123 (BSE-80P)|
|Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 5: Vegetated Roofs||Sep 6, 2013||426-124 (BSE-81P)|
|Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 6: Rainwater Harvesting||Sep 6, 2013||426-125 (BSE-90P)|
|Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 7: Permeable Pavement||Sep 6, 2013||426-126 (BSE-84P)|
|Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 8: Infiltration Practices||Mar 2, 2012||426-127 (BSE-85P)|
|Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 9: Bioretention||Sep 6, 2013||426-128(BSE-92P)|
|Catastrophic Livestock and Poultry Carcass Disposal||Nov 19, 2013||ANR-76NP (ANR-90NP)|
|Closing the Loop: Public-Private Partnerships for On-Farm Composting of Yard Waste||May 1, 2009||452-233|
|Communicating Climate Change to Agricultural Audiences||
The objectives of this publication are (1) to outline
|Nov 15, 2016||BSE-203P|
|Compost: What Is It and What's It To You||May 1, 2009||452-231|
|Composting Your Organic Kitchen Wastes with Worms||
Every home kitchen generates food scraps for disposal. Throwing these scraps in the garbage can create odor problems and adds to the volume of waste going to the landfill. Disposing of kitchen scraps in a garbage disposal is convenient, but it adds to the burden of the waste-treatment system and throws away a potentially valuable resource. Furthermore, garbage disposals are not recommended for homes that rely on a septic system for waste disposal. A viable alternative to disposing of food scraps in the landfill or the sewer system is to compost them. The resulting material is a useful addition to gardens and potted plants.
|May 1, 2009||442-005|
|Decentralized Small Community Wastewater Collection Systems||Jul 10, 2014||BSE-77P|
|Denitrification Management||Mar 27, 2013||BSE-54P|
|Denitrifying Bioreaders: An Emerging Best Management Practice to Improve Water Quality||Apr 12, 2013||BSE-55P|
|Distiller's Grains for Dairy Cattle and Potential Environmental Impact||
Ethanol is produced when starch in corn grain is fermented. Most other constituents in the grain remain unchanged. The end product of the corn is distiller’s grains or DDGS (distiller’s grains with solubles). The DDGS retain the original fatty acids, protein, and phosphorus. In addition, variability in the grain nutrient content used in the fermentation process and the actual process itself results in a feed with variable nutrient content. Distiller’s grains can be fed either in the wet (less than 25 percent dry matter) or dry (greater than 85 percent dry matter) form. Wet DDGS are difficult to store and must be fed within a few days of production. The wet DDGS can be the most cost-effective, however, if used close to where they are produced.
|May 1, 2009||404-135|
|Effectiveness of Temporary Stream Crossing Closure Techniques Forest Operations Research Highlights||Aug 8, 2014||ANR-110NP|
|Enhanced Efficiency Fertilizer Materials: Nitrogen Stabilizers||Aug 22, 2013||CSES-52P|
|Environmental Best Management Practices for Virginia's Golf Courses||Feb 27, 2013||ANR-48NP|
|Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Albemarle and Fluvanna Counties, Virginia, March-May 2009 Virginia Household Water Quality Program||Nov 12, 2010||3010-1502|
|Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Amherst County, Virginia, June - July 2009, Household Water Quality Program||Nov 12, 2010||3010-1503|
|Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Appomattox and Campbell Counties, Virginia May - June 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program||Nov 12, 2010||3010-1504|
|Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Augusta County, Virginia, September - November 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program||Nov 12, 2010||3010-1505|
|Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Bath and Highland Counties, Virginia, October-November 2009, Virginia Household water Quality Program||Nov 22, 2010||3010-1506|
|Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Bedford County, Virginia, June-July 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program||Nov 22, 2010||3010-1507|
|Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Caroline County, Virginia, January-February 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program||Nov 22, 2010||3010-1508|
|Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Culpeper County, Virginia, November-December 2008, Virginia Household Water Quality Program||Nov 22, 2010||3010-1509|
|Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Dinwiddie County, Virginia, February-March 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program||Nov 22, 2010||3010-1510|
|Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Greene County, Virginia, April-May 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program||Nov 23, 2010||3010-1511|
|Evaluation of Household Water Quality in King George County, Virginia, January-February 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program||Nov 23, 2010||3010-1512|
|Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Prince George County, Virginia, January-February 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program||Nov 24, 2010||3010-1513|
|Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Rockbridge County, Virginia, September-November 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program||Nov 29, 2010||3010-1514|
|Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Rockingham County, Virginia, August-September 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program||Nov 29, 2010||3010-1515|
|Fertilizer Applicator Certification Training||Apr 12, 2013||ANR-66|
|Greywater Reuse||Apr 30, 2014||BSE-114NP|
In-house testing of pH and electrical conductivity (EC) helps to avoid many nutritional problems. Knowing the chemical elements of your irrigation water — and if they vary over time — can help you manage crop quality.
