Resources for Entomology
|Compact Soil Sampling Strategy for White Grubs||
Annual white grubs (WG) are early-season pests attacking corn seeds and seedlings
|Jun 30, 2011||2802-7027|
Plants Attacked: Juniper, arborvitae, other cedars, pine, hemlock, spruce, Chinese elm, honeylocust, primarily. Also on crabapple, maple, sycamore, box elder, willow, linden, poplar, and many others.
|Nov 3, 2014||2808-1008 (ENTO-83NP)|
|Cucumber Beetles||May 1, 2009||2808-1009|
Larvae feed in the inner bark of live, healthy dogwood trees. The damaged area of the trunk or branch swells and eventually the bark will fall off. Leaves turning red prematurely in mid-summer on a lone branch are an early sign of dogwood borers. Infested branches and limbs will die. Dogwood borers often will not kill the tree in the first year, but reinfestation in successive years will. Plants attacked include: Dogwood, pecan, elm, hickory, and willow.
|Nov 18, 2014||2808-1010 (ENTO-90NP)|
|Cottony Maple Scale||
Heavily infested plants will have large numbers of scales on the branches and twigs. Large numbers of feeding scales will reduce the amount of nutrients reaching the leaves and will cause them to turn yellow and fall prematurely. Scale insects feed on plant sap with their long thread-like mouthparts (stylets), which are six to eight times longer than the insect itself. Feeding by scales slowly reduces plant vigor. Heavily infested plants grow poorly and may suffer dieback of twigs and branches. Occasionally, an infested host will be so weakened that it will die.
|Nov 14, 2014||2808-1011 (ENTO-89NP)|
Scale insects are a peculiar group and look quite different from the typical insects we encounter day to day. Small, immobile, with no visible legs or antennae, they resemble individual fish scales pressed tightly against the plant on which they are feeding. There are over l50 different kinds of scales in Virginia. Many are common and serious pests of trees, shrubs, and indoor plants.
|Feb 26, 2015||2808-1012 (ENTO-106NP)|
Native to North America, the fall webworm occurs throughout the United States and southern Canada. Its hosts include more than 100 species of deciduous forest, shade, and fruit trees, with preferences varying from region to region.
|Nov 21, 2014||2808-1013 (ENTO-94NP)|
|Gypsy Moth Management for Homeowners on Small Properties||May 1, 2009||2811-1021|
|Cabbage Webworm||May 1, 2009||2811-1022|
|Wireworm Pest Management in Potatoes||May 1, 2009||2812-1026|
|Potato Aphid on Tomatoes||May 1, 2009||2901-1031|
|Green Peach Aphid on Vegetables||May 1, 2009||2902-1081|
|Brown Marmorated Stink Bug||May 21, 2009||2902-1100|
The Japanese beetle is found throughout Virginia and in most of the Eastern United States. In regions west of the Mississippi it is found in isolated pockets. Japanese beetles were first found in New Jersey in 1916 and have spread from that point since. The Japanese beetle has been well established in Virginia since the early 1970’s.
|Dec 11, 2014||2902-1101 (ENTO-97NP)|
Pales weevil feeds on all pines within its range. It will also feed, although to a lesser extent, on Douglas-fir, fir, hemlock, juniper, larch, northern white-cedar, and spruce.
|Dec 11, 2014||2902-1102 (ENTO-103NP)|
|Emerald Ash Borer||Mar 17, 2016||2904-1290 (ENTO-200NP)|
|Asparagus Beetles on Asparagus||Jul 29, 2009||2906-1352|
|Common Ticks of Virginia||Dec 12, 2017||2906-1396 (ENTO-250NP)|
Pine Sawyers are secondary infesters whose main damage is disfiguring wood by larval boring and tunneling in felled trees and usable trees which are weakened or dying from other causes. Plant parts attacked trunk. Damaging stage - larvae.
|Mar 5, 2015||2907-1399 (ENTO-119NP)|
|Pine Needle Scale||
Damage is not apparent until large populations have been present for more than 1 or 2 seasons. Trees are stunted, grow slowly, have short needles and shoots. Occasionally the feeding of scales produces chlorotic, yellowish flecks no the needles, but normally this is not apparent. Heavily infested plants are seriously weakened and may be in a state of decline.
|Mar 3, 2015||2907-1400 (ENTO-118NP)|
|Balsam Twig Aphid||
Twisted and curled needles are the most apparent damage from feeding by the balsam twig aphid. Feeding can also cause roughened bark on the twigs. Extensive feeding can cause a general decline and reduced vigor of the tree, yet in many cases is cosmetic and not particularly damaging. The major problem is that curled needles reduce the marketability and value of Christmas trees. Balsam twig aphids also produce honeydew, a sticky material that drops to needles and twigs below. At times the honeydew can become a growth medium for sooty mold, which turns the needles and twigs black.
|Mar 3, 2015||2907-1401 (ENTO-117NP)|
|Pine Bark Adelgid||
The pine bark adelgid was introduced from Europe and is now widely distributed in North America, occurring principally throughout the native range of eastern white pine. This insect is also found on Scots and Austrian pine.
|Aug 28, 2018||2907-1402 (ENTO-285NP)|
|Japanese Beetle Pest Management in Primocane-Bearing Raspberries||Sep 15, 2009||2909-1411|
|Insect Pests of Ornamental Plants Slide Show||
Ornamental plants enrich our lives every day and improve our environment. Flowers, shrubs, and trees beautify our yards and parks, while houseplants add a pleasant living touch to our indoor environment. Perhaps you are one of the many people who find satisfaction in planting and caring for ornamental plants. If so, sooner or later you will be confronted with insects which threaten to ruin your plants and undo your hard work. Learning to identify pest insects is the first step toward an effective pest management strategy. Insect Pests of Ornamental Plants is a five part program which will introduce you to the common pests of shade trees, shrubs, flowers, and houseplants in Virginia.
|Mar 6, 2015||2909-1414 (ENTO-121NP)|
|Insect Pests of Christmas Trees Slide Show||Mar 6, 2015||2909-1415 (ENTO-122NP)|
|Catalpa Sphinx Caterpillar||
Catalpa sphinx caterpillars, also known as “Catalpa worms”, are major defoliators of catalpa, their only host. With their chewing mouthparts, they strip away large portions of the leaves. In heavy infestations they can completely defoliate the entire tree. Apparently trees on high ground with poor soil are rarely, if ever, attacked. In some years, depending on the region, many trees will have all their leaves stripped away by the end of the summer. This may be followed by years with no defoliation observed at all. The fluctuation between outbreak and no defoliation is largely due to the activity of parasites.
|Nov 14, 2014||2911-1421 (ENTO-88NP)|
The European hornet is a stout hornet approximately 1-inch long. The color of the head and thorax is dark reddish brown with deep yellow and brown black markings on the abdomen. The markings on the abdomen are similar to the markings found on yellow jackets. The European hornet resembles the cicada killer wasp but is more robust and has more hair on the thorax and abdomen (but is not as hairy as a bee).
|Mar 12, 2015||2911-1422 (ENTO-123NP)|
|Twig Girdler/Twig Pruner||
These beetles cause very conspicuous damage in late summer. The leaves on large numbers of twigs and branches will be observed to turn brown prematurely. These twigs and branches sometimes fall from trees in great numbers and accumulate. On close examination, the twigs have one of two kinds of damage. Twigs damaged by the twig girdler are cut as neatly as by a knife. The cut end has been gnawed almost straight across with a faint rounding and is slightly roughened by the chewing. The twig girdler is more commonly found on pecan and hickory. The twig pruner causes a slightly different type of cut. The twig will be observed to have a hollowed out space at the cut end filled with sawdust like frass. The twig when split open will have a long tunnel through most of its length. The twig pruner is more commonly found on oak.
|Mar 16, 2015||2911-1423 (ENTO-124NP)|
|Virginia Pine Sawfly||
The Virginia pine sawfly has been recorded from New Jersey and Maryland to North Carolina and westward to Illinois. Its main hosts are Virginia and shortleaf pines, but it also feeds on pitch and loblolly pine.
