Please review our list of publications below for the information you need. If you can't find what you are looking for, send your questions directly to our Extension Experts.
|24 Ways to Kill a Tree||Apr 8, 2015||430-210 (HORT-112P)|
|A Checklist for Efficient Log Trucking||May 1, 2009||420-094|
|A Landowner's Guide to Wildlife Abundance through Forestry||May 1, 2009||420-138|
|A Logger's Guide to Harvest Planning||May 1, 2009||420-088|
|All-Age Management, Demonstration Woodlot||
Many forest owners value their forest for wildlife habitat, recreation, and aesthetics. Given accurate information, many want to manage their woodlot using sound silviculture but clear-cutting as a regeneration method may not be visually acceptable. While a profitable timber harvest is of interest, a visually pleasing residual stand may be more important. To meet this objective, Stand D1 of the SVAREC forests was selected to demonstrate All-Age Management using group selection silviculture and individual thinning of select trees to create four age classes.
|Feb 23, 2015||ANR-132NP|
|Balsam Woolly Adelgid||Jun 24, 2015||3006-1452(ENTO-161NP)|
|Banded Ash Borer||
Adult banded ash borers have somewhat cylindrical, elongated bodies ranging from 8–18 mm (0.3–0.7 inches) long and tapered towards the tip of the abdomen. Adults are grayish-black in color with lighter colored hairs all over the body
|May 19, 2015||ENTO-133NP|
This bug is about 1/2 inch long and 1/3 as wide. It is black with three red lines on the thorax, a red line along each side, and an oblique red line on each wing. The wings lie flat on the back when at rest. The young nymphs are red and gray. The population of bugs may number into the thousands. Hemiptera: Rhopalidae, Leptocoris trivittatus
|Feb 26, 2016||ENTO-186NP|
|Business Management Practices for Small to Medium Sized Forest Products Firms||
One of the most exciting and frightening choices an individual can make is to start a small business. Yet this entrepreneurial spirit is the backbone of our economy and the free enterprise system that drives many individuals to great success. From Henry Ford to Frederick Weyerhaeuser, individuals with a good idea can help shape a nation. This book is written to provide the information you will need to start your small forest products company. However, business planning is not what you really want to do.If you are like most entrepreneurs, you have a product or service in mind and want to sell it without a lot of formal planning in mind.
|Nov 4, 2015||ANR-160P|
|Calibrating Hand-held and Backpack Sprayers for Applying Pesticides||
Hand-held and backpack sprayers are inexpensive tools used to apply pesticides on small acreages. Home gardens, yards, small orchards, and Christmas tree plantations are examples of areas that often require pesticide applications to protect them from weeds, insects, and diseases. Effective pest control depends on applying the proper amount of pesticide. This can only be done if the spray equipment is calibrated accurately.
|Sep 9, 2014||456-502 (ANR-93P)|
|Characteristics of Common Western Virginia Trees||Dec 15, 2014||420-351 (ANR-118NP)|
|Coloring Christmas Trees Before Harvest||Mar 19, 2015||420-638(AREC-116P)|
|Consider Logging Residue Needs for BMP Implementation When Harvesting Biomass for Energy||
Utilization of woody biomass for energy has increased
|Aug 7, 2014||ANR-108NP|
|Dealing with Timber Theft||
Forestland can provide countless hours of recreational benefits as well as an important source of income. Many landowners take careful steps to ensure that their property is managed to maximize the benefits they receive. However, all of this work can be easily eradicated by one of Virginia’s most dreaded forest pests: timber thieves.
