Resources for Hampton Roads Agricultural Research and Extension Center

Title Available As Summary Date ID Author
Japanese Beetle
The Japanese beetle is found throughout Virginia and in most of the Eastern United States. In regions west of the Mississippi it is found in isolated pockets. Japanese beetles were first found in New Jersey in 1916 and have spread from that point since. The Japanese beetle has been well established in Virginia since the early 1970’s.
Dec 11, 2014 2902-1101 (ENTO-97NP)
Weed Management Update in Small Fruit Jul 24, 2009 2906-1328
Stinger Registered For Virginia-Grown Strawberries Jul 28, 2009 2906-1346
Arthropod Pest Management Research on Vegetables in Virginia – 2010
This booklet contains arthropod pest management research conducted on vegetable crops in eastern Virginia in 2010.
Feb 22, 2011 3102-1532
Gardening for Bees in Hampton Roads Apr 21, 2011 3104-1541
A Longer Marketing Life for Blackberry and Raspberry Fruit
Caneberries, which include blackberries and raspberries, must be picked when the berries are ripe or nearly ripe to ensure quality. Their thin fruit skin, high respiration rate, and high ethylene production make these berries extremely susceptible to postharvest losses. Although both raspberries and blackberries are considered “soft” fruits, raspberries are slightly more perishable in nature. The raspberry fruit is susceptible to greater moisture loss and fungal infection because of its lack of an outer protective covering (cuticle) and the fact that the raspberry fruit is left with a cavity in the center when detached from the plant.
May 11, 2015 423-701(HORT-169P)
Urban Water-Quality Management: Insect Pests of Water Garden Plants
Aphids are often called plant lice. Several species are troublesome pests on above-water leaves (a), stems, and flower buds of aquatic plants. These sucking insects distort succulent new leaves, causing them to curl, wilt, or turn yellow.
Apr 8, 2015 426-040 (HORT-124P)
Urban Water-Quality Management - What Is a Watershed? May 1, 2009 426-041
Urban Water-Quality Management - Winterizing the Water Garden
Water gardens require maintenance throughout the year. Preparation for the winter months is especially important for the survival of both the aquatic plants and the wildlife in and around the pond. Some plants will not tolerate winter weather and must be removed from the pond while cold-hardy plants need only to be completely immersed in the pond.
Mar 19, 2015 426-042 (HORT-125P)
Urban Water-Quality Management: Rain Garden Plants
A rain garden is a landscaped area specially designed to collect rainfall and storm-water runoff. The plants and soil in the rain garden clean pollutants from the water as it seeps into the ground and evaporates back into the atmosphere. For a rain garden to work, plants must be selected, installed, and maintained properly.
Mar 18, 2015 426-043 (HORT-130P)
Urban Water-Quality Management: Purchasing Aquatic Plants Apr 8, 2015 426-044 (HORT-122P)
Urban Water-Quality Management: Wildlife in the Home Pond Garden
Small home pond gardens support aquatic plants and also attract a variety of wildlife. Turtles, frogs, birds, snakes, lizards, and raccoons as well as many other animals may use these ponds. Most wildlife needs water to survive and will seek out ponds for drinking, bathing, habitat, and in some cases, reproduction.
Mar 19, 2015 426-045 (HORT-126P)
Groundwater Quality and the Use of Lawn and Garden Chemicals by Homeowners May 1, 2009 426-059
Gardening & Your Health, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Gardening with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) can be very difficult, especially when a long day of shoveling, raking, or weed pulling leaves you with a painful or “tingling” hand or wrist. These aches and pains are often caused in part by improper techniques or tools used in gardening.
Jun 1, 2017 426-060 (HORT-245NP)
Gardening and Your Health: Protecting Your Hands and Feet
The skin on hands and feet is like most ornamental plants. Neither likes the extremes of being dried out or kept too wet. Treat skin as tenderly as the most sensitive plants and safeguard your horticultural health.