|Sep 21, 2016||HORT-227P|
|Groundwater Quality and the Use of Lawn and Garden Chemicals by Homeowners||
The people of Virginia use nearly 400 million gallons of groundwater each day to meet industrial, agricultural, public, and private water demands. One-third of Virginia's citizens rely on groundwater as their primary source of fresh drinking water, and 80 percent of Virginians use groundwater to supply some or all of their daily water needs. Groundwater is an important resource, but it is a hidden one and, therefore, is often forgotten. In fact, until recent incidents of groundwater contamination, little attention was paid to the need to protect Virginia's groundwater.
|May 1, 2009||426-059|
|How Do Stream Buffers Reduce the Offsite Impact of Pollution?||Jul 30, 2012||BSE-38P|
|Impact of Composting on Drug Residues in Large Animal Mortality||
Mortalities are inevitable in animal agriculture. For most animal operations in the United States, the average annual mortality is estimated to be between 4.5 and 6 percent of the livestock population. Common methods of mortality disposal include burial, rendering, incineration, and use of a landfill. The availability of options for disposing of mortality, particularly rendering, have changed in recent years, and financially and environmentally sound alternatives are needed.
|Sep 25, 2014||APSC-59P|
|Implementation: What Happens after the TMDL (Total Maximum Daily Load) is Developed?||
A TMDL, or total maximum daily load defines the total pollutant loading a water body can receive and still meet applicable water quality standards. (Italicized terms are defined in the boxes at the bottom of each page.) A TMDL equation is developed from a study that identifies the sources of a particular pollutant in a watershed, the pollutant contribution from each source, and the pollutant reduction required to attain and maintain water quality standards. In TMDL calculations, all identified sources of the particular pollutant are quantified, including both point and nonpoint sources of pollution. Because some TMDL calculations involve assumptions and professional judgment, TMDLs also include a margin of safety to account for uncertainty. (See TMDLs [Total Maximum Daily Loads]: Terms and Definitions, Virginia Cooperative Extension publication 442-550, http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/442-550/.)
|May 1, 2009||442-559|
|Manure Management and Environmental Stewardship||Apr 1, 2010||442-309|
|Mid-Atlantic Composting Directory||Jan 6, 2015||452-230 (CSES-99P)|
|Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Agriculture||Apr 2, 2014||BSE-105P|
|Nitrogen and Sulfur Leaching Potential in Virginia||Jun 19, 2015||CSES-125NP|
|Nutrient Management for Small Farms||Oct 8, 2010||442-305|
|On Farm Mortality Disposal Options for Livestock Producers||Jul 31, 2013||2909-1412 (ANR-77NP)|
|On-Farm Composting - A Guide to Principles, Planning & Operations||May 1, 2009||452-232|
|On-Site Sewage Treatment Alternatives||
The purpose of this publication is to describe on-site technologies for treating domestic sewage where conventional systems (septic tank with drainfield) are not an option (U.S. EPA 2002). These technologies are described as alternatives in this publication. Our goal is to provide information that can be used by property owners and residents to initiate action to rectify sewage disposal problems, especially where current wastewater treatment is inadequate. This document is intended to provide information on alternative wastewater treatment options that will help the reader make informed decisions when dealing with oversight agencies and contractors; it is not intended to serve as a stand-alone reference for design or construction.