|Jan 21, 2015||420-136(AREC-107P)|
|Economics of Producing an Acre of White Pine Christmas Trees||May 1, 2009||420-081|
|Effectiveness of Skid Trail Closure Techniques. Forest Operations Research Highlights||
Protection of water quality is a critical component of forest harvesting operations. Virginia’s silvicultural water quality law (§10.1-1181.1 through 10.1-1181.7) prohibits excessive sedimentation of streams as a result of silvicultural operations. Virginia’s logging businesses invest substantial resources implementing BMPs to protect water quality. The Virginia Depart- ment of Forestry (VDOF) is responsible for enforcing this law and inspects all logging operations to ensure protection of water quality. BMP guidelines offer mul- tiple possible options for practices to minimize erosion and sedimentation and protect water quality. Select- ing the most appropriate BMP will depend on specific site conditions, as well as resources available on-site for implementing BMPs. However, research results on BMP implementation can help guide decisions related to BMP implementation for protecting water quality.
|Aug 7, 2014||ANR-109NP|
|Effectiveness of Temporary Stream Crossing Closure Techniques Forest Operations Research Highlights||Aug 8, 2014||ANR-110NP|
|Emerald Ash Borer||Feb 7, 2014||HORT-69NP|
|Emerald Ash Borer||
The first indication of damage by the emerald ash borer is cracks in the branch’s high in the tree followed by canopy dieback. Tunneling by the larvae cause girdling and death of branches and the trunk. Early feeding damage by emerald ash borer will be difficult to detect because trees show few symptoms. Woodpeckers feeding on EAB larvae leave holes in the bark that can be seen by looking up into the tree. As the infestation progresses the trees starts to thin out and branches in the top sections of the tree start to die. Many trees will have a large number of new shoots on the trunk called epicormic branching. Often these branches occur at the junction of thelive and dead sections of the trees. Epicormic branching may also occur at the base of the tree after the tree has died. EAB can live in twigs as small as 1 inch in diameter but can also breed in trunks of fully mature trees. It usually takes 2-5 years for damage to be noticed and the EAB damage kills the tree shortly thereafter.
|Mar 17, 2016||2904-1290 (ENTO-200NP)|
|Emerald Ash Borer Control for Foresters and Landowners||Sep 4, 2014||ENTO-76NP|
|Farm Tractor Logging for Woodlot Owners||May 1, 2009||420-090|
|Forest Harvesting in Virginia, Characteristics of Virginia’s Logging Operations||
Virginia’s forests are a vital resource, providing multiple benefits for the
|Feb 10, 2012||ANR-5|
|Forest Landowner’s Guide To The Measurement Of Timber And Logs||
As a forest landowner interested in selling timber, you are naturally interested in the price you will receive
|Dec 15, 2014||420-085 (ANR-120P)|
|Forests of Virginia: Importance, Composition, Ecology, Threats, and Management||Mar 4, 2016||465-315 (ANR-163P)|
|Galls and Rust made by Mites||
Galls are abnormal growths of plant tissue induced by insects and other organisms. Gall-making parasites release growth-regulating chemicals as they feed, causing adjacent plant tissues to form a gall. The parasite then develops within the relative security of the gall. Galls come in an endless variety of forms. Many are strikingly colored or curiously shaped. Each gall-making species causes a gall structurally different from all others. By noting the type of host plant and the structure of the gall, one can identify the gall-making mite without actually seeing it.
|May 8, 2015||ENTO-147NP|
|Galls made by Wasps||May 14, 2015||ENTO-145NP|
|Galls made by aphids, adelgids, phylloxerans, psyllids, and midges||May 8, 2015||ENTO-146NP|
|Guide to Threatened and Endangered Species on Private Lands In Virginia||Oct 5, 2010||420-039|
|Hemlock Woolly Adelgid||Jun 11, 2010||3006-1451|
|Introduction to Growing Christmas Trees in Virginia||Apr 24, 2015||420-080 (AREC-122P)|
|Invasive Exotic Plant Species Identification and Management||Mar 18, 2015||420-320(AREC-106P)|
|Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima)||May 4, 2015||420-322(ANR-122P)|
|Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata)||
Autumn olive was introduced to the U.S. from Japan and China in 1830. It was originally planted for wildlife habitat, shelterbelts, and mine reclamation, but has escaped cultivation. It is dispersed most frequently by birds and other wildlife, which eat the berries.