|Mar 16, 2015||2911-1424 (ENTO-125NP)|
|The Minute Pirate Bug (Orius)||Mar 8, 2010||3002-1437|
The baldfaced hornet is a large, black and white hornet up to 1 inch (25.4mm) in length. It is black and white in color with a mostly white head or face. It is widely distributed in Virginia. The nests are constructed of the same paper-like material as that of other wasps (yellowjackets). They differ a great deal from other wasp nests in being enclosed in a thick "paper" envelope. There is a single opening at the lower end of the nest and a few hornets always guard this. Nests are always abandoned at the end of the season. Hymenoptera, Vespidae: Dolichovespula maculata (L.)
|Nov 3, 2014||3006-1449 (ENTO-84NP)|
|Hemlock Woolly Adelgid||Dec 16, 2016||3006-1451 (ENTO-228NP)|
|Balsam Woolly Adelgid||
Native to central Europe, the balsam woolly adelgid is now distributed throughout eastern and western North America. It attacks all true firs, Abies spp., including balsam and Fraser fir.
|Jun 24, 2015||3006-1452(ENTO-161NP)|
|Redheaded Pine Sawfly||
The redheaded pine sawfly occurs from S.E. Canada throughout the eastern U.S. Feeding is primarily restricted to the two and three-needled pines, such as Jack, red, shortleaf, loblolly, slash, longleaf, and pitch pines. White pine and Norway spruce may also be defoliated.
|Jun 24, 2015||3006-1453(ENTO-162NP)|
|Bean Pod Mottle Virus in Virginia Soybeans||Sep 9, 2010||3009-1461|
|Leaf‐ Footed Bugs||Dec 21, 2010||3012-1522|
|Drugstore and Cigarette Beetles||Mar 8, 2016||3101-1526 (ENTO-193NP)|
|Earwigs in Virginia||Mar 11, 2016||3101-1527 (ENTO-194NP)|
|Locust Leafminer||Mar 17, 2016||3101-1528 (ENTO-205NP)|
|Pine Tortoise Scale||
Foliage drops, needles usually shorter and may kill tree over period of years - most damaging on seedlings and young saplings. Often black sooty mold is associated with infestations.
|Mar 24, 2016||3101-1529 (ENTO-207NP)|
|Arthropod Pest Management Research on Vegetables in Virginia – 2010||
This booklet contains arthropod pest management research conducted on vegetable crops in eastern Virginia in 2010.
|Feb 22, 2011||3102-1532|
|Corn Earworm on Vegetables||Mar 22, 2011||3103-1537|
|Monitoring and Management of Beet Armyworm and Other Rind-feeding Larvae in Watermelon||Apr 21, 2011||3104-1540|
|Beet Webworm||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1542|
|Blister Beetles||Feb 19, 2016||3104-1543 (ENTO-187NP)|
|Cabbage Looper||Sep 29, 2017||3104-1544 (ENTO-244NP)|
|Celery Leaftier||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1545|
Adults are usually black or brown beetles with an oval to oblong shape. They have clubbed or knobbed antennae and the economically important species typically measure 3–6 mm (0.12–0.24 inch) long. Some sap beetles have short wing covers that do not cover the entire abdomen. Some species have flattened bodies while others are more convex. Many sap beetles are a dull color, sometimes with mottling or spots. One common sap beetle, the picnic beetle [Glischrochilus quadrisignatus (Say)], is an attractive shiny black beetle with four yellow-orange bands or spots on the wing covers.
|May 13, 2015||3104-1546(ENTO-157NP)|
|Cutworms in the Home Garden||Dec 12, 2017||3104-1547 (ENTO-252NP)|
|Eggplant Lace Bug||
Adult eggplant lace bugs are a mottled grayish to dark brown in color and measure 4 mm (0.16 inch) long. Their bodies are flattened but sculptured, with broad lateral projections behind the head and lace-like wings. The antennae are darker at the tips. Nymphs are wingless and yellow in coloration. They develop black markings and black antennae as they mature. Older nymphs have many spiny projections over the body. Mature nymphs measure about 2 mm (0.08 inch) long.
|May 13, 2015||3104-1548(ENTO-153NP)|
|Flea Beetle Control for Home Gardens||Dec 5, 2017||3104-1549 (ENTO-251NP)|
|Grasshoppers||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1550|
|Hornworms in Home Gardens||Dec 12, 2017||3104-1551 (ENTO-254NP)|
|Imported Cabbageworm in Home Gardens||Dec 13, 2017||3104-1552 (ENTO-253NP)|
|Insect Pests of Potatoes in Home Gardens||Dec 13, 2017||3104-1553 (ENTO-256NP)|
|Leafminers||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1554|
|Mexican Bean Beetle||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1555|
|Onion Thrips||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1556|
|Parsleyworm||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1557|
|Pepper Weevil||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1558|
|Pickleworm||May 13, 2015||3104-1559(ENTO-154NP)|
|Raspberry Crown Borer||Mar 24, 2016||3104-1561 (ENTO-208NP)|
|Rednecked Cane Borer||Apr 15, 2016||3104-1562 (ENTO-210NP)|
Adult rhubarb curculios are elongated, somewhat cylindrical beetles measuring about 13-19 mm (0.5-0.75 inch) in total body length. They have an obvious long snout that curves downwards from the head. Young adults have a dusty coating of yellow or orange powder that rubs off easily. Older beetles that have lost this dusty coating appear brownish-black in color. Mature larvae are legless white grubs with a brown head capsule. Rhubarb curculio larvae are only found in weedy hosts and not in rhubarb itself. There are a number of related, similar-looking weevils that occur on various weeds in the Asteraceae and Polygonaceae families.
|May 13, 2015||3104-1563(ENTO-155NP)|
|Rose Chafer||Mar 24, 2016||3104-1564 (ENTO-209NP)|
|Rose Scale||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1565|
|Squash Vine Borer||
Adult squash vine borers are robust, attractive moths with dark wings and conspicuous orange abdomens dotted with black spots. The legs are marked with orange, black, and white, and the hind legs are noticeably feathery. Adults measure about 13 mm (0.5 inch) long with a wingspan of about 32 mm (1.25 inches). The dark wings are held folded at rest; there is a short fringe of hairs on the trailing edge. Squash vine borer is a member of the clearwing moth family; translucent windows are visible in the hind wings when they are fully extended. The antennae are dark, somewhat flattened, and hooked at the tips. Overall, adult squash vine borers resemble paper wasps in appearance. They are active day fliers with a zig-zag flight and easily travel from field to field.
|May 13, 2015||3104-1566(ENTO-158NP)|
|Stalk Borer||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1567|
|Tarnished Plant Bug||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1568|
Adult weevils are a dull, gray-brown color, and about 6–8 mm (0.25–0.32 inch) long. Adults are somewhat bristly in appearance due to t stout hairs and dense scales on the body. Usually there is a set of dark diagonal markings framing a lighter colored V-shape on the wings, but these may wear off with age. Antennae are elbowed and there is a short, stout snout at the front of the head.
|May 13, 2015||3104-1569(ENTO-156NP)|
|White Grubs in Vegetable Gardens||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1570|
|Whitefringed Beetles||Apr 25, 2011||3104-1571|
Carpenter ants can be found outside on trees and sidewalks and indoor. Where they are found determines how best to control them. Inside they can be active indoors during many months of the year, usually during the spring and summer. When ants are active in the house during late winter/early spring (February/March), the infestation (nest) is probably within the household. In late spring large numbers of foraging ants may come in from outside looking for food and may not indicate and infestation. Outside carpenter ants become active in late spring and early summer and will be seen on tree trunks and sidewalks.
|Mar 11, 2016||3104-1573 (ENTO-188NP)|
|Centipede - Chilopoda||May 13, 2011||3104-1574|
|Click Beetle - Coleoptera: Elateridae||May 13, 2011||3104-1575|
|Clothes Moths||Mar 11, 2016||3104-1576 (ENTO-191NP)|
|Firebrat - Thysanura: Lepismatidae||May 13, 2011||3104-1578|
|Fungus Gnats||Mar 16, 2016||3104-1579 (ENTO-201NP)|
|House Fly Maggot - Diptera: Muscidae||May 13, 2011||3104-1580|
|Lace Bugs - Hemiptera: Tingidae||Mar 17, 2016||3104-1581 (ENTO-204NP)|
|Indian Meal Moth||Mar 17, 2016||3104-1582 (ENTO-203NP)|
Heavily infested trees will have large numbers of scales on twigs and branches. Scales may also be found on exposed roots and on the trunk of young trees. Scale insects feed on plant sap with their long thread-like mouthparts (stylets), which are several times longer than the insect itself.
