Resources for Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences
|Low-Maintenance Turfgrass Evaluation, 2008 Report||May 1, 2009||2901-1080|
|Virginia No-Till Fact Sheet Series Number Five - Understanding Ammonia Volatilization from Fertilizers||
Loss of nitrogen (N) as ammonia gas (NH3) is known as volatilization. While volatilization directly from soil can occur, such loss is generally relatively small compared to the amount that can be lost from fertilizers. Volatilization losses can be significant with granular urea and urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) sources, but the amount of loss varies greatly depending on placement of the fertilizer, soil pH, soil texture, and climatic conditions after application.
|Sep 25, 2015||2908-1404(CSES-130NP)|
|Virginia No-Till Fact Sheet Series Number Six - Nitrogen Fertilizer Sources and Properties||Aug 27, 2009||2908-1405|
|Virginia Tech On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots - Eastern Virginia, August 2009||
A Summary of Replicated Research and Demonstration Plots Conducted by Virginia Cooperative Extension in Cooperation with Local Producers and Agribusinesses
|Aug 28, 2009||2908-1409|
|On Farm Mortality Disposal Options for Livestock Producers||
All livestock producers at some point are faced with decisions regarding how to dispose of livestock mortality from their farm. Each option has its own benefits and limitations based on accessibility, regulatory restrictions, expense, and biosecurity concerns. Livestock producers should also know that it is their responsibility to dispose of dead animals within 48 hours by one of the approved methods highlighted below. There are approved and preferred methods of animal mortality management according to the Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). Farmers should choose the option that best suits their farm’s mortality disposal needs.
|Jul 31, 2013||2909-1412 (ANR-77NP)|
|Pop-up and/or Starter Fertilizers for Corn||Mar 8, 2010||3002-1438|
|Small Grains In 2011||Jul 21, 2011||3007-1456|
|Virginia Tech On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots, Eastern Virginia, August 2010||Aug 19, 2010||3008-1457|
|Virginia No-Till Fact Sheet Series Number Two: Nitrogen Fertilizer Injection in No-Till Systems||
Liquid nitrogen fertilizers have typically been surface applied. This method of application places the fertilizer where the urea nitrogen component of the solution is susceptible to volatilization losses.
|Sep 25, 2015||3011-1516(CSES-131NP)|
|Virginia No-Till Fact Sheet Series Number Three: Manure Injection||Nov 16, 2010||3011-1517|
|Managing Fusarium Head Blight in Virginia Small Grains||
Fusarium head blight (FHB), or scab, continues to impact small grain crops grown in Virginia. Caused primarily by the fungus Fusarium graminearum (also known as Gibberella zeae), this disease can negatively impact yield and grain quality.
|Mar 4, 2011||3102-1535|
|2011 Virginia On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots||Aug 12, 2011||3108-1593|
|Managing Virginia's Steep Pastures||May 1, 2009||418-005|
|No-Till Seeding of Forage Grasses and Legumes||May 1, 2009||418-007|
|Controlled Grazing of Virginia's Pastures||May 1, 2009||418-012|
|Planting and Managing Switchgrass for Forage, Wildlife, and Conservation||May 1, 2009||418-013|
|Winter Seeding Methods to Establish Clover in Permanent Pasture||Jun 10, 2010||418-022|
|Potassium Fertilization of Cotton||May 1, 2009||418-025|
|Sod Source Selection, Installation, Maintenance, and Producers in Virginia||
While high-quality sod is available outside of the VCIA-certified sod program, the consumer is encouraged to be aware of factors that are important in determining sod quality. Quality sod contains excellent turf varieties with good sod strength (i.e., easy to handle for both harvest and installation) and has no serious insect, weed, or disease problems.
|Feb 19, 2016||418-040 (CSES-151P)|
|Virginia's Horse Pastures: Forage Establishment||May 1, 2009||418-103|
|Virginia's Horse Pastures: Renovating Old Pastures||May 1, 2009||418-104|
|Forage Establishment: Getting Off to a Good Start||May 1, 2009||418-120|
|Putting the Punch Back in Your Pastures: Pasture Renovation||May 1, 2009||418-134|
|Fertilizing Cool-Season Forages with Poultry Litter versus Commercial Fertilizer||Sep 16, 2009||418-142|
|The Nutritive Value of Common Pasture Weeds and Their Relation to Livestock Nutrient Requirements||Aug 6, 2009||418-150|
|Herbage Quality, Biomass, and Animal Performance of Cattle Grazing. Part I: Forage Biomass, Botanical Composition, and Nutritive Values||Nov 19, 2009||418-151|
|Herbage Quality, Biomass, and Animal Performance of Cattle Grazing. Part II: Animal Performance||Nov 19, 2009||418-152|
|Small Grains in 1998||May 1, 2009||424-001|
|No-Tillage Small Grain Production in Virginia||May 1, 2009||424-005|
|Growing Small Grains for Forage in Virginia||May 1, 2009||424-006|
|Growing Hulless Barley in the Mid-Atlantic||May 1, 2009||424-022|
|Growing Bread Wheat in the Mid-Atlantic Region||May 1, 2009||424-024|
|Nitrogen Management for Winter Wheat: Principles and Recommendations||May 1, 2009||424-026|
|Nitrogen and Phosphorous Fertilization of Corn||May 1, 2009||424-027|
|Phosphorus, Agriculture & The Environment||May 1, 2009||424-029|
|Successful No-Tillage Corn Production||Jul 29, 2009||424-030|
|Corn Planting Dates in the Piedmont and Valley Regions of Virginia: How Early is Early?||May 1, 2009||424-032|
|Corn Planting Dates in the Virginia Coastal Plain: How early is early?||May 1, 2009||424-033|
|Fertilizer Types and Calculating Application Rates||Aug 4, 2009||424-035|
|Tips for Profitable Variety Selection: How to Use Data From Different Types of Variety Trials||Jul 29, 2011||424-040|
|Virginia On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots, 2005||May 1, 2009||424-050|
|Virginia On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots, 2006||May 1, 2009||424-050-06|
|Deep Tillage Prior to No-Till Corn: Research and Recommendations||May 1, 2009||424-053|
|Understanding Pre-harvest Sprouting of Wheat||
Germination of wheat within the grain head before harvest is called pre-harvest sprouting (PHS).