|Dec 3, 2014||420-321 (ANR-123P)|
|Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.)||Jan 20, 2015||420-323(ANR-124P)|
|Investing in Sustainable Forestry; A Guide for Virginia’s Forest Landowners||May 18, 2011||420-186|
|Lean Inventory Management in the Wood Products Industry: Examples and Applications||Sep 28, 2010||420-148|
|Locust Borer, Megacyllene robiniae (Forst.) Coleoptera: Cerambycidae||May 8, 2015||ENTO-141NP|
|Managing Wildlife Damage: Snakes||Aug 26, 2010||420-021|
|Measuring Site Index||
Site index (SI) is a measurement commonly used by foresters to describe the productivity of a site. Typically this measurement is used to describe sites growing well-stocked even-aged forests. Site index is the average height of the dominant1 and codominant2 trees on the site, at a given age (base age). Typically, the base age for hardwoods and white pine in Virginia is 50 years, while the base age for loblolly pine is 25 years. For example, a SI of 75, base age 50, means that the average height of the dominant and codominant trees on a site will be 75 feet when they are 50 years old (SI50=75). The higher the SI, the higher the site productivity (trees will grow faster than on a site with a lower SI).
|Dec 3, 2014||2812-1028 (ANR-125NP)|
|Measuring Standing Trees and Logs||
Timber may be sold as stumpage (trees before they are cut) or as harvested products (sawlogs, veneer logs, or pulpwood). If trees are sold as harvested products, the sale is customarily based upon measured volume. Trees marketed as stumpage may be sold by boundary, a measured estimate of stand volume, or individual tree measurements.
Standing-tree and log volumes can be measured using a scale stick designed to fit Virginia timber conditions. With it you can measure the diameter of a tree, the number of 16-foot logs or the length of pulpwood in a tree, and the diameter and length of sawlogs. Tables printed on the stick provide for varying board-foot volumes for standing trees and for sawlogs of varying lengths.
|Jul 14, 2009||420-560|
|Moving Toward Sustainable Forestry: Strategies for Forest Landowners||Dec 15, 2014||420-144 (AREC-108NP)|
|One-Year Health, Mortality, and Growth in Southeast Virginia of Shortleaf Pine From Three Sources||Apr 22, 2013||ANR-28P|
|Options for Clearing Land: Pasture Establishment for Horses||
You have considered the ramifications of clearing your land (To Clear or Not To Clear – That Is the Question, Virginia Cooperative Extension publication 465-340), and you have decided to go forward. Now this publication addresses a question many new landowners ask: How do I clear land?
|May 1, 2009||465-341|
Pales weevil feeds on all pines within its range. It will also feed, although to a lesser extent, on Douglas-fir, fir, hemlock, juniper, larch, northern white-cedar, and spruce.
|Dec 11, 2014||2902-1102 (ENTO-103NP)|
|Pest Management Guide: Field Crops, 2016||Jan 26, 2016||456-016 (ENTO-167P)|
|Pest Management Guide: Horticultural and Forest Crops, 2016||Jan 26, 2016||456-017 (ENTO-163P)|
|Pesticide Applicator Manuals||Nov 17, 2011||VTTP-2||
|Pine Bark Adelgid||Mar 6, 2015||2907-1402 (ENTO-120NP)|
|Pine Tortoise Scale||
Foliage drops, needles usually shorter and may kill tree over period of years -
|Mar 24, 2016||3101-1529 (ENTO-207NP)|
|Poison Ivy: Leaves of three? Let it be!||
Those who experience the blisters, swelling, and extreme itching that result from contact with poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans), poison oak (Toxicodendron pubescens), or poison sumac (Toxicodendron vernix) learn to avoid these pesky plants. Although poison oak and poison sumac do grow in Virginia, poison ivy is by far the most common. This publication will help you identify poison ivy, recognize the symptoms of a poison ivy encounter, and control poison ivy around your home.