|Mar 24, 2016||3104-1583 (ENTO-206NP)|
|Wheel Bug||Apr 15, 2016||3104-1585 (ENTO-211NP)|
|Wolf Spiders and Fishing Spiders||Mar 29, 2016||3104-1586 (ENTO-212NP)|
|Yellow Ants||Apr 15, 2016||3104-1587 (ENTO-213NP)|
|Carpet Beetles||Mar 4, 2016||3104-1588 (ENTO-189P)|
|Wireworm control experiment in potatoes in Abingdon, VA in 2011||Nov 3, 2011||3110-1596|
|4-H Honey Bee Youth Project Book I -- The Buzz about Bees: Honey Bee Biology and Behavior||
Royalty fighting to the death, troves of golden treasure, thousands of slaves building massive edifices under the direction of a queen, and daring quests for the “food of the gods”; such mesmerizing tales of valor and adventure originate not from medieval Europe, ancient Greece, or the pyramids of Egypt but instead derive from a seemingly inconspicuous yet important insect: the honey bee. Honey bees are complex, fascinating insects.
|Mar 18, 2014||380-070 (4H-253NP)|
|4-H Honey Bee Leaders Guide Book I - The Buzz About Bees:Honey Bee Biology and Behavior||
To the 4-H Leader: The honey bee project (Books 1 - 4) is intended to teach young people the basic biology and behavior of honey bees in addition to hands-on beekeeping management skills. The honey bee project books begin with basic honey bee and insect information (junior level) and advance to instruction on how to rear honey bee colonies and extract honey (senior level). These project books are intended to provide in-depth information related to honey bee management, yet they are written for the amateur beekeeper, who may or may not have previous experience in rearing honey bees.
|Feb 27, 2014||380-071(4H-255NP)|
|4-H Honey Bee Youth Project Book II -- Veils, Smokers, and Supers: Equipment of Beekeepers||
One lazy afternoon you find yourself looking across a field of flowers. The sun is warm and the breeze rustles through the grasses beneath your feet. Suddenly, at the edge of the field you see a lone figure hunched over a white box. The person is dressed from head to toe in a white, spaceman-looking jumpsuit. You begin to get nervous as you peer closer and notice a helmet covering his head. His gloved hands hold a strange-looking instrument spewing smoke from some internal, smoldering fire. You do not know it, but you are about to witness a robbery by this alien creature. Should you call the police? Should you take matters into your own hands? No! Instead, grab a container and prepare to get some honey! There’s a beekeeper hard at work!
|Mar 18, 2014||380-074 (4H-252NP)|
|4-H Honey Bee Leaders Guide Book II -- Veils, Smokers, and Supers: Equipment of Beekeepers||
With our understanding of honey bee biology and colony structure, we can begin to investigate the process of rearing bees for ourselves. To begin, we need a good understanding of the equipment we will need and how to use it. We will need to know the parts of the beehive and how to assemble them properly to facilitate bee rearing and honey production. Finally, we will need to handle bees within the hive. The Honey bee Project Book 2 provides the 4-H member with specific information about beekeeping, bee handling, and hive inspection.
|Mar 19, 2014||380-075 (4H-254NP)|
|Pesticides and Aquatic Animals: A Guide to Reducing Impacts on Aquatic Systems||
Fisheries and aquatic resources (ponds, lakes, rivers, streams, and oceans) are exceptionally valuable natural assets enjoyed by millions of Americans. They provide citizens with generous long-term benefits in return for minimal care and protection.
|May 1, 2009||420-013|
|Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Aquatic Insect Biodiversity and Conservation||
The diversity of insects can only be described as amazing. More than half of all known species of living things (microbes, plants, and animals) are insects.
|May 1, 2009||420-531|
|Successful No-Tillage Corn Production||Jul 29, 2009||424-030|
|Groundwater Quality and the Use of Lawn and Garden Chemicals by Homeowners||May 1, 2009||426-059|
|Pest Monitoring Calendar for Home Lawns in Virginia||May 1, 2009||430-524|
|Droplet Chart / Selection Guide||
When choosing nozzles/droplet sizes for spray applications, applicators must consider both coverage needed and drift potential. As a rule, smaller droplets provide better coverage, but larger droplets are less likely to drift.
|Sep 25, 2014||442-031 (BSE-149P)|
|Nozzles: Selection and Sizing||
This fact sheet covers nozzle description, recommended use for common nozzle types, and orifice sizing for agricultural and turf sprayers. Proper selection of a nozzle type and size is essential for correct and accurate pesticide application. The nozzle is a major factor in determining the amount of spray applied to an area, uniformity of application, coverage obtained on the target surface, and amount of potential drift.
|Jan 31, 2014||442-032 (BSE-103P)|
|Plumbing Systems of Agricultural Sprayers||
The plumbing systems of agricultural sprayers are usually considered foolproof. Sprayer problems may occur if plumbing and/or modifications are improperly done or maintenance is ignored. Retrofitting, addition of electrical control systems, and replacement of pumps or nozzles require proper knowledge of the plumbing system and the implications of these changes to sprayer performance. Routine maintenance of the plumbing system is essential.
|Oct 1, 2014||442-452 (BSE-171P)|
|Fine Tuning a Sprayer with “Ounce” Calibration Method||
This extension publication discusses guidelines to quickly evaluate the performance of a sprayer. Sprayer calibration, nozzle discharge, spray pattern uniformity, speed checks, pump performance, and plumbing arrangements are evaluated with minimal calculations.
|Dec 3, 2014||442-453 (BSE-178P)|
|Pepper Maggot in Sweet (Bell) Pepper||May 1, 2009||444-005|
|European Corn Borer in Sweet (Bell) Pepper||May 1, 2009||444-006|
|Diamondback Moth in Virginia||May 1, 2009||444-007|
|Bean Leaf Beetle Biology and Management in Snap Beans||May 1, 2009||444-009|
|Colorado Potato Beetle||May 1, 2009||444-012|
|Fall Armyworm in Vegetable Crops||May 1, 2009||444-015|
|Aphids in Virginia Small Grains: Life Cycles, Damage and Control||
Four species of aphids attack small grains in Virginia — greenbug, corn leaf aphid, bird cherry-oat aphid, and English grain aphid. In general, these aphids are small pear-shaped insects (1/16 to 1/8 inch long) that are green to nearly black, or sometimes pinkish in color. Immature aphids look just like adults except smaller. Both winged and wing-less forms can occur in the same colony. All grain aphids have a pair of conicles, tailpipe-like projections, on the top side of the tail end. Aphids feed singly or in colonies on upper and lower leaf surfaces and stems. They feed near plant bases when plants are young or during cold weather, and on upper-canopy leaves, stems, and even grain heads later in the season.
|Nov 13, 2014||444-018|
|Bluegrass Billbug Pest Management in Orchardgrass||Jul 1, 2010||444-040|
|Hunting Billbug Pest Management in Orchardgrass||Jul 1, 2010||444-041|
|Sampling Methods for Varroa Mites on the Domesticated Honeybee||May 1, 2009||444-103|
|Japanese Beetle in Field Corn||May 1, 2009||444-106|
|Root-knot Nematode in Field Corn||May 1, 2009||444-107|
|Asiatic Garden Beetle in Field Corn||May 1, 2009||444-108|
|Slugs in Field Corn||May 1, 2009||444-109|
|Insect Identification and Diagnosis Request||May 19, 2016||444-113 (ENTO-196NP)|
|Giant Resin Bee||
Size: about 0.75 inch (1.9 cm) Color: Black and yellow-brown Giant resin bees are large with a cylindrical body and large jaws. They have a dark head and abdomen with yellow-brown hair on the face, thorax, and the first segment of the abdomen behind the "waist." The wings are a transparent brown color that darkens toward the tips. Male giant resin bees have a truncated, squared abdomen while the females have a more tapered, pointed abdomen. Giant resin bees can be distinguished from bumblebees and carpenter bees by their cylindrical bodies and the appearance of their abdomens. Giant resin bees do not have hairy abdomens like bumblebees, nor are their abdomens shiny like carpenter bees. Hymenoptera: Megachilidae Megachile sculpturalis Smith.