|May 11, 2009||424-060|
|Agronomy Handbook, 2000||May 1, 2009||424-100||
|Nitrogen Fertilization of Winter Barley: Principles and Recommendations||May 1, 2009||424-801|
|Groundwater Quality and the Use of Lawn and Garden Chemicals by Homeowners||May 1, 2009||426-059|
|Fertilizing the Vegetable Garden||
The amount of fertilizer to apply to a garden depends on the natural fertility of the soil, the amount of organic matter present, the type of fertilizer used, and the crop being grown. The best way to determine fertilizer needs is to have the soil tested. Soil testing is available through your local Extension agent, through private labs, and with soil test kits which can be purchased from garden shops and catalogs.
|Apr 16, 2015||426-323 (HORT-144P)|
|Control of Common Pasture and Hayfield Weeds in Virginia and West Virginia||May 1, 2009||427-002|
|Aerating Your Lawn||Dec 1, 2012||430-002|
|Home Lawn Fertilization in Virginia: Frequently asked Questions||May 1, 2009||430-003|
|Summer Lawn Management: Watering the Lawn||
Water makes up 75 to 85 percent of the weight of a healthy grass plant. It is essential for seed germination, tissue formation, plant cooling, food manufacture, and nutrient absorption and transport. A grass plant loses the most water under conditions of high light intensity, high temperature, low relative humidity, and windy conditions. Without adequate water, the grass plant can’t cool itself and becomes susceptible to wilting, desiccation, and death.
|Mar 31, 2014||430-010 (CSES-79P)|
|Fertilización del Césped en Virginia||Jan 20, 2017||430-011s (CSES-166P)|
|Calibrating Your Lawn Spreader||May 1, 2009||430-017|
|Trees and Shrubs for Acid Soils||
The trees and shrubs on your new home site are growing poorly, so you take samples to the Extension office and the agent suggests a soil test. Test results show that your soil has a pH of 4.5, which is rated as strongly acid. The agent suggests you either take corrective action to raise the pH or grow different plants. What do the test results mean? What are “acid soils” and what does pH measure? Why does this matter to your plants? How can you correct the situation or what alternative trees and shrubs can you grow?
|Apr 8, 2015||430-027 (HORT-115P)|
|Urban Nutrient Management Handbook||Apr 28, 2011||430-350|
|Nutrient Management for Golf Courses||May 1, 2009||430-399|
|Nutrient Management for Lawn Service Companies||May 1, 2009||430-400|
|Characterization of Turfgrass Nutrient Management Practices in Virginia||May 1, 2009||430-401|
|Mowing To Recycle Grass Clippings: Let the Clips Fall Where They May!||May 1, 2009||430-402|
|Winter Management and Recovery Tips to Optimize Athletic Field Safety and Performance for Spring Sports||Nov 2, 2009||430-408|
|Fall Lawn Care||
The fall season is an important transition period of turfgrass growth and development, and the management of your warm- and cool-season grasses at this time of year means a great deal in terms of anticipated success in your lawn the following spring.
|Jul 2, 2015||430-520(CSES-109P)|
|"Leave" Them Alone: Lawn Leaf Management||Apr 15, 2015||430-521 (CSES-96P)|
|Maintenance Calendar for Warm-Season Lawns in Virginia||Feb 25, 2016||430-522 (CSES-152P)|
|Maintenance Calendar for Cool-Season Turfgrasses in Virginia||Feb 3, 2016||430-523 (CSES-153NP)|
|Pest Monitoring Calendar for Home Lawns in Virginia||May 1, 2009||430-524|
|Spring and Summer Lawn Management Considerations for Cool-Season Turfgrasses||May 1, 2009||430-532|
|Spring and Summer Lawn Management Considerations for Warm-Season Turfgrasses||May 1, 2009||430-533|
|Lawn Moss: Friend or Foe?||May 1, 2009||430-536|
|Soil Testing for the Lawn and Landscape||May 1, 2009||430-540|
|2003 Flue-Cured Tobacco Production Guide||May 1, 2009||436-048|
|2008 Burley Tobacco Production Guide||May 1, 2009||436-050-08|
|Nitrogen Management for White Potato Production||Sep 28, 2009||438-012|
|Manure Spreader Calibration for Rear-discharge Equipment -- Handling Solid and Semi-solid Manures and Poultry Litter||May 1, 2009||442-004|
|Land Application of Broiler and Turkey Litter for Farming Operations Without a DEQ Permit||May 1, 2009||442-052|
|Determining Forage Moisture Concentration||May 1, 2009||442-106|
|Planning Fencing Systems For Controlled Grazing||May 1, 2009||442-130|
|Nutrient Management for Small Farms||Oct 8, 2010||442-305|
|Impact of Changing From Nitrogen- to Phosphorus-Based Manure Nutrient Management Plans||Sep 16, 2009||442-310|
|Biochar in Agricultural Systems||Aug 20, 2010||442-311|
|Management Tips for Round Bale Hay Harvesting, Moving, and Storage||
Hay production and feeding is one of the most expensive components of forage-livestock systems. Specific management practices are necessary to maintain hay quality and minimize hay loss during harvest, transportation and storage of large round bales.