|May 1, 2009||426-109|
|Powell River Project - Coal-resource Contracting Terms for Productive Postmining Forests||Feb 26, 2010||460-143|
|Powell River Project - Establishing Groundcover for Forested Postmining Land Uses||Feb 19, 2010||460-124|
|Powell River Project - Growing Christmas Trees on Reclaimed Surface-mined Land||Sep 2, 2009||460-116|
|Powell River Project - How to Restore Forests on Surface-mined Land||
Most coal-bearing lands in the Appalachian region were forested prior to mining. The region’s forests are predominantly upland oak-hickory and Appalachian mixed hardwoods. These forests provide many benefits to landowners and the public. Solid wood and paper products are perhaps the most tangible benefits, but a predictable flow of high-quality water from forested watersheds into regional streams is another vital benefit provided by the region’s forests. Forests also fix carbon from the atmosphere, provide wildlife food and cover, and provide recreational opportunities and an aesthetically pleasing environment.
|Mar 30, 2011||460-123|
|Powell River Project - Mine Permitting to Establish Productive Forests as Post-Mining Land Uses||Sep 29, 2009||460-141|
|Powell River Project - Recovery of Native Plant Communities After Mining||
This publication summarizes research on the impacts of reclamation practices on re-establishment of native Appalachian forest ecosystems and describes practices
|Feb 25, 2010||460-140|
|Powell River Project - Restoring the Value of Forests on Reclaimed Mined Land||Dec 4, 2009||460-138|
|Principles of Regeneration Silviculture in Virginia||Aug 25, 2009||420-405|
|Redheaded Pine Sawfly||Jun 24, 2015||3006-1453(ENTO-162NP)|
|Safe and Efficient Practices for Trucking Unmanufactured Forest Products||May 8, 2009||420-310|
|Selection and Care of Christmas Trees||May 1, 2009||420-641|
|Shortleaf Pine: An Option for Virginia Landowners||May 1, 2009||420-165|
|Skidder Safety and Efficiency: A Discussion Leader's Guide||
This handbook is designed to accompany the Skidder Safety and Efficiency training DVD available from Virginia Cooperative Extension www.ext.vt.edu, Forest Resources Association www. forestresources.org, and the Virginia SHARP Logger Program www.sharplogger.vt.edu. The following pages contain a transcription of the video narrative, along with suggestions for discussion topics.
|May 26, 2009||420-122|
|So You Want To Sell Timber||Sep 23, 2015||ANR-154P|
|Species for Christmas Tree Planting in Virginia||May 1, 2009||420-082|
|Statistical Process Control: Applications and Examples for Forest Products Industries||Apr 7, 2015||ANR-140NP|
|Sustainable Forestry: A Guide for Virginia Forest Landowners||Feb 3, 2016||420-139 (ANR-157P)|
|The ABCs of Cost Allocation in the Wood Products Industry: Applications in the Furniture Industry||Sep 17, 2010||420-147|
|The Role of Logging Business Owners in Forest Certification||
Many forest products companies and landowners participate in forest certification programs. Forest certification programs set standards for sustainable forest management and verify that they are being met. Certification programs can demonstrate to consumers that certified forest products come from trees that were grown and harvested sustainably. Participants in certification programs commit to meeting sustainable forest management standards and are periodically audited by a third party to verify compliance.
|May 22, 2013||ANR-51NP|
|The Virginia Tech – U.S. Forest Service December 2015 Housing Commentary: A||
In December, the housing data was mixed. Total starts and permits declined on a month-over-month basis. Single-family permits, new and existing sales, housing under construction, completions, and all construction expenditure sectors improved month-over-month. All the aforementioned sectors were positive on a year-over-year basis. From a regional perspective, all data were mixed across all segments.
|Feb 24, 2016||ANR-182NP|
|The Virginia Tech – U.S. Forest Service December 2015 Housing Commentary: Part B||
If current laws governing federal taxes and spending generally remained in place, by CBO’s projections, real GDP would grow by 2.7 percent this calendar year and by 2.5 percent in 2017, as measured by the change from the fourth quarter of the previous year. From 2018 through 2020, the economy would grow at an average annual rate of 2.0 percent, CBO projects.