Apr 29, 2015 426-061 (HORT-135P)
Gardening and Your Health: Sunburn & Skin Cancer
Most people have suffered from at least one bad sunburn. The beginning of a sunburn is shown by hot, pink skin. Later comes swelling, burning pain, and possibly blistering. As the burn leaves, peeling inevitably appears. Peeling means that the skin is thickening up to protect itself from further sun damage. If burned skin continues to get exposed to sun, damage can’t be repaired. Even if damage is not visible, skin cells mutate with each sun exposure. Over a lifetime these mutations may add up to cancer, a problem seen on gardeners who work unprotected in the sun. A severe sunburn is one of the biggest risk factors in getting a melanoma skin cancer.
Mar 18, 2015 426-063 (HORT-133P)
Patriotic Gardens: How to Plant a Red, White and Blue Garden Jul 17, 2015 426-210 (HORT-185)
America's Anniversary Garden: A Statewide Corridor and Entrance Enhancement Program Jul 23, 2015 426-211 (HORT-186P)
Patriotic Gardens: Bulbs for a Red, White, and Blue Spring Garden
Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) developed the America’s Anniversary Garden™ to help individuals, communities, and groups commemorate America’s 400th Anniversary with a signature landscape or garden. These signature gardens have red, white, and blue color schemes. Although the commemoration has passed, this guide continues to be useful for creating a patriotic garden. This is the third in a series of VCE garden design, plant selection, plant installation, and maintenance publications for America’s Anniversary Garden™.
Apr 9, 2015 426-220(HORT-163P)
Patriotic Gardens: Red, White, and Blue Native Plants
In 2007, Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) developed the America’s Anniversary Garden to help individuals, communities, and groups commemorate America’s 400th Anniversary with a signature landscape, garden, or container planting. These signature gardens have red, white, and blue color schemes. Although the commemoration has passed, this guide continues to be useful for creating a patriotic garden.
Jan 14, 2015 426-223 (HORT-86P)
America's Anniversary Garden: Red, White, and Blue in Fall and Winter Gardens
Virginia Cooperative Extension developed the America’s Anniversary Garden to help individuals, communities, and groups commemorate America’s 400th anniversary with a signature landscape or garden. These signature gardens have red, white, and blue color schemes. Other VCE garden design, plant selection, plant installation, and maintenance publications for patriotic gardens are listed in the Resources section.
Apr 10, 2015 426-228(HORT-164P)
Managing Winter Injury to Trees and Shrubs
It is often necessary to provide extra attention to plants in the fall to help them over-winter and start spring in peak condition. Understanding certain principles and cultural practices will significantly reduce winter damage that can be divided into three categories: desiccation, freezing, and breakage.
Apr 9, 2015 426-500 (HORT-121P)
Growing Azaleas and Rhododendrons
The spectacular spring flowers of azaleas and rhododendrons make them among the most popular garden shrubs. However, azaleas and rhododendrons are shrubs for all seasons. Throughout the summer and fall the leaves add a pleasing, deep‑green color to the garden. Some deciduous azaleas add bright fall color before the leaves drop. In winter, some varieties stand out with large, evergreen leaves.
Mar 30, 2015 426-602 (HORT-103P)
Selecting Landscape Plants: Rare and Unusual Trees
There are many tree species that can be successfully grown in Virginia, but are rarely seen in our landscapes. Although not ordinarily recommended or readily available, these trees may be useful to carry out a specific landscape theme, to substitute for an exotic type which is not locally adapted, or may be prized for unusual form, flowers, fruits, bark, or foliage.
Jun 18, 2015 426-604(HORT-107P)
Selecting Landscape Plants: Conifers
Conifers, also known as narrow-leaved or needled evergreens, are planted primarily for the attractiveness of their evergreen foliage. The variety of sizes, shapes, and colors available contributes to their popularity. Conifers range in size from prostrate plants growing only a few inches tall to large trees. Shapes include flat ground covers; horizontal spreaders; upright, pyramidal forms; and even weeping and contorted forms. Foliage color ranges from a gold and cream variegation to all shades of green, gray-green, and blue-green.