|Oct 9, 2014||442-454 (BSE-173P)|
|Large Round Bale Safety||
This Extension publication covers the safety aspects of equipment used in large round bale packages such as: balers, front-end loaders, bale handling and transport devices. The key to safe and efficient systems for handling large round bales is an operator who knows the hazards involved and who follows safety practices that can prevent accidents. Operators must be constantly alert for situations that may cause injuries to themselves or others. Besides pain and suffering, accidents contribute to higher costs in terms of unnecessary downtime or costly machine repairs. Alertness and safety consciousness can result in more efficient and profitable baling and handling.
|Oct 13, 2014||442-455 (BSE-172P)|
|Precision Farming: A Comprehensive Approach||May 1, 2009||442-500|
|Precision Farming Tools: GPS Navigation||May 1, 2009||442-501|
|Precision Farming Tools: Yield Monitor||May 1, 2009||442-502|
|Precision Farming Tools: Global Positioning System (GPS)||May 1, 2009||442-503|
|Precision Farming Tools: Variable-Rate Application||Aug 1, 2011||442-505|
|Precision Farming Tools: Soil Electrical Conductivity||May 1, 2009||442-508|
|Interpreting Yield Maps - "I gotta yield map - now what?"||May 1, 2009||442-509|
|Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Hardness in Household Water||May 17, 2011||442-664|
|Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Corrosive Household Water||May 17, 2011||442-665|
|Virginia Household Water Quality Program: Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) in Household Water||May 17, 2011||442-666|
|On-Site Sewage Treatment Alternatives||Mar 27, 2018||448-407 (CSES-222P)|
|Identification and Control of Honeyvine Milkweed (Ampelamus albidus (Nutt.) Britt.) in Virginia||
A perennial with slender, twining stems that may reach 10 feet in length.
|May 1, 2009||450-139|
|Water Reuse: Using Reclaimed Water for Irrigation||
Water reuse can be defined as the use of reclaimed water for a direct beneficial purpose.
|May 1, 2009||452-014|
|Soil Sample Information Sheet for Commercial Crop Production||Jun 23, 2017||452-124 (CSES-188NP)|
|Soil Sample Information Sheet for Home Lawns, Gardens, Fruits, and Ornamentals||Jun 23, 2017||452-125(CSES-191NP)|
|Soil Sample Information Sheet for Commercial Greenhouse and Nursery Production||Jun 23, 2017||452-126(CSES-190NP)|
|Soil Sample Information Sheet for Surface-Mined Areas||Jun 23, 2017||452-127 (CSES-189NP)|
|Soil Sample Information Sheet for Golf Courses and Industrial Lawns||Jun 23, 2017||452-128(CSES-187NP)|
|Soil Sampling for the Home Gardener||
This publication explains how to obtain representative soil samples and to submit them for analysis to the Virginia Tech Soil Testing Laboratory.
|May 1, 2009||452-129|
|Mid-Atlantic Composting Directory||
This directory is intended to provide contact information for service and equipment suppliers, along with sources for information and education. Every attempt has been made to present accurate information. Contents are for informational purposes only and are based on details provided by the organizations and entities listed. Inclusion in this directory does not constitute an endorsement by the publishers of the products or services of any business organization or individual listed herein.
|Jan 6, 2015||452-230 (CSES-99P)|
|Compost: What Is It and What's It To You||Feb 28, 2018||452-231 (CSES-204P)|
|Sources of Lime for Acid Soils in Virginia||
Acid soil limits crop yields on many Virginia farms. This soil acidity can be directly toxic to plants, but more often it reduces the plants' efficiency at nutrient utilization.
|May 1, 2009||452-510|
|Soil Test Note #1 - Explanation of Soil Tests||
The accompanying Soil Test Report will help you assess your plant's need for fertilizer and lime.
|May 1, 2009||452-701|
|Soil Test Note #2 - Field Crops||
Most Virginia soils are acidic and require lime applications at three- to five-year intervals. Maintaining the correct soil pH has several benefits, such as encouraging healthy root development and making sure nutrients in the soil are available to the plant. For example, low pH can cause aluminum toxicity and can decrease phosphorus availability.
|Sep 25, 2014||452-702 (CSES-100P)|
|Soil Test Note No.3 - Liming and Fertilization of Cool-Season Forage Crops||Aug 28, 2012||452-703 (CSES-16P)|
|Soil Test Note #4 - Trace Elements||May 1, 2009||452-704|
|Soil Test Note 5: Fertilizing With Manures||Aug 19, 2009||452-705|
|Soil Test Note 17: Lawn Fertilization for Cool Season Grasses||May 1, 2009||452-717|
|Soil Test Note 18: Lawn Fertilization for Warm Season Grasses||May 1, 2009||452-718|
|Soil Test Note 19: Vegetable and Flower Gardens (Supplement to Soil Test Report)||May 1, 2009||452-719|
|Soil Test Note 20: Home Shrubs and Trees||May 1, 2009||452-720|
|Soil Test Note 23: Christmas Tree Crops||Jul 14, 2009||452-723|
|Laboratory Procedures: Virginia Tech Soil Testing Laboratory||
The procedures for soil analysis used in the Soil Testing Laboratory were established in the early 1950s A routine test, consisting of eleven separate analyses, is performed on all samples.