|Dec 10, 2014||444-206 (ENTO-96NP)|
|Black Vine Weevil||
The adults feed on a wide variety of evergreen, deciduous, and herbaceous plants. The larval form is destructive on yew (taxus), hemlock, rhododendron, and several other broad-leaved evergreens. Adults and larvae will sometimes feed on strawberry and impatiens.
|Nov 14, 2014||444-210 (ENTO-86NP)|
|Longhorned Beetles/Roundheaded Borers||
Size: Larvae up to 3 1/4 inches (80mm) or more. Color: Adult longhorned beetles are medium to large cylindrical beetles, usually brown, reddish brown, or black in color. They are sometimes mottled or banded with white or gray. Larvae (roundheaded borers) are brown, reddish brown, or black. They are sometimes mottled or banded with white or gray. Adults are called longhorned beetles because of their long and distinctive 11-segmented antennae, often longer than the beetle's body. The thorax and wing covers on some species bear small, stout spines. Roundheaded borers (larvae) are elongate, cylindrical, and have large gnawing mandibles. The name roundheaded borer refers to the enlarged thorax directly behind the head. Order: Coleoptera, Family: Cerambycidae.
|Dec 11, 2014||444-215 (ENTO-100NP)|
Species identification is difficult because the adult beetles of the various species are very similar, cylindrical and hard-shelled. Over 600 species in the sub-family. Adult beetles are between 1/8 and 1/3 inch long. Nearly all bark beetles are black or brown. Bark beetles are in the Order: Coleoptera, Family: Curculionidae, Sub Family: Scolytinae.
|Nov 10, 2014||444-216 (ENTO-85NP)|
Aphids, or plant lice, are small, soft-bodied insects. There are hundreds of different species of aphids, some of which attack only one host plant while others attack numerous hosts. Most aphids are about 1/10 inch long (2.54 mm), and though green and black are the most common colors, they may be gray, brown, pink, red, yellow, or lavender. A characteristic common to all is the presence of two tubes, called cornicles, on the back ends of their bodies. The cornicles secrete defensive substances. In some species they are quite long, while in others they are very short and difficult to see. Aphids feed in clusters and generally prefer new, succulent shoots or young leaves. Some species, known as wooly aphids, are covered with white, waxy filaments, which they produce from special glands. Order: Homoptera, Family: Aphididae
|Nov 3, 2014||444-220 (ENTO-82NP)|
Spider mites (Family Tetranychidae, Order Acari) are not insects; they are closely related to spiders, harvestmen (daddy longlegs), and ticks. Unlike insects, which have six legs and three body parts, spider mites have eight legs and a one-part body. They also lack wings, antennae, and compound eyes. Individual spider mites are almost microscopic, yet when they occur in large numbers, they can cause serious damage. Dozens of species attack shade trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants.
|Feb 26, 2015||444-221 (ENTO-107NP)|
|Cabbage and Seedcorn Maggot||May 1, 2009||444-231|
|European Corn Borer||May 1, 2009||444-232|
|Spruce Spider Mite||
The spruce spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae, Oligonychus unuguis (Jacobi)) lives in all areas of Virginia and is widely distributed throughout the temperate regions of the United States and Canada. It attacks spruce, arborvitae, juniper, hemlock, pine, Douglas fir, Fraser fir, and larch, among others.
|Mar 2, 2015||444-235 (ENTO-108NP)|
|White Pine Weevil||
The white pine weevil (WPW) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Pissodes strobi (Peck)) is found throughout Virginia. Its preferred hosts are eastern white pine and Norway spruce, but it can attack Scotch and other pines as well.
|Mar 3, 2015||444-270 (ENTO-113NP)|
|Eastern Tent Caterpillar||
Larvae feed in the inner bark of live, healthy dogwood trees. The damaged area of the trunk or branch swells and eventually the bark will fall off. Leaves turning red prematurely in mid-summer on a lone branch are an early sign of dogwood borers. Infested branches and limbs will die. Dogwood borers often will not kill the tree in the first year, but reinfestation in successive years will. Plants attacked include: Dogwood, pecan, elm, hickory, and willow.
|Nov 18, 2014||444-274 (ENTO-92NP)|
|Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle in Virginia||
Multicolored Asian Lady beetles enter the house through small openings around windows, doors, and utility access points. In addition, they can enter the house by cracks in the siding and trim and through attic vents. Sealing those entry sites is the best method to keep them from becoming indoor pests later. Conduct a thorough energy audit of your house, as places where cold air can enter the house are places where this lady beetle can gain access. Fill all cracks and leaks with a fine quality silicone or silicone-latex caulk. Once inside, insecticides are not recommended except for severe cases. Sweep up with a broom and dustpan all beetles that collect in windowsills and on walls. Beetles can also be picked up with a vacuum cleaner but bags will need to be discarded so that beetles do not escape.
|Dec 11, 2014||444-275 (ENTO-102NP)|
In Virginia both the 17-and 13-year cicadas damage many ornamental and hardwood trees. Oaks are commonly attacked but the most seriously damaged are newly planted fruit and ornamental trees such as apple, dogwood, peach, hickory, cherry, and pear. Pines and other conifers are not commonly attacked.
|Feb 25, 2015||444-276 (ENTO-105NP)|
Eggs are laid early in the spring and hatch in late May or early June. The crawlers settle quickly and produce a second brood by mid-July. A third brood is produced in October. There is continuous overlapping of broods, so that all stages may be found during favorable conditions. Two to three-plus generations per year may occur in Virginia. The overwintering stage is the adult female.
|Nov 21, 2014||444-277 (ENTO-93NP)|
|Lilac Borer/Ash Borer||
The adult has clear wings and is wasp-like in appearance. Size: The moth is about 1 inch long with a wingspan of 1 1/2 inches. Color: The fore wings are brown or chocolate color and the hind wings are clear with a dark border. The larvae are pure white worms with brown heads. Order: Lepidoptera Family: Sesiidae Species: Podosesia syringae (Harris).
|Dec 11, 2014||444-278 (ENTO-99NP)|
Whiteflies are white insects with pale yellow bodies that are approximately 2 mm long. They belong to the order Homoptera and are close relatives of aphids, scales, mealybugs, hoppers and cicadas.
|Mar 3, 2015||444-280 (ENTO-114NP)|
Adult thrips are small, pale-yellow insects (occasionally black) with elongated bodies, and fringed wings. Their life cycle consists of an egg, nymph, pre-pupa, pupa and an adult. The exact time required for thrips to complete their life cycle varies with species, temperature and the host plant. Western flower thrips complete their life cycle, from egg to adult, in approximately 10 days at 80° F. Adults insert eggs in leaf tissue which hatch in approximately three days. Nymphs feed for four to five days and then drop from the plant to pupate in the soil. Adults emerge after two days of pupation and begin feeding.
|Mar 3, 2015||444-281 (ENTO-110NP)|
|Red Imported Fire Ant (RIFA)||Mar 5, 2010||444-284|
|American Cockroach||Mar 4, 2010||444-288|
|Pine Shoot Beetle||
Pine shoot beetles are in the same family as bark beetles and resemble bark beetles in appearance with their cylindrical shape. The adults are 1/8 to 1/4 inches long. The larvae are legless and can be up to 1/4 inch long. Pine shoot beetles are dark brown. The larvae have a dark brown head and creamy white body.
|Apr 27, 2015||444-291 (ENTO-149NP)|
|Field Guide to Stink Bugs||
Field Guide to Stink Bugs of Agricultural Importance in the United States
|Nov 17, 2014||444-356 (ENTO-68)|
|Second Edition Mid-Atlantic Guide to the Insect Pests and Beneficials of Corn, Soybean, and Small Grains||Oct 4, 2012||444-360|
|Managing Stink Bugs in Cotton: Research in the Southeast Region||Sep 23, 2009||444-390|
|Adventures with Insects, 4-H Entomology Project Book||
Welcome to the 4-H Entomology Project. It will introduce you to many new and exciting experiences. The Entomology Project is fun; it may help you prepare for the study of insects as your life’s work, or help you learn how important insects are in the lives of everyone.