Apr 6, 2015 426-605 (HORT-108P)
Selecting Landscape Plants: Broad-Leaved Evergreens
There are a large number of highly ornamental broadleaved evergreens. However, many of them require special attention if they are to develop into attractive, long-lived plants. Wide fluctuations in temperature, prolonged dry periods, drying winds, and bright sunshine are not ideal conditions for most broad-leaved evergreens, yet these conditions frequently occur in Virginia. Good soil preparation and a carefully selected location will help ensure the success of these plants. However, the year-round beauty and special effect that they give to the landscape make them well worth the extra care needed to grow them.
Apr 3, 2015 426-607 (HORT-105P)
Selecting Landscape Plants: Shade Trees
Trees are the basic element for any landscape plan. They set the stage for the entire home grounds design. The type used and their location determine to a great extent what other plantings are appropriate. Providing shade usually requires tall, sturdy, long-living species. Density of foliage, which determines the amount of shading, is important. A tree such as a Norway maple will produce a very dense shade that prevents other plants from growing under it, while a honey locust will produce a light partial shade which is not a hindrance to other plants growing below it. Deciduous trees should be used to shade the south windows of a home in the summer, thus allowing the sun to penetrate in the winter.
Apr 1, 2015 426-610 (HORT-104P)
Selecting Landscape Plants: Flowering Trees May 1, 2009 426-611
Fertilizing Landscape Trees and Shrubs
Maintenance programs should be developed for trees and shrubs in both residential and commercial landscapes. A good maintenance program includes monitoring and controlling insect and disease problems, suppressing weed competition, and making timely applications of water, mulch, and fertilizer. Tree and shrub fertilization is especially important in urban and suburban areas of Virginia where soils have been altered due to construction. These urban soils tend to be heavily compacted, poorly aerated, poorly drained, and low in organic matter. Even where soils have not been affected, fertilization may be needed as part of a maintenance program to increase plant vigor or to improve root or top growth.
Apr 9, 2015 430-018 (HORT-120P)
Fertilización de árboles y arbustos
Los árboles y arbustos necesitan nutrientes para crecer y estar sanos. Los tres nutrientes más importantes son nitrógeno, fósforo y potasio. Un análisis de suelos es siempre la mejor manera de saber qué nutrientes se necesitan y la cantidad necesaria de cada uno.
Feb 18, 2016 430-018S (HORT-165P)
Selection and Use of Mulches and Landscape Fabrics
The term “mulch” refers to materials spread or left on the soil surface as protective layers, whether organic or inorganic, loose particles or sheets.
Mar 20, 2015 430-019 (HORT-132P)
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites -- The Walnut Tree: Allelopathic Effects and Tolerant Plants Apr 10, 2015 430-021(HORT-113P)
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites -- Air Pollution Apr 8, 2015 430-022 (HORT-123P)
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites — Trees for Landscape Containers and Planters
Planting trees in aboveground containers and planters is becoming a common practice on sites that are not suited for inground planting. Containers differ from raised planters in that they are usually smaller in volume and moveable, whereas planters are generally larger, and often built as part of the permanent hardscape (paving, etc.). The greatest challenge in selecting trees for containers and planters is in choosing trees that can survive temperature extremes, and that can establish roots in a limited volume of substrate (potting soil). Consider several factors when selecting containers and trees including environmental influences, container and planter design, substrate type, and tree characteristics.
Apr 9, 2015 430-023 (HORT-119P)
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites — Trees for Hot Sites
Hot landscape sites require special consideration before trees are planted. Trees can survive, and even thrive, in hot sites if the site is prepared correctly, if heat-tolerant species are selected, and if the trees are properly maintained. A variety of different locations and situations qualify as hot landscape sites.
Apr 9, 2015 430-024 (HORT-118P)
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites — Screening
Using trees as living screens can easily enhance living and working spaces. Before selecting trees for screening, first determine the screen’s purpose, whether functional or environmental. Screening can be used to define an area, modify or hide a view, create privacy, block wind, dust, salt and snow, control noise, filter light, and direct traffic flow.
Apr 9, 2015 430-025 (HORT-117P)
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites — Wet and Dry Sites
To grow, all trees require air, light, water and nutrients. Some trees can survive over a wide range of climatic and soil conditions, whereas others are very site specific. Both wet and dry sites present establishment and growth challenges, making selection of the right tree for the right site very important.