|May 1, 2009||452-881|
|Powell River Project - Foundations for Housing on Reclaimed Mined Lands||Mar 16, 2018||460-115 (CSES-218P)|
|Powell River Project - Growing Christmas Trees on Reclaimed Surface-mined Land||Sep 2, 2009||460-116|
|Powell River Project - Conversion of Sericea Lespedeza-dominant Vegetation to Quality Forages for Livestock Use||Mar 15, 2018||460-119 (CSES-219P)|
|Powell River Project - Creation and Management of Productive Minesoils||Mar 15, 2018||460-121 (CSES-209P)|
|Powell River Project - Revegetation Species and Practices||Mar 26, 2018||460-122 (CSES-210P)|
|Powell River Project - How to Restore Forests on Surface-mined Land||Mar 16, 2018||460-123 (CSES-211P)|
|Powell River Project - Establishing Groundcover for Forested Postmining Land Uses||Mar 15, 2018||460-124 (CSES-212P)|
|Powell River Project - Establishment and Maintenance of Quality Turfgrass on Surface-mined Land||Mar 15, 2018||460-127 (CSES-213P)|
|Powell River Project - Management of Cow-Calf Production on Reclaimed Surface-Mined Land||Feb 12, 2010||460-128|
|Powell River Project - Stabilizing Reclaimed Mines to Support Buildings and Development||Mar 27, 2018||460-130 (CSES-214P)|
|Powell River Project - Reclamation of Coal Refuse Disposal Areas||Mar 16, 2018||460-131 (CSES-215P)|
|Powell River Project - Reclaiming Mined Lands as Industrial Sites||Mar 16, 2018||460-132 (CSES-217P)|
|Powell River Project - Passive Treatment of Acid-Mine Drainage||Mar 16, 2018||460-133 (CSES-216P)|
|Powell River Project - Restoring the Value of Forests on Reclaimed Mined Land||Dec 4, 2009||460-138|
|Powell River Project - Recovery of Native Plant Communities After Mining||Mar 20, 2018||460-140 (CSES-220P)|
|Powell River Project - Mine Permitting to Establish Productive Forests as Post-Mining Land Uses||Sep 29, 2009||460-141|
|On-Site Treatment and Disposal of Residential Wastewaters on Mined Lands||
The development of Southwest Virginia’s coal mining region is limited by a lack of building sites. Much of the land in this region consists of steep slopes with shallow soils that are poorly suited to residential development. In recent years, widespread surface coal mining has created landforms that are favorably located and configured to support residential housing. However, because such sites are commonly located beyond the extent of public sewers, developing them requires a means for on-site wastewater treatment and dispersal. This publication is written for homeowners, homebuilders, land developers, public officials, and others who may have an interest in building residential housing or other types of development on mined lands that are not accessible to public sewers.
|Jul 27, 2015||460-142(CSES-115P)|
|Powell River Project - Coal-resource Contracting Terms for Productive Postmining Forests||Feb 26, 2010||460-143|
|Powell River Project - Reforestation Guidelines for Unused Surface Mined Lands in the Eastern United States||Mar 16, 2018||460-144 (CSES-221P)|
|Powell River Project - Enhancing Wildlife Habitat on Reclaimed Mine Lands||Mar 15, 2018||460-145 (CSES-208P)|
|VCE Model of Community, Local, Regional Food Systems||Oct 7, 2016||ALCE-154NP|
|Community, Local, and Regional Food Systems||Nov 2, 2016||ALCE-155NP|
|Community, Local, and Regional Food Systems (CLRFS) Forum Report||Oct 7, 2016||ALCE-156NP|
|Community, Local, and Regional Food Systems (CLRFS) Forum Executive Summary||
Virginia’s food system directly impacts the survival and viability of farms and farmland; the economic development of rural and urban communities; the care, restoration, and resilience of ecological resources such as local waterways; and critical health issues. We use the language of community, local, and regional food systems to broadly define a complex and interconnected set of systems and pathways that comprise sustainable food production, processing, distribution, consumption, and waste management to bring about social, economic, and ecological change that benefits all residents.
|Oct 7, 2016||ALCE-157NP|
|2012 Virginia On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots||Jul 20, 2012||ANR-19NP|
|Environmental Best Management Practices for Virginia's Golf Courses||Feb 27, 2013||ANR-48NP|
|2018 Virginia Peanut Production Guide||Jan 29, 2018||AREC-229NP|
|2017 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results||Jan 26, 2018||AREC-231|
|Lawn Care: Hand Tools Safety||
Many hand tools such as shovels, hoes, rakes, trimmers, and pruners are widely used in lawn care and landscaping. While these tools appear to be harmless, when used improperly, they can cause injuries that sometimes require medical treatment. In 2006, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported nearly 205,000 cases of injuries and/or illnesses resulting from the use of hand tools.