|Feb 25, 2016||ANR-183NP|
|The Virginia Tech – U.S. Forest Service January 2016 Housing Commentary: Section I||
In January, the housing data was less than inspiring. Two things: First, it was January's data (historically a slow month) and two, it was one-month’s data. We need 3, 4, or 5-months data to assess the direction of the housing market. In January, total and single-family starts, permits, new house sales, and new single-family construction spending all declined month-over-month.
|Mar 11, 2016||ANR-189NP|
|The Virginia Tech – U.S. Forest Service January 2016 Housing Commentary: Section II||
The baseline scenario for the United States is a moderate economic expansion through the projection period. Real GDP grows at an average rate of 21/2 percent per year. The unemployment rate declines to 41/2 percent in the middle of 2017 and remains near that level through the end of the scenario period. CPI inflation rises to 2 1/2 percent at an annual rate by the middle of 2017 before dropping back to about 2 percent in the first quarter of 2018 and remaining near that level thereafter.
|Mar 29, 2016||ANR-190NP (ANR-192NP)|
|The Virginia Tech – U.S. Forest Service October 2015 Housing Commentary: Section I||
October's housing data was variable and mildly disappointing, with total starts negative on a month-over-month (single-family too) and year-over-year basis. New sales, permits, and single-family and improvement construction spending improved on a monthly basis. The same cannot be written about existing sales and completions, which decreased. On a regional basis, permits, starts, and completions were mixed; with housing under construction being positive. The housing market typically slows this time of year. Hence we should look at all data on a long-term basis and not from a monthly perspective.
|Mar 24, 2016||ANR-191NP|
|Thining Hardwoods, Demonstration Woodlot||
Most forest owners value their forest for wildlife habitat, recreation and aesthetics. Given accurate information, they may manage their woodlot to achieve these and other goals using sound silviculture. Thinning over-stocked woodlots is one silvicultural management tool. Thinning can modify spacing and diversity of species to meet desired goals which may include timber, wildlife, aesthetics and more. Thinning also improves woodlot vigor by removing over-mature, suppressed, defective or weakened trees. To meet theses objective, Stand D2 was selected for a thinning research & demonstration site.
|Apr 24, 2015||ANR-133NP (ANR-149NP)|
|Timber Selling Tips: Forestry Fact Sheet for Landowners||Sep 23, 2015||ANR-155P|
|To Certify or Not? An Important Question for Virginia’s Family Forest Owners||
Family forest owners ask themselves many questions about their properties, such as if and when to cut timber, what types of wildlife to manage for, how to control exotic invasive species, and how to protect water quality. An increasingly common question that forest owners ask is whether they should certify their forests.
This publication can help forest owners determine if certification is an appropriate option. It defines certification, as well as its benefits and costs, and describes three common certification programs in Virginia. It also covers how family forest owners can begin the certification process, lists sources of additional information, and answers frequently asked questions.
|Sep 9, 2013||ANR-50P|
|To Clear or Not To Clear -- That Is the Question||
There are several reasons why someone might want to clear woodland. Pasture for livestock, space for horseback riding, creating a vista, making space for a garden, increasing lawn size, or establishing a field for hay or other crops are but a few. Regardless of the reason, it is important to carefully evaluate all options and thoroughly understand the ramifications.
|May 1, 2009||465-340|
|Tree Crops For Marginal Farmland -- Christmas Trees||
This publication describes the most effective practices used to grow Christmas trees in the southern United States and the cost of those practices. It includes a financial analysis with typical costs and expected returns.