Apr 8, 2015 430-026 (HORT-114P)
Trees and Shrubs for Acid Soils
The trees and shrubs on your new home site are growing poorly, so you take samples to the Extension office and the agent suggests a soil test. Test results show that your soil has a pH of 4.5, which is rated as strongly acid. The agent suggests you either take corrective action to raise the pH or grow different plants. What do the test results mean? What are “acid soils” and what does pH measure? Why does this matter to your plants? How can you correct the situation or what alternative trees and shrubs can you grow?
Apr 8, 2015 430-027 (HORT-115P)
Trees for Parking Lots and Paved Areas May 1, 2009 430-028
Trees and Shrubs that Tolerate Saline Soils and Salt Spray Drift
Concentrated sodium (Na), a component of salt, can damage plant tissue whether it contacts above or below ground parts. High salinity can reduce plant growth and may even cause plant death. Care should be taken to avoid excessive salt accumulation from any source on tree and shrub roots, leaves or stems. Sites with saline (salty) soils, and those that are exposed to coastal salt spray or paving de-icing materials, present challenges to landscapers and homeowners.
Apr 8, 2015 430-031 (HORT-111P)
Getting Started in the Nursery Business: Nursery Production Options
The nursery industry in Virginia has enjoyed an extended period of growth and expansion. Consequently, there is considerable interest in and some potential for new business opportunities in the industry. Another consequence of this period of economic growth is an increase in competition within the industry to supply the growing demand for landscape plants. Those interested in getting into the nursery business are strongly encouraged to invest their time and energy into learning as much as they can about the modern nursery industry, and the many options now available in nursery production, before they invest any money in facilities and operations.
Apr 27, 2015 430-050 (HORT-89P)
24 Ways to Kill a Tree
Few residential trees die of “old age.” Mechanical damage and improper tree care kill more trees than any insects or diseases. Avoid making the tree-damaging mistakes shown in the diagram below. Few of these items alone would kill a tree, but multiple problems will certainly stress, and could eventually kill, a tree.
Apr 8, 2015 430-210 (HORT-112P)
Tree and Shrub Planting Guidelines
Select trees and shrubs well-adapted to conditions of individual planting sites. Poorly-sited plants are doomed from the start, no matter how carefully they’re planted.
Mar 3, 2015 430-295 (HORT-106P)
Pruning Crapemyrtles May 1, 2009 430-451
A Guide to Successful Pruning: Pruning Basics and Tools May 1, 2009 430-455
A Guide to Successful Pruning, Pruning Deciduous Trees May 1, 2009 430-456
A Guide to Successful Pruning, Pruning Evergreen Trees May 1, 2009 430-457
A Guide to Successful Pruning: Stop Topping Trees! May 1, 2009 430-458
A Guide to Successful Pruning, Pruning Shrubs May 1, 2009 430-459
A Guide to Successful Pruning, Decidous Tree Pruning Calendar May 1, 2009 430-460
A Guide to Successful Pruning, Evergreen Tree Pruning Calendar May 1, 2009 430-461
A Guide to Successful Pruning, Shrub Pruning Calendar May 1, 2009 430-462
Virginia Cut Holly Production: Planning and Site Selection May 1, 2009 430-465
Virginia Cut Holly Production: Alternative Ground Cover May 1, 2009 430-466
Virginia Cut Holly Production: Orchard Layout and Planting May 1, 2009 430-467
Virginia Cut Holly Production: Holly Pollination and Honey Bees May 1, 2009 430-468
Virginia Cut Holly Production: Pest Management May 1, 2009 430-469
Virginia Cut Holly Production: Pruning, Harvesting and Marketing May 1, 2009 430-470
Virginia Cut Holly Production: Vegetation Control May 1, 2009 430-471
Spring and Summer Lawn Management Considerations for Cool-Season Turfgrasses May 1, 2009 430-532
Spring and Summer Lawn Management Considerations for Warm-Season Turfgrasses May 1, 2009 430-533
Euonymus Scale
Eggs are laid early in the spring and hatch in late May or early June. The crawlers settle quickly and produce a second brood by mid-July. A third brood is produced in October. There is continuous overlapping of broods, so that all stages may be found during favorable conditions. Two to three-plus generations per year may occur in Virginia. The overwintering stage is the adult female.
