|A Glossary of Water-Related Terms||
The definitions and associated explanations of water-related terms presented here are intended to provide the reader with a working knowledge of terms that apply to Virginia's water resources. The list is designed to assist the user in understanding and interpreting water related information that may come from sources as varied as governmental agencies, environmental groups, or the news media. While terms and definitions are fairly consistent, some terminology presented here could be defined differently to describe water resources issues in other locations.
|May 1, 2009||442-758|
|A Landowner's Guide To Working With Sportsmen In Virginia||May 1, 2009||420-035|
|BCAP Biomass Crop Assistance Program||
The Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) is part of the latest Farm Bill to assist forestland owners and operators with matching payments for eligible material by a qualified Biomass Conversion Facility. The objective of this program is to stimulate the production of biomass based energy throughout the United States.
|Jan 8, 2010||3001-1431|
|Consider Logging Residue Needs for BMP Implementation When Harvesting Biomass for Energy||
Utilization of woody biomass for energy has increased
|Aug 7, 2014||ANR-108NP|
|Decentralized Small Community Wastewater Collection Systems||Jul 10, 2014||BSE-77P|
|Greywater Reuse||Apr 30, 2014||BSE-114NP|
|Growing American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) in Forestlands||Jan 13, 2011||354-313|
|Guide to Threatened and Endangered Species on Private Lands In Virginia||Oct 5, 2010||420-039|
|Household Water Quality in Caroline County, Virginia.PDF||
In October 2013, residents from Caroline County participated in a drinking water testing clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program. Clinic participants received a confidential water sample analysis and attended educational meetings where they learned how to interpret their water test results and how to address potential issues. According to survey data, 41 samples were tested, serving 94 individuals. The most common household water quality issues identified were high levels of lead and sodium, as well as the presence of acidic water and total coliform bacteria. Figure 1, found at the end of this report shows these common water quality issues along with basic information on standards, causes, and treatment options.
|Aug 19, 2014||BSE-152NP|
|Implementation: What Happens after the TMDL (Total Maximum Daily Load) is Developed?||
A TMDL, or total maximum daily load defines the total pollutant loading a water body can receive and still meet applicable water quality standards. (Italicized terms are defined in the boxes at the bottom of each page.) A TMDL equation is developed from a study that identifies the sources of a particular pollutant in a watershed, the pollutant contribution from each source, and the pollutant reduction required to attain and maintain water quality standards. In TMDL calculations, all identified sources of the particular pollutant are quantified, including both point and nonpoint sources of pollution. Because some TMDL calculations involve assumptions and professional judgment, TMDLs also include a margin of safety to account for uncertainty. (See TMDLs [Total Maximum Daily Loads]: Terms and Definitions, Virginia Cooperative Extension publication 442-550, http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/442-550/.)
|May 1, 2009||442-559|
|Invasive Exotic Plant Species Identification and Management||May 1, 2009||420-320|
|Invasive Plants -- A Horticultural Perspective||
Invasive nonnative (nonindigenous) plants are the subject of a considerable amount of attention and debate. Stories about invasive plants are now common in the popular media. As purchasers of nonindigenous plants that have the potential to invade natural areas, consumers are links in the distribution chain of invasive plants. Other links are those who import, propagate, transport, and sell nonindigenous plants. Ultimately, the result is a potential impact on our natural environment.
|Apr 28, 2009||426-080|
|Landowner's Guide to Managing Streams in the Eastern United States||May 1, 2009||420-141|
|Lean Inventory Management in the Wood Products Industry: Examples and Applications||Sep 28, 2010||420-148|
|Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Agriculture||Apr 2, 2014||BSE-105P|
|Planting and Managing Switchgrass for Forage, Wildlife, and Conservation||
Switchgrass is a tall-growing, warm-season, perennial grass that is native to much of the United States including Virginia. Switchgrass (SG) was widespread in open areas before settlers populated an area and remained in one place year after year. Their livestock were free roaming and would graze the new switchgrass growth in the spring before the new plants were tall enough to withstand defoliation. This mismanagement weakened the stands and eventually led to their demise. They were replaced by cool-season grasses introduced from other countries such as bluegrass, tall fescue, and orchardgrass. These cool-season grasses began growth much earlier in the spring so they could tolerate the early season grazing by cattle. As a result, the native warm-season grasses such as SG were destroyed and can now only be found growing wild in abandoned sites such as old cemeteries or roadways.