|Nov 5, 2013||BSE-40NP (BSE-98P)|
|Lawn Care: Powered Hand Tool Safety||
In addition to mowers and hand tools, several powered hand tools such as string trimmers, lawn edgers, hedge trimmers, and leaf blowers are widely used in landscaping work. These machines can be dangerous if they are used improperly. A past study has shown that string trimmers and edgers alone cause more than 4,600 injuries that require emergency room treatment each year. About one-third of these cases are eye injuries.
|Nov 6, 2013||BSE-41NP (BSE-97P)|
|Lawn Care: Rotary Mower Safety||Nov 5, 2013||BSE-42NP (BSE-96P)|
|Lawn Care: Tractor Safety||
Most tractors used in landscaping, lawn care, and golf course maintenance are compact tractors in the 20 to 40 horsepower range. Although these tractors are considerably smaller than farm tractors, they are susceptible to the same types of accidents, with potential for serious injuries or deaths. Causes for such serious accidents are often the same in both cases, and therefore, the steps to take to avoid the accidents are the same.
|Nov 5, 2013||BSE-43NP (BSE-100P)|
|Lawn Care: Utility-Type Vehicle Safety||
Utility-type vehicles are popular, multipurpose equipment used for different applications in the lawn care industry. Their hauling capability and versatility have increased their popularity, and they are widely used in rural, suburban, and urban settings for a variety of lawn care, agricultural, construction, and industrial applications.
|Nov 5, 2013||BSE-44NP (BSE-99P)|
|Guidelines for Protecting Youth Workers: Promote Safe Practices and Protect Youth Workers||
A large number of teenage workers in the U.S. engage in summer jobs for reasons such as personal development, gaining work experience, developing work skills, and generating funds for furthering their education and for spending money.
|Aug 13, 2014||BSE-46NP (BSE-107P)|
|Rotary Mowers Safety: Lawncare Training Guide||
Mowing lawns continues to be one of the most popular summer job opportunities for youth given the affordable cost and ease in operation of most rotary mowers. However, easy access and widespread use of mowers often creates a false sense of security among the users of these machines. Data from a seven-year period (1996-2003) showed the highest rate of hospitalization from lawn mower injuries was for youth workers ages 15 to 19. The Consumer Product Safety Commission reported that more than 37,000 riding mower injuries occurred from 2003 through 2005 alone. During the same period, there were 95 fatalities due to riding mower tip-over. The purpose of this training guide is to reduce the number of mower accidents and injuries by familiarizing young workers with rotary mowers and their safe operation.
|Aug 12, 2014||BSE-47P (BSE-110P)|
|Tractor Safety: Lawn Care Training Guide, Safe Use of Tractors||
Tractors are versatile equipment used in a variety of jobs ranging from hauling goods to lawn care to agriculture. While they are extremely versatile, they can be very dangerous unless they are used with care following safe practices
|Sep 25, 2014||BSE-48NP (BSE-111P)|
|Utility Type Vehicles: UTV Maintenance and Safe Use Lawn Care Training Guide||
Utility type vehicles (UTVs) are popular equipment used in a variety of settings, including the lawn care industry. Their hauling capacity and versatility have increased their popularity, and they are widely used in rural, suburban, and urban settings for a variety of lawn care, agricultural, construction, and industrial applications. Considering that UTVs are widely used in the green industry, it is extremely important that young workers in the industry become familiar with the safe operation of UTVs. The purpose of this training guide is to familiarize young workers with the safe use of UTVs.
|Jun 6, 2014||BSE-49NP (BSE-108P)|
|Powered Hand Tools Safety: Lawncare Training Guide||
In addition to rotary mowers, many powered hand tools such as string trimmers, lawn edgers, hedge trimmers, and leaf blowers are widely used in lawn care. While these devices are very useful in making jobs easier and more efficient, they can be dangerous if used without proper training and care. In 1989 the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission reported that power lawn trimmers and edgers alone have caused about 4,600 injuries annually that required medical attention. About one-third of these were eye-related.
|Sep 24, 2014||BSE-50P (BSE-112P)|
|Hand Tools Safety: Lawn Care Training Guide Hand Tool Care and Safe Use||
Many hand tools such as rakes, shovels, and pruners are used widely in lawn care operations. While these non-powered tools are not known to cause major injuries, they have the potential for injuries that may require absence from work and/or medical assistance when they are used improperly.
|Sep 15, 2014||BSE-51P (BSE-113P)|
|Decentralized Small Community Wastewater Collection Systems||
Wastewater is a significant source of carbon, sediment, nutrients, pathogens, and other potential pollutants. Reducing the quantity of these contaminants before they are discharged to either groundwater or surface water is essential to preserve or enhance water quality in receiving waters. This is accomplished through the installation of wastewater treatment and collection systems. The form of these systems can vary substantially. In Virginia, they range in size from 5,000 to 50,000 gallons per day; 49 percent are public systems and the remainder are private (Parten 2008).
|Jul 10, 2014||BSE-77P|
|2014 Virginia Bollgard II Xtendflex Variety Trial||
Lint yield and fiber quality of commercially available cotton varieties and experimental lines of Bollgard II XtendFlex tested in 2014 in Suffolk, VA.
|Apr 29, 2015||CSES-113NP|
|Virginia Cover Crops Fact Sheet Series No. 1: Beneficial Uses of Cover Crops||
The general purpose of a cover crop is to improve the soil, the broader environment, or other crops in rotation, not for direct harvest. Cover crops, depending on which are selected, are capable of providing many diverse assets. This publication provides a short description of these main benefits.