|Sep 21, 2015||448-407 (CSES-116P)|
|Pest Management for Water Quality||
Research has shown that consumers find reading and understanding the label to be the most difficult aspect of applying pesticides. However, an understanding of the label information is essential before work begins. The label printed on or attached to a container of pesticide tells how to use it correctly and warns of any environmental or health safety measures to take. Read the label when you purchase a pesticide and again before mixing or applying it. If you are confused about any part of the label, consult your Extension agent or a representative of the company that makes the product. Many pesticides now list a toll-free number for consumers. The label includes specific information that you should be aware of and learn to understand.
|Mar 18, 2015||426-615 (HORT-138P)|
|Pesticides and Aquatic Animals: A Guide to Reducing Impacts on Aquatic Systems||May 1, 2009||420-013|
|Phosphorus, Agriculture & The Environment||
Phosphorus (P) is a naturally occurring element that can be found in the earth's crust, water, and all living organisms. Phosphorus (P) is one of 16 elements that are essential for plant growth. Soils in Virginia are naturally low in phosphorus, and most cropping systems on these soils require supplemental phosphorus to maximize their yield potential.
|May 1, 2009||424-029|
|Poultry and Livestock Manure Storage: Management and Safety||Nov 19, 2009||442-308|
|Rainwater Harvesting Systems||May 9, 2014||BSE-116NP|
|Selecting a Treatment Technology for Manure Management||May 11, 2009||442-306|
|Selection and Location of Poultry and Livestock Manure Storage||
If you raise dairy cows, broilers, layers, turkeys, horses, beef cattle, sheep, goats, alpacas, or swine for income or a hobby, you will have to deal with the manure they produce. The amount of manure produced by the birds or animals you keep depends on their type, age, size, and diet.
|Nov 19, 2009||442-307|
|Streamside Livestock Exclusion: A tool for increasing farm income and improving water quality||
Did you know that livestock, like humans, prefer a clean water source and are healthier and more productive when they drink clean water? Virginia producers who have restricted or eliminated livestock access to streams and farm ponds and converted to a clean, alternative water source have observed increased livestock productivity, improved water quality, and restored stream banks on their farms. As a consequence, livestock stream exclusion practices are gaining popularity across Virginia. This publication, produced through the cooperation of Virginia Cooperative Extension and the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, describes the findings, experiences, and successes of individual producers who are limiting livestock stream access.
|Dec 13, 2012||442-766|
|TMDLs (Total Maximum Daily Loads) - Terms and Definitions||
The definitions of TMDL-related terms presented here are intended to provide the reader with a working knowledge of terms that apply to Virginia's TMDL program. This is the first in a series of Virginia Cooperative Extension publications that deal specifically with TMDLs. The federal Clean Water Act requires States to develop TMDLs for streams, rivers, lakes and estuaries that do not or are not expected to meet applicable water quality standards. This glossary is designed to assist the reader in understanding and interpreting TMDL related information that may come from sources as varied as governmental agencies, environmental groups, consulting firms, or the news media.
|May 1, 2009||442-550|
|TMDLs (Total Maximum Daily Loads) for Bacteria Impairments||
A water-quality "impairment" exists if a body of water is unable to support its designated uses. (Italicized terms are defined in the boxes at the bottom of each page.) Virginia's water-quality standards specify that surface waters are either designated for "recreational use" (e.g., swimming, fishing, and boating) or "aquatic life use" (e.g., viable fishing populations). To support the "recreational use," the state sets numeric waterquality criteria for the maximum amount of bacteria in surface waters (Escherichia coli (E. coli)) for fresh water and enterococci for marine waters). When the concentration of bacteria exceeds the state-specified water-quality criteria, the water does not support the designated recreational use and is deemed to have a bacteria or pathogen impairment. E. coli and enterococci bacteria are found in the intestinal tracts and feces of warm-blooded animals, including humans. High counts of these bacteria indicate the presence of fecal contamination in water.
|May 1, 2009||442-555|
|TMDLs (Total Maximum Daily Loads) for Benthic Impairments||
"Benthic" refers to the aquatic organisms living in or on the bottom of a body of water. Benthic organisms include crayfish, aquatic snails, clams, leeches, aquatic worms, certain insect larvae and nymphs (e.g., mayflies, dragonflies), and adult aquatic insects (e.g., riffle beetles). Changes in water quality generally result in changes in the types, numbers, or diversity of the benthic community.