Nov 21, 2014 444-277 (ENTO-93NP)
Rose Rosette Disease
Rose rosette disease (RRD), a disease believed to be caused by the recently identified Rose rosette virus, has been spreading through much of the wild rose population of the Midwestern, Southern, and Eastern United States for years.
Sep 17, 2012 450-620 (PPWS-10P)
Soil Test Note 20: Home Shrubs and Trees May 1, 2009 452-720
2017 Mid-Atlantic Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations
New varieties and strains of vegetables are constantly being developed throughout the world and it is impossible to list and describe all of them, only those that are available and are adapted to the mid-Atlantic region are listed in this publication.
Mar 6, 2017 456-420 (AREC-203P)
Weed Control in Hops
Because hops are long-lived perennials, controlling weeds near plants without causing injury can be challenging. Furthermore, empty spaces between rows can quickly become filled with weeds if left unmanaged. Growers therefore need a year-round weed management plan. An important part of that plan is identifying the common weeds at the site and understanding their life cycles. Once weeds have been identified, a management plan can be developed using cultural, chemical, or integrated approaches.
Mar 11, 2015 ANR-144NP
Hampton Roads Agricultural Research and Extension Center Jul 8, 2016 AREC-75NP (AREC-183NP)
Innovative Best Management Fact Sheet No. 1: Floating Treatment Wetlands Aug 28, 2013 BSE-76P
Decentralized Small Community Wastewater Collection Systems
Wastewater is a significant source of carbon, sediment, nutrients, pathogens, and other potential pollutants. Reducing the quantity of these contaminants before they are discharged to either groundwater or surface water is essential to preserve or enhance water quality in receiving waters. This is accomplished through the installation of wastewater treatment and collection systems. The form of these systems can vary substantially. In Virginia, they range in size from 5,000 to 50,000 gallons per day; 49 percent are public systems and the remainder are private (Parten 2008).
Jul 10, 2014 BSE-77P
2014 Arthropod Pest Management Research On Vegetable in Virginia
This booklet contains arthropod pest management research conducted on vegetable crops in eastern Virginia in 2014. Research was conducted at several
Apr 22, 2015 ENTO-127NP
Arthropod Pest Management Research on Vegetables in Virginia – 2013
This booklet contains arthropod pest management research conducted on vegetable crops in Virginia in 2013. Research was conducted at several locations including: 1) the Virginia Tech Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center (AREC) near Painter, VA; 2) the Hampton Roads AREC in Virginia Beach, VA; 3) the Virginia Tech Kentland Research Farm near Blacksburg, VA; and 4) the Southwest Virginia 4-H Educational Center in Abingdon, VA.
Feb 25, 2014 ENTO-60NP
Squash Bug
Squash bugs are one of the primary pests of cucurbits in the United States. Adults are typically 10 to 30 mm long, dark gray, brown or black in color with orange or brown markings on the sides of the abdomen (Fig. 1). Overwintering adults emerge from the soil, ground litter, wood piles or buildings in the spring. After feeding and mating, females deposit egg masses on the underside of leaves. Newly laid eggs are typically light pale in color, become coppery, then darker as they develop. Egg masses are commonly laid in diamond or V-shaped patterns along leaf veins (Fig 2).
Mar 25, 2014 ENTO-64NP
Therapeutic Gardening
Gardening is a great activity to help maintain physical and emotional well-being. However, it is not without its challenges, even for the able bodied. With a little creativity, gardening can be an accessible activity and can have therapeutic value. As a therapy, gardening is unique in that a living medium, plants, are used. This allows the gardener to be anchored in reality. When gardeners realize that they have an effect on something else that is living there are often positive changes in their behavior and feelings. The term therapeutic gardening means that the activity of gardening is designed to assure positive health outcomes and minimize negative outcomes.