|May 5, 2015||CSES-120NP|
|Virginia Cover Crops Fact Sheet Series No. 2: Cover Crop Performance Evaluation in Field and Controlled Studies||
Cover crops increase soil organic matter, reduce erosion, suppress weeds, forage for nutrients, and reduce fertilizer costs (Clark, 2007). Cover crop species vary greatly and provide varied benefits. Performance evaluation of cover crop species and mixtures is needed in Virginia.
|May 5, 2015||CSES-121NP|
|The Mid-Atlantic Nutrient Management Handbook||
Delaware, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia, and Virginia, the five states in the Mid-Atlantic region, all require Certified Nutrient Management Plans to be completed for certain agricultural programs.
|Jun 9, 2015||CSES-122P|
|Nitrogen and Sulfur Leaching Potential in Virginia||
Early summer often means locally heavy and sporadic rainfall as thunderstorms deliver intense rains, and 2015 appears to be no different with many areas in eastern Virginia receiving 3+ inches of rain in a few days (Figure 1). These storms also often coincide with the timing of sidedress nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) applications on corn. While some rainfall after sidedress is very beneficial to facilitate N movement into soil, heavy rain (2+ inches) often leaves us wondering how much, if any, of that recently-applied N remains and if additional N is needed.
|Jun 19, 2015||CSES-125NP|
|The Nutrient Value of Straw||
The mature and dried stem, leaves, and chaff remaining after barley and wheat are harvested is known as straw. Many farmers around Virginia harvest straw by baling in small bales, large round bales, or large square bales that range in weight from 40 to 1,000 lbs. plus per bale.
|Jun 19, 2015||CSES-126NP|
|Small Grain Forage Variety Testing, 2015||
A forage production trial of commercial barley, oats, rye, triticale, and wheat cultivars has been conducted yearly from 1994-2015 at the Northern Piedmont AREC, Orange. Results from the 2014-15 crop season are presented in this report.
|Jun 24, 2015||CSES-127NP|
|Small Grains in 2015||
The following tables present results from barley and wheat varietal tests conducted in Virginia in 2013-2015. Small-grain cultivar performance tests are conducted each year in Virginia by the Virginia Tech Department of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences and the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station.
|Jul 29, 2015||CSES-129NP|
|The Soil and Me: A Perspective on Soil Health||
Soil is the foundation upon which our natural living world depends; it is otherwise known as the dynamic material that civilization is built on (Lindbo, Kozlowski, and Robinson 2012). Soil serves diverse functions that are critical to the survival of humanity; without the soil, life on earth is inconceivable. It represents the critical zone of the earth where life, water, minerals, and air intersect and interact (fig. 1) because the soil constantly relates with other parts of nature. The soil is considered a living, dynamic resource at the earth’s surface and has been defined as “the unconsolidated mineral or organic material on the immediate surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants” (SSSA 2015). The thickness or depth of this surface or layer varies with the type and environment of the soil.
|Nov 5, 2015||CSES-132NP|
|Soybean Growth and Development||
Proper management of the soybean crop requires knowledge of how environmental conditions and pests affect growth during vegetative and reproductive stages. For example, too little or too much soil moisture at certain stages may hinder growth and lower yield, and insect pests may damage the crop at one stage but not another. The information below can help you determine the proper timing of various management practices.
|Nov 13, 2015||CSES-134NP|
|Lawn Fertilization in Virginia||
Fertilization of lawns is essential for the production of quality turf in Virginia. However, exceeding recommended fertilizer application rates or improper application timing can negatively impact surface water and groundwater quality.
|Dec 11, 2015||CSES-135P|
|Measuring Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity in Soil||
The purpose of this document is to provide guidance on measuring water movement through in situ saturated soil (saturated hydraulic conductivity, or Ksat) as it relates to dispersal and treatment of on-site sewage (wastewater) through an on-site wastewater dispersal area
|Mar 22, 2016||CSES-141-P (CSES-164P)|
|Guidelines for In-House Composting Poultry Mortality as a Rapid Response to Avian Influenza||
Composting is a biological heating process that results in the natural degradation of Composting is a biological heating process that results in the natural degradation of organic resources (such as poultry carcasses) by microorganisms. Composting has been successfully used throughout the United States for nearly two decades to control outbreaks of avian influenza. Composting can be effective with most bird types and poultry house designs.organic resources (such as poultry carcasses) by microorganisms. Composting has been successfully used throughout the United States for nearly two decades to control outbreaks of avian influenza. Composting can be effective with most bird types and poultry house designs.
|Sep 24, 2015||CSES-142NP|
|Defining Silvopastures: Integrating Tree Production With Forage-Livestock Systems for Economic, Environmental, and Aesthetic Outcomes||May 23, 2016||CSES-146P|
|Virginia Tech Corn Silage Testing 2015||
This report contains the results for performance trials from commercial corn hybrids produced for silage at four locations in Virginia in 2015 as well as two and three year average performance, when available. In order to avoid problems with comparisons over sites and years, multi-year yields are presented as a percentage of the total called relative yield at that particular site-year combination. All locations were planted with a Wintersteiger PlotKing 2600 planter and harvested with commercial silage equipment. Yields are presented on a dry matter and 35% dry matter basis for comparison. Quality analysis was performed using a Foss NIR XDS Rapid Content Analyzer. All hybrids entered in the Virginia trials were submitted for testing by commercial companies. The locations at which particular hybrids were entered were specified by the company. Companies entering hybrids were charged a fee for each hybrid per location to support the Virginia Corn Silage Performance Trials.