|Mar 18, 2014||444-408 (4H-251NP)|
|Using Pitfall Traps to Monitor Insect Activity||May 1, 2009||444-416|
|Widow Spiders||Dec 18, 2012||444-422|
|Subterranean Termite Treatment Options||Mar 5, 2010||444-500|
|Signs of Subterranean Termite Infestation||Mar 1, 2010||444-501|
|Subterranean Termite Biology and Behavior||Mar 5, 2010||444-502|
|Asparagus Beetles||Sep 27, 2017||444-620 (ENTO-243NP)|
Plants Attacked: Wax scale has well over 50 hosts, especially Japanese and Chinese hollies, pyracantha, spirea, ivy, hemlock, euonymus, and boxwood; Description of Damage: Infestations seldom kill plants directly, but seriously weaken them, reduce growth, and cause decline. Deposits of honeydew give rise to rampant growth of the black sooty mold fungus, particularly on burford and Chinese holly.
|Mar 3, 2015||444-622 (ENTO-112NP)|
|Magnolia Soft Scale||
Heavy magnolia soft scale infestations cause stunting of twigs and undersize leaves, visibly weakening the trees. Small trees may be killed. Large trees lose branches and tree shape may become irregular.
|Dec 11, 2014||444-623 (ENTO-101NP)|
The Japanese weevil has a long list of hosts, but is especially found on cherry laurel, broad-leaved evergreens, pyracantha, privet, barberry, euonymus, and many others. This weevil has also damaged vegetable and field crops in Virginia.
|Dec 11, 2014||444-624 (ENTO-98NP)|
|Dogwood Twig Borer||
The larvae tunnel in live twigs and feed down the center of the branch, making a long series of closely placed round holes for the exudation of frass. Periodically, the larvae cut off portions of the twig from within and continue to feed inside the twig on the green wood working their way down.
|Nov 18, 2014||444-625 (ENTO-91NP)|
|Gypsy Moth in Virginia: An Update||May 1, 2009||444-750|
|Corn Earworm Biology and Management in Soybeans||
Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, is the most common and destructive insect pest of soybeans grown in Virginia. Although infestation severity varies, about one-third of our acreage is treated annually. This costs farmers 1.5 to 2 million dollars annually, and requires the application of many pounds of insecticide to crop lands. We may never eliminate this pest from Virginia soybeans, but knowledge of the biology and use of best management practices can help limit insecticide controls to those fields that meet economic threshold criteria. This publication provides current information on corn earworm biology, prediction of outbreaks, pest advisories, scouting procedures, and recently revised economic thresholds.
|Nov 13, 2014||444-770|
|Farm Security - “Treat it Seriously” – Security for Plant Agriculture: Producer Response for Plant Diseases, Chemical Contamination, and Unauthorized Activity||Mar 9, 2011||445-004|
|Farm Security - “Treat it Seriously” – Security for Plant Agriculture: On-Farm Assessment and Security Practices||Mar 9, 2011||445-005|
|Problem-free Shrubs for Virginia Landscapes||
The most effective form of plant disease control in the landscape is prevention. Disease prevention can be as simple as choosing the right plant for the right place at planting time. This fact sheet was developed as a guide to shrubs that generally experience few problems in Virginia landscapes. Using these species for new plantings should help you avoid troublesome disease and insect problems in your landscape.
|Jun 27, 2016||450-236 (PPWS-69P)|
|Problem-free Trees for Virginia Landscapes||
Many of the tree species commonly planted in Virginia landscapes suffer from disease problems. Although some diseases can be cured, most must be controlled on a preventative basis. The best option for new plantings is to choose species that have a low risk of developing disease. Listed below, in alphabetical order, are some choices of problem-free trees for Virginia landscapes.
|Oct 19, 2016||450-237 (PPWS-70P)|
|Rose Rosette Disease||
Rose rosette disease (RRD), a disease believed to be caused by the recently identified Rose rosette virus, has been spreading through much of the wild rose population of the Midwestern, Southern, and Eastern United States for years.
|Sep 17, 2012||450-620 (PPWS-10P)|
|Nematode Diagnostic Assay Report||Apr 29, 2016||450-901 (ENTO-197NP)|
|Pest Management Guide: Field Crops, 2018||Mar 1, 2018||456-016 (ENTO-239P)|
|Pest Management Guide: Horticultural and Forest Crops, 2018||Mar 21, 2018||456-017 (ENTO-240P)|
|Pest Management Guide: Home Grounds and Animals, 2018||
This 2018 Virginia Pest Management Guide provides the latest recommendations for controlling diseases, insects, and weeds for home grounds and animals. The chemical controls in this guide are based on the latest pesticide label information at the time of writing. Because pesticide labels change, read the label directions carefully before buying and using any pesticide. Regardless of the information provided here, always follow the latest product label instructions when using any pesticide.
|Mar 19, 2018||456-018 (ENTO-238P)|
|2018 Mid-Atlantic Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations||
New varieties and strains of vegetables are constantly being developed throughout the world and it is impossible to list and describe all of them, only those that are available and are adapted to the mid-Atlantic region are listed in this publication.
|Feb 9, 2018||456-420 (AREC-232P)|
|IMPACT: Virginia Potato Disease Advisory Impact||
Potatoes are a major food crop on the Eastern Shore of Virginia, with average annual cash receipts of $14 million (2011-13).
|Nov 13, 2014||ANR-105P|
|Environmental Best Management Practices for Virginia's Golf Courses||Feb 27, 2013||ANR-48NP|
|IMPACT: Virginia Winter Fruit School Impact||
Tree fruits are important to the agricultural economy in Virginia. The commonwealth ranks sixth in the nation in apple production, with a crop valued at more than $68 million, and 20th in peach production, with a crop valued at $4.5 million. Although smaller in acreage, cherries, pears, and plums also play an important role in some areas of Virginia. These fruit crops are susceptible to an everchanging array of insects, plant diseases, and weeds, and pest management programs are complex and knowledge-intensive.
|May 13, 2015||AREC-135NP|
|2016 Insect Pest Management in Virginia Cotton, Peanut, and Soybean||Jan 20, 2017||AREC-200NP|
|Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2014||
Proper soil fertility management ensures sufficient nutrients for maximum cotton production. Obtaining and maintaining appropriate soil nutrient concentrations is imperative, as fertilizer inputs are the largest component of production budgets for Virginia cotton farmers. At the same time, excessive nutrient application wastes money, wastes natural resources, and can negatively impact yields and environmental quality.
|Feb 7, 2014||AREC-62NP|
|Southeastern U.S. 2018 Vegetable Crop Handbook||
New varieties and strains of particular varieties of vegetables are constantly being developed throughout the world. Since it is impossible to list and describe all of them, only some of the better performing commercial types are listed in the specific crop section, either alphabetically or in order of relative maturity from early to late. These varieties are believed to be suitable for commercial production under most conditions.
|Feb 19, 2018||AREC-66NP (AREC-234NP)|
|Arthropod Pest Management Research on Vegetables in Virginia – 2011||
This booklet summarizes more than 50 experiments of arthropod pest management research conducted on vegetable crops in Virginia in 2011. Experiments were primarily conducted at three Virginia Tech research stations: the Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center (ESAREC) near Painter, VA, the Hampton Roads Agricultural Research and Extension Center (HRAREC) in Virginia Beach, VA and the Kentland Research Farm near Blacksburg, VA. All plots were maintained according to standard commercial practices.
|Feb 1, 2012||ENTO-1|
|2014 Arthropod Pest Management Research On Vegetable in Virginia||
This booklet contains arthropod pest management research conducted on vegetable crops in eastern Virginia in 2014. Research was conducted at several
|Apr 22, 2015||ENTO-127NP|
|Bed Bug Action Plan for Apartments||
Bed bug infestations have been a nightmare for apartment managers. Apartment communities have seen their pest management expenses go from $30,000 to over $100,000 in a single year. Many apartment managers have admitted to hiring and firing 3 or 4 pest management companies because none were able to get the bed bug problem under control. Some complexes have even closed or sold because they could no longer afford to treat communities that were 50-90% infested.