Only eastern white pine and Virginia pines are discussed in this guide. But other species, such as Scotch pine and Fraser fir, also can be grown profitably in some locations in the South. To use this publication to best advantage, read it straight through. Take special note of the cultural practices described and their estimated costs. Think about potential markets for the harvest. Read how to evaluate your potential investment, and think about the other benefits of tree crops. Read the case studies to get a better idea of how these investments can be evaluated. To conduct a financial analysis of your own situation, carefully estimate all the production costs, then take your estimates to the local Extension agent or farm management agent for assistance.
|May 1, 2009||446-605|
|Tree Crops for Marginal Farmland: Loblolly Pine||
The Tree Crops for Marginal Farmland Project seeks to provide farmers with basic information about growing and marketing tree crops. Tree crops have many advantages for farmers with marginal or unused land. The cost of inputs is relatively low, economic returns may be quite competitive with alternatives, and there are important environmental benefits.
There are five introductory guides in this series, and each has an accompanying videotape. They provide information on a specific tree crop which can be grown on small or medium-sized tracts of marginal or unused farmland. All these crops are common to areas of the southeastern United States, but their economic potential should be investigated by farmers.
|Jun 23, 2009||446-609|
|Trees and Shrubs for Acid Soils||
The trees and shrubs on your new home site are growing poorly, so you take samples to the Extension office and the agent suggests a soil test. Test results show that your soil has a pH of 4.5, which is rated as strongly acid. The agent suggests you either take corrective action to raise the pH or grow different plants.
|Apr 8, 2015||430-027 (HORT-115P)|
|Trees and Shrubs that Tolerate Saline Soils and Salt Spray Drift||Apr 8, 2015||430-031 (HORT-111P)|
|Trees and Water||Jul 30, 2012||ANR-18NP|
|Trees for Parking Lots and Paved Areas||
Parking lots and paved areas are essential urban features that tend to be unsightly in their basic form. Municipal ordinances often mandate specific amounts of parking for different types of commercial or residential land use, as well as landscaping for these parking areas. Landscaping in and around parking lots and pavement improves appearance, prevents soil erosion, and reduces carbon dioxide through photosynthesis. Planted areas also reduce storm water drainage problems, reduce the detrimental effects of wind and noise, and enhance human comfort by providing heat-reducing shade.
|May 1, 2009||430-028|
|Twig Girdler/Twig Pruner||Mar 16, 2015||2911-1423 (ENTO-124NP)|
|Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: An Overview||May 1, 2009||420-150|
|Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Benefits to Communities and Landowners||May 1, 2009||420-153|
|Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Effects on Plant and Animal Communities||May 1, 2009||420-152|
|Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Effects on Water Quality||May 1, 2009||420-151|
|Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Factors Influencing Adoption||May 1, 2009||420-154|
|Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Planning, Establishment, and Maintenance||May 1, 2009||420-155|
|Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Resources for Virginia Landowners||May 1, 2009||420-156|
|Urban Forestry Issues||May 1, 2009||420-180|
|Value, Benefits, and Costs of Urban Trees||May 1, 2009||420-181|
|Virginia Logger Safety Checklist Booklet||
This booklet contains sample forms, sample policies, and guidelines for maintaining safety records. Formats are suggested and can be modified by each operation. Use of this booklet and completion of suggested forms will assist with OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Act) requirements as related to logging operations. A list of agencies and contacts is included for additional information and consultation.
|Aug 5, 2011||3108-1592|
|Virginia Pine Sawfly||Mar 16, 2015||2911-1424 (ENTO-125NP)|
|Welcome to the Woods! A Guide for New Virginia Woodland Owners||May 13, 2015||ANR-136P|
|Wood Identification for Species Native to Virginia||Sep 24, 2013||ANR-64P|
|Wood Magic: A wood science curriculum for fourteen-to eighteen-year-olds||Nov 9, 2009||388-809|
|Wood Magic: A wood science curriculum for nine to eleven year olds||Nov 9, 2009||388-807|
|Yellow Poplar Weevil||
Rice-shaped holes about 1/16 inches result from adult feeding. Larval feeding forms mines, usually two per leaf. If they are both on the same side of midrib, one is extensive, and the other dwarfed. If the insect lays eggs on opposite sides of the midrib, both mines develop normally.
|Nov 6, 2015||ENTO-172NP|