|Nov 6, 2015||CSES-148NP|
|Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials in 2015||
Performance trials of commercial corn hybrids were conducted at six locations in Virginia in 2015. The Mt. Holly location consisted of both an irrigated and non-irrigated test. All locations were planted with a Wintersteiger PlotKing 2600. All locations were harvested with a Massey-Ferguson 8XP plot combine. Yields have been adjusted to 15.5% moisture. Grain test weight, moisture, and plot grain weights were measured with a GrainGauge® manufactured by HarvestMaster. A list of the companies participating in the trials is shown in the above table. All hybrids entered in the Virginia trials were those submitted by commercial companies. The locations at which particular hybrids were entered were specified by the company. Companies entering hybrids were charged a fee for each hybrid per location to support the Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials.
|Nov 12, 2015||CSES-149NP|
|Creating Silvopastures: Some Considerations When Thinning Existing Timber Stands||
Silvopastures intentionally integrate trees with forage and livestock production in a rotational grazing system. These systems have the potential to improve animal comfort, increase farm resource use efficiency, boost income, and mitigate environmental costs.
|Sep 30, 2016||CSES-155P|
|Corn Emergence Evaluation||
There is much emphasis placed on the importance of stand uniformity and emergence in producing high yielding corn. Stand uniformity refers to spacing while uniformity of emergence refers to how even emergence is within the field.
|Feb 25, 2016||CSES-157NP|
|Understanding the Texture of Your Soil for Agricultural Productivity||Jul 20, 2016||CSES-162P|
|Small Grain Forage Variety Testing, 2016||
A forage production trial of commercial barley, oats, rye, triticale, and wheat cultivars has been conducted yearly from 1994-2016 at the Northern Piedmont AREC, Orange. Results from the 2015-16 crop season are presented in this report.
|Jun 27, 2016||CSES-165NP|
|Small Grains in 2016||Jul 27, 2016||CSES-167NP|
|2017-2018 Virginia Turfgrass Variety Recommendations||
The Maryland-Virginia Turfgrass Variety Recommendation Work Group meets each Spring to consider the previous year’s data from Virginia and Maryland National Turfgrass Evaluation Program (NTEP) and ancillary trials and to formulate these recommendations. Virginia and Maryland variety recommendations are essentially identical except for specialized grasses and research situations that differ due to adaptation and state regulation.
|Jun 30, 2017||CSES-17NP (CSES-195NP)|
|Yellow Corn in Virginia – Spring 2016||
Many of the corn fields on the Eastern Shore and in Eastern Virginia are “yellow” and stunted due to the weather this Spring (Figs. 1 and 2) and is similar to conditions that Virginia farmers experienced in Spring 2010. There are many reasons for the corn to be yellow that range from nutrient deficiencies to abiotic factors.
|Oct 10, 2016||CSES-171NP|
|Virginia Tech Corn Silage Testing 2016||
This report contains the results for performance trials from commercial corn hybrids produced for silage at four locations in Virginia in 2016 as well as two and three year average performance, when available. In order to avoid problems with comparisons over sites and years, multi-year yields are presented as a percentage of the total called relative yield at that particular site-year combination. All locations were planted with a Wintersteiger PlotKing 2600 planter and harvested with commercial silage equipment. Yields are presented on a dry matter and 35% dry matter basis for comparison. Quality analysis was performed using a Foss NIR XDS Rapid Content Analyzer. All hybrids entered in the Virginia trials were submitted for testing by commercial companies. The locations at which particular hybrids were entered were specified by the company. Companies entering hybrids were charged a fee for each hybrid per location to support the Virginia Corn Silage Performance Trials.
|Oct 21, 2016||CSES-173NP|
|Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials in 2016||
Performance trials of commercial corn hybrids were conducted at six locations in Virginia in 2016. The Mt. Holly location consisted of both an irrigated and non-irrigated test. All locations were planted with a Wintersteiger PlotKing 2600. All locations were harvested with a Massey-Ferguson 8XP plot combine. Yields have been adjusted to 15.5% moisture. Grain test weight, moisture, and plot grain weights were measured with a GrainGauge® manufactured by HarvestMaster. A list of companies participating in the trials is provided before the table of contents. All hybrids entered in the Virginia trials are those submitted by commercial companies. The locations at which particular hybrids were entered were specified by the company. Companies entering hybrids were charged a fee for each hybrid per location to support the Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials.
|Nov 11, 2016||CSES-174NP|
|Small Grains in 2012||
The following are the small grain variety recommendations for Virginia in 2012. The recommendations are based on the agronomic performance in wheat and barley variety tests conducted by the Research and Extension Divisions of Virginia Tech in the various agricultural regions of the state.
|Jul 27, 2012||CSES-18NP|
|Value and implications of corn stover removal from Virginia fields||
There has recently been increased interest in the use of crop residues for different industrial uses in the US and the world. Corn residue is frequently cited as the most likely candidate for alternate industrial uses because of the large area of production and the relatively large amount of residue produced per acre. Among the potential alternate uses for corn stover, biofuel production has received the greatest attention.