|Jun 2, 2015||ENTO-128NP|
|Bed Bug Action Plan for Schools||
Bed bug infestations are continuing to spread through single-family and multi-unit homes. This means that more people are living with bed bugs than ever before. When more people live with bed bugs the possibility of people transporting bed bugs to other locations increases. Children living with bed bugs at home will bring bed bugs to school. We need to accept the fact that bed bugs have the potential to be transported to school every day that school is in session. Thus, there is a great probability any particular school will experience multiple bed bug introductions every year.
|Apr 24, 2015||ENTO-129NP|
|Sugarcane beetle in corn||Jun 28, 2012||ENTO-13NP|
|Non-Chemical Bed Bug Management||
Bed bugs have proven to be a very challenging pest. While most people would like to have a pest management professional come to their home and spray a magic potion that eliminates bed bugs forever, no such potion exists. Bed bugs are highly resistant to a number of insecticides and their eggs are impervious to most insecticide formulations.
|Apr 29, 2015||ENTO-130NP|
|Florida Predatory Stink Bug||
The Florida predatory stink bug (FPSB) is a native stink bug species in the southeastern United States. It predominately occurs in neotropical regions, but can be found as far north as Pennsylvania. This species is a natural enemy that feeds on a variety of insects including many agricultural pests (Figs. 1 & 2).
|Jun 5, 2015||ENTO-131NP|
|Banded Ash Borer||
Adult banded ash borers have somewhat cylindrical, elongated bodies ranging from 8–18 mm (0.3–0.7 inches) long and tapered towards the tip of the abdomen. Adults are grayish-black in color with lighter colored hairs all over the body. There is a yellow band on the leading edge of the thorax directly behind the head and several yellow bands across the wing covers.
|May 19, 2015||ENTO-133NP|
Adult blow flies are generally medium to large, robust flies. They vary in length, with the largest species measuring about 16 mm (0.6 inches) long.
|May 19, 2015||ENTO-134NP|
|Brown Recluse Spider||
Brown recluse spiders belong to a group of spiders commonly known as violin spiders or fiddlebacks. Their name refers to a characteristic fiddle-shaped pattern on their head region directly behind their eyes (never on the abdomen). Brown recluse spiders range in color from tan to dark brown, but often they are a golden brown.
|May 19, 2015||ENTO-135NP|
Adult cluster flies are medium-sized, robust, somewhat bristly flies about 7 mm (0.3 inches) long.
|May 19, 2015||ENTO-136NP|
Adult house flies are medium-sized flies about 6 mm (0.25 inch) long. They are grayish-black in color, with 4 dark bands running the length of the thorax and conspicuous bristles on the body.
|May 19, 2015||ENTO-137NP|
|Lice Found on Humans||
Human head and body lice are wingless, flattened insects with mouthparts for sucking blood. The head is somewhat narrower than the rest of the elongated body. Adults are small, about the size of a sesame seed (2.5–3.5 mm; 0.1 inch).
|May 19, 2015||ENTO-138NP|
|Imported Willow Leaf Beetle||
Imported willow leaf beetle was identified in the United States in 1915. It likely arrived on landscape plants shipped from Europe, where it is native.
|May 20, 2015||ENTO-139NP|
Adult iris borers are stout, medium sized moths with a wingspan of 3.8–5 cm (1.5–2 inches). The head and forewings are covered with purplish brown scales and the hind wings are yellowish. The forewings have thin dark zigzag lines, a more conspicuous dark kidney-shaped spot, and variable sooty shading around the margins
|May 20, 2015||ENTO-140NP|
|Locust Borer, Megacyllene robiniae (Forst.) Coleoptera: Cerambycidae||
The locust borer is a native insect that attacks black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and its ornamental cultivars. Adult locust borers are conspicuous black and yellow beetles with long black antennae and reddish legs. There is a yellow W-shaped band across the wing covers with other yellow stripes.
|May 8, 2015||ENTO-141NP|
|Redheaded Ash Borer||
Adult redheaded ash borers have somewhat cylindrical, elongated bodies ranging from 4–13 mm (0.16–0.5 inches) long and tapered towards the tip of the abdomen. The head, thorax and legs are reddish brown and there are four yellow dorsal bands on the darker wing covers.
|May 7, 2015||ENTO-142NP|
|Psocids: Barklice and Booklice||
Psocids are small, oval insects with soft bodies that usually measure only several millimeters long. A psocid measuring 6 mm (0.25 inches) long is rather large for this group of insects. Psocids generally occur in shades of brown, black, or pale colors; some have distinctive mottled or striped markings.
|May 7, 2015||ENTO-143NP|
|Crab Lice, Pthirus pubis (L.) Psocodea: Phthiraptera; Pthiridae||
Crab lice are very small (1.5–2 mm; 0.06–0.08 inch), wingless, flattened insects with mouthparts for sucking blood. The body is about as wide as it is long, broadest at the “shoulders”, with a small head.
|May 7, 2015||ENTO-144NP|
|Galls made by Wasps||
Gall wasps attack primarily oak trees, and are found on roots, flowers, and acorns, but especially the leaves and twigs. Roses and brambles (blackberries and raspberries) also are attacked by gall wasps. These insects have complicated life cycles, and the galls they produce occur in an endless variety of shapes and colors. In some species, alternate generations produce distinctly different galls.
|May 14, 2015||ENTO-145NP|
|Galls made by aphids, adelgids, phylloxerans, psyllids, and midges||
Galls made by made by aphids, adelgids, phylloxerans, psyllids, and midges occur on many different plants. Galls are abnormal growths of plant tissue induced by insects and other organisms. Gall-making parasites release growth-regulating chemicals as they feed, causing adjacent plant tissues to form a gall. The parasite then develops within the relative security of the gall. Most are harmless to trees, but a few are pests.
|May 8, 2015||ENTO-146NP|
|Galls and Rust made by Mites||
Galls are abnormal growths of plant tissue induced by insects and other organisms. Gall-making parasites release growth-regulating chemicals as they feed, causing adjacent plant tissues to form a gall. The parasite then develops within the relative security of the gall. Galls come in an endless variety of forms. Many are strikingly colored or curiously shaped. Each gall-making species causes a gall structurally different from all others. By noting the type of host plant and the structure of the gall, one can identify the gall-making mite without actually seeing it.
|May 8, 2015||ENTO-147NP|
|Large and unusual Insects Found in Virginia||
Several different insects are found in Virginia that cause concern due to their large size and coloration. They are for the most part harmless and just curiosities of nature.
|May 5, 2015||ENTO-148NP|
|Native and Solitary Bees In Virginia||
Although honey bees are well known for pollination and honey production, other bees at times impact humans in various ways. These native bees range from beneficial to annoying, sometimes at the same time. Native bees are important pollinators for fruit and vegetables.
|May 8, 2015||ENTO-151NP|
|Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Biology And Management In Mid-Atlantic Soybeans||
The mission of the Delaware Soybean Board (DSB), Maryland Soybean Board (MSB), and Virginia Soybean Board (VSB) is to maximize the profitability of soybean producers in their respective states by investing soybean checkoff funds in targeted domestic and international research, promotion and communication initiatives. The volunteer farmer- leaders who serve on the DSB, MSB and VSB boards of directors invest your checkoff dollars in research to improve soybean production practices to make your farm more profitable and ensure the sustainability of Mid-Atlantic soybean production.
|Nov 5, 2015||ENTO-168NP|
|Pediobius foveolatus – A parasitoid of the Mexican bean beetle||
Pediobius foveolatus, is a tiny exotic parasitoid wasp that is used as a biological control agent for Mexican bean beetle, an important defoliating pest of beans in Virginia.
|Sep 24, 2015||ENTO-170NP|
|Cerceris fumipennis “The Smokey Winged Beetle Bandit”||
Cerceris fumipennis is a solitary digger wasp (crabronid) native to eastern North America. It is a predator almost exclusively of adult beetles of the family Buprestidae. This wasp gathers many species of native metallic wood-boring beetles, as well as the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (EAB).
|Sep 24, 2015||ENTO-171NP|
|Yellow Poplar Weevil||
Rice-shaped holes about 1/16 inches result from adult feeding. Larval feeding forms mines, usually two per leaf. If they are both on the same side of midrib, one is extensive, and the other dwarfed. If the insect lays eggs on opposite sides of the midrib, both mines develop normally.
