Resources for Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation
|Measuring Site Index||
Site index (SI) is a measurement commonly used by foresters to describe the productivity of a site. Typically this measurement is used to describe sites growing well-stocked even-aged forests. Site index is the average height of the dominant1 and codominant2 trees on the site, at a given age (base age). Typically, the base age for hardwoods and white pine in Virginia is 50 years, while the base age for loblolly pine is 25 years. For example, a SI of 75, base age 50, means that the average height of the dominant and codominant trees on a site will be 75 feet when they are 50 years old (SI50=75). The higher the SI, the higher the site productivity (trees will grow faster than on a site with a lower SI).
|Dec 3, 2014||2812-1028 (ANR-125NP)|
|Forest Landowner’s Guide To The Measurement Of Timber And Logs||
As a forest landowner interested in selling timber, you are naturally interested in the price you will receive for your product and how that price is determined. The measurement of standing timber and logs may seem strange and complicated to you, and it is possible that you may be quoted dramatically different prices based upon differing estimates of the amount of timber you have and the units of measurement used. Methods of measuring timber and the units of measurement often differ between buyers, and, as a seller, you should have an understanding of these methods, the units of measurement, and an idea as to a reasonable price for your timber.
|Dec 15, 2014||420-085 (ANR-120P)|
|Invasive Exotic Plant Species Identification and Management||
Invasive exotic species are plants that are not native to a given area and have the ability to out-compete indigenous plant species. Invasive exotics are often brought into their non-native surroundings by humans with good intentions.
|Mar 18, 2015||420-320(AREC-106P)|
|Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata)||
Autumn olive was introduced to the U.S. from Japan and China in 1830. It was originally planted for wildlife habitat, shelterbelts, and mine reclamation, but has escaped cultivation. It is dispersed most frequently by birds and other wildlife, which eat the berries.
|Dec 3, 2014||420-321 (ANR-123P)|
|Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima)||
Ailanthus, also known as tree-of-heaven and paradise- tree, is a major nuisance to foresters, farmers, and homeowners alike. Its prolific seeding and ability to sprout from roots and stumps and grow quite rapidly just about anywhere make it a serious competitor and threat to native species and cultivated crops. On top of that, ailanthus is allelopathic, producing substances that are toxic to and inhibit the growth of neighboring plants.
|May 4, 2015||420-322(ANR-122P)|
|Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.)||
Several species of Asian honeysuckle have been introduced in the United States for their ornamental and wildlife values. Honeysuckle is perhaps the most widespread exotic invasive in the U.S., now found in at least 38 states. The Asian honeysuckle produces abundant seeds which are dispersed by birds and other wildlife. It also spreads by sprouting from its roots. Because it tolerates shade from other plants, it grows in forest understories.
|Jan 20, 2015||420-323(ANR-124P)|
|Characteristics of Common Western Virginia Trees||
Forest management is a complex process. Silviculture—a system in which healthy communities of trees and other vegetation are established and maintained for the benefit of people—uses forest ecology to guide complex management prescriptions that mimic forest disturbances and processes. Silvics—the natural characteristics of trees—play an important role in prescribing effective silviculture.
|Dec 15, 2014||420-351 (ANR-118NP)|
|Virginia Master Naturalist||
The Virginia Master Naturalist program is a statewide corps of volunteers providing education, outreach, and service dedicated to the beneficial management of natural resources and natural areas within their communities.
|Oct 27, 2014||465-300 (ANR-117NP)|
|Virginia Master Naturalist, American Naturalists||
Jared Diamond (2005), in his book, “Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed,” defines landscape amnesia as one of the primary mechanisms for the decline and ultimate collapse of societies. This phenomenon occurs when people lose knowledge of how the natural world once was, with each succeeding generation accepting a degraded environment as the status quo. Carried to its end, a society remains unconcerned until it reaches the point of no return.
|Jun 19, 2015||465-312(ANR-20NP)|
|Hiring an Arborist to Care for Your Landscape Trees||
Landscape trees are valuable assets to your property and for your community. Keeping your trees attractive, healthy, and safe requires careful attention to their planting and care throughout their lives. While many people have a green thumb, there are situations that arise where the expertise of an arborist is needed to address complex or potentially hazardous tree care needs. The purpose of this publication is to inform home owners, property managers, municipal planners, and others about the tree care services provided by an arborist and the steps that should be taken to hire a qualified arborist.
|Dec 18, 2014||ANR-131NP|
|So You Want To Sell Timber||
Research into the attitudes and actions of private forest landowners shows that although very few own their forestland for the purpose of producing timber, most will sell timber at least once in their lifetimes. Private forest landowners sell timber for a variety of reasons that range from purely financial to solely for management purposes. Often landowners do not consider selling timber until they have an immediate need for cash. Other times the landowner has planned an immediate commercial thinning with a full timber harvest scheduled in 10 years. Whatever the reason(s) for a timber sale, careful consideration of objectives is paramount.
|Sep 23, 2015||ANR-154P|
|Timber Selling Tips: Forestry Fact Sheet for Landowners||
Timber harvesting is a valuable tool to help forest landowners realize certain financial and land management goals. Following are some suggestions to consider before selling timber.
|Sep 23, 2015||ANR-155P|
|Slash Application Cost Estimates for Skid Trail Closure in the Virginia Piedmont||
Best management practices (BMPs) were developed after the passage of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 to mitigate pollutants and sediment from entering streams. Forest operations are a potential source of sediment to streams surrounding harvest areas. Specifically, roads, skid trails, landings, and stream crossings can cause accelerated erosion due to the soil disturbance caused by logging equipment and exposure of bare soil (Appelboom et al. 2002). Soil erosion can result in decreased productivity, degraded water quality, and increased costs associated with state and federal environmental regulations.
|Jul 11, 2017||ANR-273NP|
|Commercial Chinese Chestnut Production in Virginia||Sep 21, 2017||ANR-279P|
|To Certify or Not? An Important Question for Virginia’s Family Forest Owners||
Family forest owners ask themselves many questions about their properties, such as if and when to cut timber, what types of wildlife to manage for, how to control exotic invasive species, and how to protect water quality. An increasingly common question that forest owners ask is whether they should certify their forests. This publication can help forest owners determine if certification is an appropriate option. It defines certification, as well as its benefits and costs, and describes three common certification programs in Virginia. It also covers how family forest owners can begin the certification process, lists sources of additional information, and answers frequently asked questions.
|Sep 9, 2013||ANR-50P|
|How to Plan for and Plant Streamside Conservation Buffers with Native Fruit and Nut Trees and Woody Floral Shrubs||Aug 30, 2018||ANR-69P (CNRE-27P)|
|ENERGY SERIES: What about Landscaping and Energy Efficiency?||
Landscaping has always played an important role in modifying the home environment for thermal comfort. Throughout the history of civilization, housing has been designed to offer protection from the most severe conditions imaginable. Until the invention of mechanical cooling and heating systems, people relied heavily on their ability to modify their surroundings to deal with extreme climates.
|Jul 7, 2014||BSE-145NP|
|Defining Silvopastures: Integrating Tree Production With Forage-Livestock Systems for Economic, Environmental, and Aesthetic Outcomes||May 23, 2016||CSES-146P|
|Emerald Ash Borer||
The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is a wood-boring beetle native to eastern Asia and is now considered the most destructive forest pest ever seen in North America. Since its discovery in Michigan in 2002, it has killed tens of millions of native ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in the United States and Canada. This destruction has already cost municipalities, property owners, and businesses tens of millions of dollars in damages.
|Feb 7, 2014||HORT-69NP|