|Apr 6, 2017||CSES-180 (CSES-182NP)|
|Soil Judging in Virginia||Jan 25, 2018||CSES-183|
|Creating Silvopastures: Some Considerations When Planting Trees in Pastures||Dec 11, 2017||CSES-185P|
|Yellow Corn in Virginia – Spring 2017||
According to Meteorologist Scott Minnick with the NOAA-National Weather Service in Wakefield, VA, May 2017 is “yet another wet and cloudy May for the record books. With the rain on [May 31, 2017], Norfolk moved up to the 3rd wettest May on record.” The 2017 growing year is almost identical to last year (the wettest May on record for Norfolk, VA), with a dry March and April leading into a record breaking cool and wet May as corn tries to establish roots. Young corn largely depends on residual and starter fertilizer prior to sidedress applications and these fractions can be impacted greatly with excessive rain.
|Jul 10, 2017||CSES-193NP|
|Facts About Industrial Hemp||Aug 14, 2017||CSES-196NP|
|Predicting Soybean Reproductive Stages in Virginia||Oct 7, 2017||CSES-197P|
|Small Grains in 2017||Jul 28, 2017||CSES-198NP|
|Optimizing Bermudagrass Athletic Field Winter Survival in the Transition Zone||Nov 15, 2017||CSES-200P|
|Using a Summer Stockpiling System to Extend the Grazing Season||Nov 14, 2017||CSES-201NP|
|Virginia Soil Judging Scorecard||Dec 1, 2017||CSES- 202P|
|Soil Judging Supplemental Information Sheet||Dec 1, 2017||CSES- 202P-A|
|Virginia Tech Corn Silage Testing 2017||Nov 30, 2017||CSES-203NP|
|Internationalizing the Land Grant Mission: Lessons from Senegal||Mar 20, 2018||CSES-207P|
|Manure Injection in No-Till and Pasture Systems||Mar 27, 2018||CSES-22P (CSES-231P)|
|2017 Cotton Variety Testing and On-Farm Results||Jan 31, 2018||CSES-225NP|
|2017 Virginia Grain Sorghum Performance Tests||Feb 21, 2018||CSES-227|
|Harvesting and nutrient replacement costs associated with corn stover removal in Virginia||Feb 21, 2018||CSES-229NP|
|Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2017||Mar 23, 2018||CSES-232NP|
|Managing Shrub-Infested, Postmined Pasturelands With Goats and Cattle Part II. Effects on Forage Biomass, Nutritive Values, and Animal Performance||Jan 9, 2012||CSES-3|
|A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Soil Testing||Oct 25, 2012||CSES-34NP|
|A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Watering The Lawn||Oct 26, 2012||CSES-35NP|
|A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Dethatching Your Lawn||Oct 26, 2012||CSES-36NP|
|A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Lawn Composting||Oct 29, 2012||CSES-37NP|
|A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Aerating Your Lawn||Oct 29, 2012||CSES-38NP|
|A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Mowing Your Lawn||Oct 29, 2012||CSES-39NP|
|Managing Shrub-Infested, Postmined Pasturelands With Goats and Cattle. Part I: Effect on Botanical Composition and Browse Species||Jan 18, 2012||CSES-4|
|A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Fighting Weeds||Oct 29, 2012||CSES-40NP|
|A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Choosing The Right Grass||Oct 29, 2012||CSES-41NP|
|A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Fighting Lawn Pests||Oct 29, 2012||CSES-42NP|
|A Lawn To Dye For - How to Create a Perfect Lawn: Dealing With Lawn Disease||Oct 29, 2012||CSES-43NP|
|Yield Potential of Native Warm-Season Grasses Grown in Mixture||Jul 19, 2013||CSES-55P|
|Small Grains in 2013||
The following are the small grain variety recommendations for Virginia in 2013. The recommendations are based on the agronomic performance in wheat and barley variety tests conducted by the Research and Extension Divisions of Virginia Tech in the various agricultural regions of the state.
|Aug 7, 2013||CSES-62NP|
|Turf and Garden Tips: What can be done about crayfish in lawns?||Aug 16, 2013||CSES-64NP|
|Cotton Harvest Aid Cheat Sheet||Aug 28, 2013||CSES-65NP|
|Sensor-Based, Variable-Rate Nitrogen Applications in Virginia||
Variable-rate applications (VRA) of nitrogen (N) fertilizers are a new option to assist producers with real-time fertilizer rate decisions. Two commercially available systems that allow variable-rate nitrogen applications are GreenSeeker (Trimble Navigation Limited; www. ntechindustries.com/greenseeker-home.html) and the OptRx Crop Sensor (Ag Leader Technology; www. agleader.com/products/directcommand/optrx/). A discussion of the science behind these systems, potential economic benefits, and other methodologies to make VRA is discussed in Virginia Cooperative Extension publication 442-505, “Precision Farming Tools: Variable- Rate Application” (Grisso et al. 2011).
|Aug 8, 2014||CSES-90P|
|Small Grains in 2014||
The following are the small grain variety recommendations for Virginia in 2014. The recommendations are based on the agronomic performance in wheat and barley variety tests conducted by the Research and Extension Divisions of Virginia Tech in the various agricultural regions of the state.
|Aug 1, 2014||CSES-97NP|
|Importance of Farm Phosphorus Mass Balance and Management Options||
Phosphorus is a naturally occurring element that is one of 16 elements essential for plant growth and animal health. Research has documented that applying phosphorus in fertilizers or manure increases crop growth and yield on soils that are below critical agronomic levels, as measured during routine soil testing. Although the economic benefits of phosphorus fertilization on crop production are well-documented, too much of a good thing can be detrimental to the environment. Excessive soil phosphorus is a potential threat to water quality.
|Dec 19, 2014||CSES-98P|