|Nov 6, 2015||ENTO-172NP|
|Diagnosing stink bug injury to vegetables||
In the mid-Atlantic U.S. vegetable crops are attacked by several different stink bug species (1). The primary pest species include: the invasive brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys, which has become the dominant species in most landscapes (2), brown stink bug, Euschistus servus Say, which is the most common species attacking tomatoes; green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris Say (3); and harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica, which is primarilly a pest of brassica vegetables only (4). All stink bugs are piercing sucking feeders that insert their stylets into the fruit, pods, buds, leaves, and stems of plants.
|Nov 13, 2015||ENTO-173NP|
|Benefits of an Insecticide Seed Treatment for Pumpkin Production in Virginia||
In recent years cucurbit growers in the Mid-Atlantic U.S. could purchase their seeds pre-treated with the neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam. The insecticide seed treatment is currently packaged as FarMore F1400, which also includes three proven and complementary fungicides that provide the first line of defense against several key seed and seedling diseases including Rhizoctonia, Fusarium, Pythium, general damping-off and seedling blight.
|Dec 21, 2015||ENTO-174NP|
|Summary of insecticide efficacy for control of wireworms on potatoes – Virginia (2003-2015)||
Wireworms are the subterranean larval stage of click beetles. These insects can remain in the soil for several years attacking potato seed pieces or tubers or seeds and roots of other crops that are planted in the field.
|Dec 23, 2015||ENTO-176NP|
|Control of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug with Insecticide-Treated Window Screens||
In Virginia and other Mid-Atlantic states, the invasive brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) has become a serious nuisance pest (Rice et al. 2014). Each fall, these insects aggregate on buildings seeking shelters in which to spend the winter months.
|Jan 26, 2016||ENTO-177NP|
|Evaluation of the Residual Efficacy of Commercial Slug Baits||
Slugs are prevalent pests in no-till and reduced-till crop systems in Virginia. These slimy mollusks utilize plant residue to hide during the day, and at night, they feed on numerous crops causing irregular feeding holes and shredded leaves. Slugs cause the most damage during early plant growth.
|Jan 29, 2016||ENTO-178NP|
The spotted lanternfly (SLF) originates from China where its presence has been documented in detail dating as far back as the 12th century.
|Jul 26, 2018||ENTO-180NP (ENTO-284NP)|
|Insect Pest Management in Virginia Cotton, Peanut, and Soybean 2015||Mar 8, 2016||ENTO-184NP|
This bug is about 1/2 inch long and 1/3 as wide. It is black with three red lines on the thorax, a red line along each side, and an oblique red line on each wing. The wings lie flat on the back when at rest. The young nymphs are red and gray. The population of bugs may number into the thousands. Hemiptera: Rhopalidae, Leptocoris trivittatus
|Feb 26, 2016||ENTO-186NP|
|Hag Moth Caterpillar||Dec 21, 2017||ENTO-19NP (ENTO-259NP)|
|The pest caterpillars of cole crops in Virginia||
Caterpillars, or the larval stage of Lepidoptera, are probably the most damaging of insect groups that feed on cole crops, such as collard, kale, cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts, and Chinese cabbage.
|Mar 2, 2012||ENTO-2|
|Hickory Horned Devil||Dec 21, 2017||ENTO-20NP (ENTO-260NP)|
|Mosquitos and their Control||
The key to controlling mosquitoes is removing the standing or stagnant water where they live.
|Mar 11, 2016||ENTO-202NP|
|Virginia turfgrass insect management survey||Jul 28, 2016||ENTO-219NP|
|Velvet Ants||Dec 21, 2017||ENTO-22NP (ENTO-263NP)|
|Fall cankerworm: Alsophila pometaria||
Cankerworms are also known as inchworms, loop worms, and spanworms - this is credited to their distinctive way of moving. In order to travel, a cankerworm must grab leaves or branches with its front legs and then pull the rest of its body forward. This causes the abdomen area to contract and gives the worm the appearance of arching its back.
|Aug 5, 2016||ENTO-223NP|
|Insecticide and Acaricide Research on Vegetables in Virginia 2016||
This booklet contains arthropod pest management research conducted on vegetable crops in eastern Virginia in 2016. Research was conducted at several locations in Virginia including: 1) the Virginia Tech Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center (AREC) near Painter, VA.
|Dec 14, 2016||ENTO-229NP|
|Springtails||Dec 21, 2017||ENTO-23NP (ENTO-262NP)|
|Insect Identification Laboratory Annual Report 2016||Mar 7, 2017||ENTO-233|
|Economic Pests of Turfgrass||Jan 31, 2018||ENTO-237NP|
|Silverfish and Firebrats||Dec 21, 2017||ENTO-24NP (ENTO-261NP)|
|Stink Bugs||Oct 13, 2017||ENTO-242NP|
|Survey of Pest Management Practices of Virginia Sweet Corn Growers – 2017||Dec 5, 2017||ENTO-248NP|
|Ground Beetles||Dec 13, 2017||ENTO-249NP|
|Pest Alert: Spotted Lanternfly Lycorma delicatula||Feb 21, 2018||ENTO-265NP|
|Corn earworm monitoring in commercial sweet corn fields in Virginia – 2017||Mar 5, 2018||ENTO-266NP|
|Flea Beetles Attacking Brassica Plants in Virginia||Mar 27, 2018||ENTO-267NP|
|Flea Beetles Attacking Eggplant in Virginia||Apr 11, 2018||ENTO-270NP|
|Possible Spotted Lanternfly Egg Mass Look-alikes in Virginia||May 16, 2018||ENTO-276NP|
|Possible Spotted Lanternfly Immature Look-alikes in Virginia||May 16, 2018||ENTO-277NP|
|Possible Spotted Lanternfly Adult Look-alikes in Virginia||May 16, 2018||ENTO-278NP|
|Alerta de Plagas: Mosca Linterna con Manchas Lycorma delicatula||May 30, 2018||ENTO-265 (ENTO-279S)|
|Performance of Insecticides on Brown Marmorated Stink Bug on Vegetables||Dec 14, 2012||ENTO-28NP|
|Longhorned Tick||Jun 25, 2018||ENTO-282NP|
|Darkling Beetles and Mealworms||Jun 25, 2018||ENTO-283NP|
|Asian Needle Ant||Jun 4, 2018||ENTO-29NP (ENTO-280NP)|
|Bed Bugs: How to Protect Yourself and Your Home||May 14, 2013||ENTO-31NP|
|Insect and Mite Pests of Boxwood||
Three pests, the boxwood leafminer, mite and psyllid commonly attack American and English boxwood in Virginia and cause spotting, yellowing, and puckering of leaves.
|Sep 25, 2013||ENTO-42NP|
Millipedes range from 1 to 4 inches (25.4-100mm) and are usually dark brown. Millipedes are slow crawling, round-bodied pests, which have two sets of legs on each, body segment. Millipedes develop best in damp and dark locations with abundant organic matter (food). They often curl up into a tight "C" shape, like a watch spring, and remain motionless when touched. The body is long and cylindrical.
|Sep 25, 2013||ENTO-43NP|
Description of Damage: The bark becomes roughened and encrusted with scales. Branches and limbs die back and result in a rapid decline in tree vigor, occasionally resulting in the death of trees. Seriously weakened trees are common in Virginia as a result of scale populations, especially red and silver maples.
|Sep 25, 2013||ENTO-44NP|
|Insect Identification Lab||
Welcome to the Insect Identification Laboratory at Virginia Tech. The Insect Identification Lab covers all insects found in all situations and commodities in Virginia. This diagnostic lab started in 1967 and is a service for Extension Agents and Citizens of Virginia.
|Sep 25, 2013||ENTO-45NP|
DESCRIPTION: Yellowjackets are from 5/8 to 1 inch (14-25.4mm) long, have black and yellow markings in a bold pattern. Since they are a type of wasp, they have a definite waist. They fold their wings lengthwise when at rest. Like all wasps, yellowjackets prey on a wide variety of insects and other arthropods. Yellowjackets are unusual in that workers also forage on foods consumed by people, especially sweets and meats.