Jul 28, 2014 HORT-66NP (HORT-73NP)
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight in the Virginia Home Landscape: Version 2, September 2016
This Best Management Practice document is a set of guidelines for home growers of landscape boxwood to avoid introduction of the boxwood blight pathogen into a landscape or, if the disease is already present in a landscape, to manage the disease in the most effective manner and avoid spread of the disease to new locations.
Sep 30, 2016 PPWS-29NP (PPWS-85NP)
Virginia Boxwood Blight Task Force
To provide leadership in safeguarding and protecting the ornamental horticulture industry, historical gardens and landscape plantings from boxwood blight.
May 20, 2014 PPWS-30
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight: Best management practices for boxwood blight in Virginia production nurseries WITH boxwood blight Version 2, September 2016
This Best Management Practice document is a set of guidelines for home growers of landscape boxwood to avoid introduction of the boxwood blight pathogen into a landscape or, if the disease is already present in a landscape, to manage the disease in the most effective manner and avoid spread of the disease to new locations.
Sep 30, 2016 PPWS-32NP (PPWS-87NP)
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight in Virginia Production Nurseries WITHOUT Boxwood Blight Version 2, September 2016
This Best Management Practice document is a set of guidelines for home growers of landscape boxwood to avoid introduction of the boxwood blight pathogen into a landscape or, if the disease is already present in a landscape, to manage the disease in the most effective manner and avoid spread of the disease to new locations.
Sep 30, 2016 PPWS-33NP (PPWS-86NP)
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight: Best management practices for Virginia retail nurseries WITH boxwood blight Version 2, August 2016
This Best Management Practice document is a set of guidelines for home growers of landscape boxwood to avoid introduction of the boxwood blight pathogen into a landscape or, if the disease is already present in a landscape, to manage the disease in the most effective manner and avoid spread of the disease to new locations.
Sep 30, 2016 PPWS-34NP (PPWS-89NP)
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight: Best management practices for Virginia retail nurseries WITHOUT boxwood blight Version 2, September 2016
This Best Management Practice document is a set of guidelines for home growers of landscape boxwood to avoid introduction of the boxwood blight pathogen into a landscape or, if the disease is already present in a landscape, to manage the disease in the most effective manner and avoid spread of the disease to new locations.
Sep 30, 2016 PPWS-35NP (PPWS-88NP)
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight for Greenery Producers
Best management practices for boxwood blight (also called “box blight”) for greenery producers are practices recommended to avoid the introduction and spread of boxwood blight, caused by the fungus Calonectria pseudonaviculata (syn. Cylindrocladium pseudonaviculatum). The recommendations in this document are designed to avoid spread of boxwood blight within a planting or to new locations when pruned tips are collected, sold and/or used for holiday greenery1. These recommendations are relevant to anyone involved in the greenery (“tipping”) industry, including small and large-scale greenery producers, home growers who sell boxwood tips, and people who tip-prune boxwood on other people’s property. Care must be taken at all levels of greenery production to prevent the spread of the boxwood blight pathogen and avoid economic losses associated with this disease.
Oct 13, 2016 PPWS-39NP (PPWS-95NP)
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight for Professionally Managed Landscapes and Public and Historic Gardens in Virginia
Boxwood blight is caused by the fungal pathogen Calonectria pseudonaviculata (syn. Cylindrocladium buxicola). Boxwood blight was first described in the United Kingdom in the mid-1990’s and by 2002 was found in several other European countries and New Zealand. In September 2011 boxwood blight was discovered in North America. Symptoms of the disease include leaf spotting (Fig. 1), elongate, dark cankers on stems (Fig. 2), defoliation, and dieback (Fig. 3). The primary means by which the disease spreads is the inadvertent introduction of infected boxwood to existing plantings. The pathogen can also spread by spores, which readily adhere to equipment and work clothes, and by microsclerotia, which survive in infested soil and plant debris. This document outlines best management practices for landscapers and property managers to reduce the risk of spreading boxwood blight to landscapes and public and historic gardens, and to manage the disease if it is introduced.
Sep 26, 2016 PPWS-49NP (PPWS-84NP)