|May 1, 2009||418-013|
|Poison Ivy: Leaves of three? Let it be!||
Those who experience the blisters, swelling, and extreme itching that result from contact with poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans), poison oak (Toxicodendron pubescens), or poison sumac (Toxicodendron vernix) learn to avoid these pesky plants. Although poison oak and poison sumac do grow in Virginia, poison ivy is by far the most common. This publication will help you identify poison ivy, recognize the symptoms of a poison ivy encounter, and control poison ivy around your home.
|May 1, 2009||426-109|
|Rainwater Harvesting Systems||May 9, 2014||BSE-116NP|
|Streamside Livestock Exclusion: A tool for increasing farm income and improving water quality||
Did you know that livestock, like humans, prefer a clean water source and are healthier and more productive when they drink clean water? Virginia producers who have restricted or eliminated livestock access to streams and farm ponds and converted to a clean, alternative water source have observed increased livestock productivity, improved water quality, and restored stream banks on their farms. As a consequence, livestock stream exclusion practices are gaining popularity across Virginia. This publication, produced through the cooperation of Virginia Cooperative Extension and the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, describes the findings, experiences, and successes of individual producers who are limiting livestock stream access.
|Dec 13, 2012||442-766|
|TMDLs (Total Maximum Daily Loads) - Terms and Definitions||
The definitions of TMDL-related terms presented here are intended to provide the reader with a working knowledge of terms that apply to Virginia's TMDL program. This is the first in a series of Virginia Cooperative Extension publications that deal specifically with TMDLs. The federal Clean Water Act requires States to develop TMDLs for streams, rivers, lakes and estuaries that do not or are not expected to meet applicable water quality standards. This glossary is designed to assist the reader in understanding and interpreting TMDL related information that may come from sources as varied as governmental agencies, environmental groups, consulting firms, or the news media.
|May 1, 2009||442-550|
|TMDLs (Total Maximum Daily Loads) for Bacteria Impairments||
A water-quality "impairment" exists if a body of water is unable to support its designated uses. (Italicized terms are defined in the boxes at the bottom of each page.) Virginia's water-quality standards specify that surface waters are either designated for "recreational use" (e.g., swimming, fishing, and boating) or "aquatic life use" (e.g., viable fishing populations). To support the "recreational use," the state sets numeric waterquality criteria for the maximum amount of bacteria in surface waters (Escherichia coli (E. coli)) for fresh water and enterococci for marine waters). When the concentration of bacteria exceeds the state-specified water-quality criteria, the water does not support the designated recreational use and is deemed to have a bacteria or pathogen impairment. E. coli and enterococci bacteria are found in the intestinal tracts and feces of warm-blooded animals, including humans. High counts of these bacteria indicate the presence of fecal contamination in water.
|May 1, 2009||442-555|
|TMDLs (Total Maximum Daily Loads) for Benthic Impairments||
"Benthic" refers to the aquatic organisms living in or on the bottom of a body of water. Benthic organisms include crayfish, aquatic snails, clams, leeches, aquatic worms, certain insect larvae and nymphs (e.g., mayflies, dragonflies), and adult aquatic insects (e.g., riffle beetles). Changes in water quality generally result in changes in the types, numbers, or diversity of the benthic community.
In general, a water quality "impairment" exists if a body of water does not support its designated uses. Italicized terms are defined in the boxes at the bottom of each page.
|May 1, 2009||442-556|
|Urban Water-Quality Management - What Is a Watershed?||
A watershed is an area of land that drains to a lake, river, wetland, or other waterway. When precipitation occurs, water travels over forest, agricultural, or urban/suburban land areas before entering a waterway. Water can also travel into underground aquifers on its way to larger bodies of water. Together, land and water make up a watershed system.
|May 1, 2009||426-041|
|Using Reclaimed Water||Apr 30, 2014||BSE-115NP|
|Virginia Geospatial Extension Program -- GPS Utility: A User Guide for Natural Resource Professionals and Educators||
GPS Utility is an easy-to-use software application that allows you to manage, manipulate, and map your GPS information. This is a “point-and-click” software package that is fairly user-friendly
|May 1, 2009||303-202|
|Virginia Geospatial Extension Program -- Navigator: A User Guide for Natural Resource Professionals||May 1, 2009||303-201|
|Virginia Landowner’s Guide to the Carbon Market||May 28, 2009||442-138|
|Water Reuse: Using Reclaimed Water for Irrigation||
Water reuse can be defined as the use of reclaimed water for a direct beneficial purpose. The use of reclaimed water for irrigation and other purposes has been employed as a water conservation practice in Florida, California, Texas, Arizona, and other states for many years.
|May 1, 2009||452-014|