|Sep 26, 2013||ENTO-49NP|
|How to Identify a Bed Bug Infestation||May 3, 2012||ENTO-4P|
|Mexican Bean Beetle||
Mexican Bean Beetle (MBB), Epilachna varivestis Mulsant (Fig. 1), is an herbivorous lady beetle (Coccinellidae) that feeds on bean crops (legumes) in North America. It is similar to the squash lady beetle, Epilachna borealis, which feeds primarily on cucurbits. MBB can cause significant defoliation damage to various bean crops particularly in the genus Phaseolus (snap beans, lima beans, pole beans, etc.). It will also feed on soybean, alfalfa, beggarweed, kudzu, and other legumes.
|Dec 13, 2013||ENTO-51NP|
|Improving Pest Management with Farmscaping||
Farmscaping is a holistic ecologically-based approach to pest management that emphasizes the arrangement or configuration of plants that promote biological pest management by attracting and sustaining beneficial organisms. Ideal farmscape plantings provide habitat for beneficial insects, suppress weeds, and grow in close proximity to the cash crop without competing for light, water and nutrients. Research has shown that maintaining high levels of species diversity is a key characteristic of a proper functioning agroecosystem. Unfortunately, intensive farming operations including growing large monocultures, regular cultivation, and excessive use of insecticides often leads to a dramatic reduction in arthropod diversity, especially natural enemies that often keep many pest insects below damaging levels. Farmscaping is a technique designed to add diversity back to the system and minimize disturbance leading to increases in natural enemy populations by providing insectary plants as food and shelter resources.
|Dec 6, 2013||ENTO-52NP(ENTO-55NP)|
|Leatherwing (Soldier) Beetles||
Beetles in the family Cantharidae are referred to as soldier beetles or leatherwings. The name soldier beetle originates from the elytra (front wings) of one of the earliest described species being reminiscent of early uniforms of British soldiers. The latter name was coined for the soft nature of the elytra. Two species in the genus Chauliognathus are commonly found in Virginia. Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus (Fig 1) is often referred to as the Pennsylvania leatherwing, or the goldenrod soldier beetle referring to its favorite flowering plant in the fall. A similar species Chauliognathus marginatus, the margined leatherwing, is found in the spring on various flowers.
|Dec 10, 2013||ENTO-53NP|
|Como Identificar Infestaciones de Chinches||May 3, 2012||ENTO-5S|
|Arthropod Pest Management Research on Vegetables in Virginia – 2013||
This booklet contains arthropod pest management research conducted on vegetable crops in Virginia in 2013. Research was conducted at several locations including: 1) the Virginia Tech Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center (AREC) near Painter, VA; 2) the Hampton Roads AREC in Virginia Beach, VA; 3) the Virginia Tech Kentland Research Farm near Blacksburg, VA; and 4) the Southwest Virginia 4-H Educational Center in Abingdon, VA.
|Feb 25, 2014||ENTO-60NP|
|Striped Cucumber Beetle||
In Virginia, cucurbits are attacked by two native species of cucumber beetles, the striped cucumber beetle, A. vittatum, which is featured in this document, and the spotted cucumber beetle, Diabrotica decimpunctata howardi (Mannerheim), which is discussed in a separate fact sheet.
|Feb 25, 2014||ENTO-61NP|
|History, Distribution and Pest Status of the Mexican bean beetle||
Mexican Bean Beetle (MBB), Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, (Fig 1) is an herbivorous ladybeetle (Coccinellidae) that feeds on legumes in North America. It is closely related to the squash ladybeetle, Epilachna borealis, which feeds primarily on cucurbits. MBB can cause significant defoliation damage to bean crops, particularly those in the genus Phaseolus (snap beans, lima beans, pole beans, etc.). For more information on general biology and pest management of MBB, see VCE Fact Sheet No. ENTO-51.
|Mar 25, 2014||ENTO-62NP|
The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii (Cano), is a sporadic pest of pepper in Virginia. The insect is predominately a pest in the southern U.S., where it can inflict significant damage to that crop. Though adult weevils may feed on numerous plant species within the family Solanaceae, oviposition and subsequent larval development is specific to plants within the genera Capsicum (peppers) and Solanum (nightshades). Individuals may live 3-4 months and there are multiple generations (often 5-8) per year. The pepper weevil is an uncommon pest in Virginia, but if it occurs, infestations can result in the loss of entire pepper crops.
|Mar 25, 2014||ENTO-63NP|
Squash bugs are one of the primary pests of cucurbits in the United States. Adults are typically 10 to 30 mm long, dark gray, brown or black in color with orange or brown markings on the sides of the abdomen (Fig. 1). Overwintering adults emerge from the soil, ground litter, wood piles or buildings in the spring. After feeding and mating, females deposit egg masses on the underside of leaves. Newly laid eggs are typically light pale in color, become coppery, then darker as they develop. Egg masses are commonly laid in diamond or V-shaped patterns along leaf veins (Fig 2).
|Mar 25, 2014||ENTO-64NP|
|Nosema and Honey Bee Colony Health||
Members of the Nosema genus are microsporidians, which are now classified as a fungus. Nosema species (spp.) are obligate, intracellular parasites. This means that they require a host (in this case a honey bee) to complete their lifecycle. There are two species from the genus that infect our honey bees (Apis mellifera) – Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae. Nosema apis is a well studied species that has been known to infect honey bees for over 100 years. A thorough review is given by Fries . Nosema ceranae is a closely related species and was first found in Apis cerana, the Asian honey bee in 1996  and then in the European honey bee in 2006 [3-4].
|Mar 31, 2014||ENTO-66NP|
|Green Stink Bug||
Green stink bug, Chinavia halaris (formerly Acrosternum hilare) (Say), is a highly polyphagous pest of many crops throughout Virginia including soybean, tomato, pepper, snapbean, okra, and tree fruit and nut crops. They are often confused with southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) because of their similar green coloring and habitat during the growing season, but can be properly separated by identifying the elongated scent canal on the ventral side of the metathorax. They can also be distinguished from the shape of their abdominal spine with the green stink bug having a more pointed spine at the base of the hind legs instead of the rounded spine on the southern green stink bug. Also, southern green stink bug is rarely found in Virginia.
|Apr 11, 2014||ENTO-67NP|
|Spiders of Medical Concern in Virginia||
Several species of spiders found in Virginia have fearsome reputations for giving painful bites resulting in life-threating complications.
|Aug 8, 2014||ENTO-73NP|
Parasitic wasps, also called parasitoids, are found in multiple families within the insect order Hymenoptera, which also contains the sawflies, bees, and wasps.
|Aug 8, 2014||ENTO-74NP|
|Stinging Caterpillars: Slug Caterpillars and Flannel Moths||
Slug caterpillars in the family Limacodidae move with a slow gliding motion rather than walking, much like a slug. Some slug caterpillars are brightly colored with bumps, protuberances, or appendages.
|Aug 8, 2014||ENTO-75NP|
|Emerald Ash Borer Control for Foresters and Landowners||
Emerald ash borer (EAB) is found in all regions of Virginia. Some areas have established populations with a high level of ash tree mortality and other areas are seeing it for the first time. With a wider spread of infestation many homeowners are seeking methods to protect their ash trees.
|Sep 4, 2014||ENTO-76NP|
Both Hawaiian beet webworm (HBW) and beet webworm (BW) have multiple generations per year, and the total number is based on temperature. In tropical and subtropical climates, HBW is active year round, and can complete a generation in about 30 days. The species cannot overwinter in Virginia, but can migrate northward during the season to become a pest in late summer and early fall. BW is found throughout the U.S., but is more common in the western states. This species has fewer generations per year and can overwinter in the soil as a mature larva.
|Sep 1, 2014||ENTO-77NP|
|Bed Bugs Biology and Behavior||Jun 25, 2013||ENTO-8P|
|Chinche de cama: Protéjase y proteja su hogar||
La chinche de cama es una plaga que ha afectado a humanos a través de la historia; a comienzos del siglo pasado, era una plaga común en los Estados Unidos. La chinche fue prácticamente erradicada de los Estados Unidos en la década de los 40 y 50 debido, en gran parte, al uso del insecticida DDT, el cual estaba disponible para los consumidores y se aplicaba extensamente con poca regulación.
|Oct 26, 2015||ENTO-80SNP|
|Spotted Lanternfly Lifecycle in Virginia||Apr 3, 2018||ENTO-268NP|
|Larder Beetle||Sep 19, 2018||ENTO-286NP|