In general, a water quality "impairment" exists if a body of water does not support its designated uses. Italicized terms are defined in the boxes at the bottom of each page.
|May 1, 2009||442-556|
|The Nutrient Value of Straw||Jun 19, 2015||CSES-126NP|
|The Soil and Me: A Perspective on Soil Health||
Soil is the foundation upon which our natural living world depends; it is otherwise known as the dynamic material that civilization is built on (Lindbo, Kozlowski, and Robinson 2012). Soil serves diverse functions that are critical to the survival of humanity; without the soil, life on earth is inconceivable. It represents the critical zone of the earth where life, water, minerals, and air intersect and interact (fig. 1) because the soil constantly relates with other parts of nature. The soil is considered a living, dynamic resource at the earth’s surface and has been defined as “the unconsolidated mineral or organic material on the immediate surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants” (SSSA 2015). The thickness or depth of this surface or layer varies with the type and environment of the soil.
|Nov 5, 2015||CSES-132NP|
|Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: An Overview||May 1, 2009||420-150|
|Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Benefits to Communities and Landowners||May 1, 2009||420-153|
|Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Effects on Plant and Animal Communities||May 1, 2009||420-152|
|Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Effects on Water Quality||May 1, 2009||420-151|
|Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Factors Influencing Adoption||May 1, 2009||420-154|
|Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Planning, Establishment, and Maintenance||May 1, 2009||420-155|
|Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Resources for Virginia Landowners||May 1, 2009||420-156|
|Urban Stormwater: Terms and Definitions||Sep 5, 2013||426-119 (BSE-78P)|
|Urban Water Quality Management–Residential Stormwater: Put It in Its Place. Decreasing Runoff and Increasing Stormwater Infiltration||
Humans and plants depend on an adequate supply of clean water for a number of reasons, from producingfood to sustaining life. The average Virginia resident uses 826 gallons of fresh water daily (Virginia Department of Environmental Quality [VADEQ] 2008). In the Commonwealth alone, there are more than one million households that depend on well water, withdrawing more than 50 billion gallons annually (Virginia Department of Health 2008). For groundwater replenishment, we depend largely on recharge (water moving from the surface to groundwater) from infiltration of precipitation through permeable surfaces in the environment — an important part of the natural water cycle (VADEQ 2010).
|Jun 18, 2015||426-046(HORT-160P)|
|Urban Water-Quality Management: Insect Pests of Water Garden Plants||
Aphids are often called plant lice. Several species are troublesome pests on above-water leaves (a), stems, and flower buds of aquatic plants. These sucking insects distort succulent new leaves, causing them to curl, wilt, or turn yellow. Adults are 1/8 inch long and can be winged (c) or wingless (b) with soft pear-shaped bodies with two distinctive cornicles or "tailpipes" protruding from the backs of their abdomens.
|Apr 8, 2015||426-040 (HORT-124P)|
|Using Reclaimed Water||Apr 30, 2014||BSE-115NP|
|Virginia Citizen’s Guide to Environmental Credit Trading Programs: An Overview||
Virginia has implemented several regulatory programs
|May 4, 2016||ANR-173P|
|Virginia Landowner’s Guide to the Carbon Market||May 28, 2009||442-138|
|Virginia Master Naturalist||Oct 27, 2014||465-300 (ANR-117NP)|
|Virginia Master Naturalist Program Strategic Planning Report 2015-2020||Apr 9, 2015||ANR-137NP|
|Virginia Master Naturalist, American Naturalists||Jun 19, 2015||465-312(ANR-20NP)|
|Virginia Tech Pesticide Programs||May 11, 2009||vtpp-1|
|Water Reuse: Using Reclaimed Water for Irrigation||
Water reuse can be defined as the use of reclaimed water for a direct beneficial purpose. The use of reclaimed water for irrigation and other purposes has been employed as a water conservation practice in Florida, California, Texas, Arizona, and other states for many years.
|May 1, 2009||452-014|