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Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
24 Ways to Kill a Tree

There is a tremendous diversity of herbaceous perennial plant species being grown for both the retail and landscaping sectors of the industry. Because of the diversity in species grown, there is much more unknown about perennials production than is known. Growth regulation is of particular concern. In production settings, as well as in retail locations, herbaceous perennials grown in pots tend to stretch and become leggy or simply overgrow their pots before their scheduled market date. These plants are less marketable, and harder to maintain. Many growers resort to pruning, which is not only costly in terms of labor, but also delays plant production two to four weeks.

May 1, 2009 430-210
A Checklist for Efficient Log Trucking May 1, 2009 420-094
A Landowner's Guide to Wildlife Abundance through Forestry May 1, 2009 420-138
A Logger's Guide to Harvest Planning May 1, 2009 420-088
All-Age Management, Demonstration Woodlot

Many forest owners value their forest for wildlife habitat, recreation, and aesthetics. Given accurate information, many want to manage their woodlot using sound silviculture but clear-cutting as a regeneration method may not be visually acceptable. While a profitable timber harvest is of interest, a visually pleasing residual stand may be more important. To meet this objective, Stand D1 of the SVAREC forests was selected to demonstrate All-Age Management using group selection silviculture and individual thinning of select trees to create four age classes.

Feb 23, 2015 ANR-132NP
Balsam Woolly Adelgid Jun 16, 2010 3006-1452
Boxelder bug, Hemiptera: Rhopalidae, Leptocoris trivittatus Jan 24, 2011 3101-1525
Calibrating Hand-held and Backpack Sprayers for Applying Pesticides

Hand-held and backpack sprayers are inexpensive tools used to apply pesticides on small acreages. Home gardens, yards, small orchards, and Christmas tree plantations are examples of areas that often require pesticide applications to protect them from weeds, insects, and diseases. Effective pest control depends on applying the proper amount of pesticide. This can only be done if the spray equipment is calibrated accurately.

Sep 9, 2014 456-502 (ANR-93P)
Characteristics of Common Western Virginia Trees Dec 15, 2014 420-351 (ANR-118NP)
Coloring Christmas Trees Before Harvest Mar 19, 2015 420-638(AREC-116P)
Consider Logging Residue Needs for BMP Implementation When Harvesting Biomass for Energy

Utilization of woody biomass for energy has increased
substantially in Virginia. While there are a number of
definitions for biomass, woody biomass from forest harvesting
operations typically refers to logging residues
such as limbs, tops, and other unmerchantable material
that would otherwise be left behind on-site after the logging
operation is complete. Logging residues are typically
chipped and then transported to facilities where
they are used for fuel. Biomass harvesting in Virginia
most commonly occurs on integrated harvesting operations
where roundwood and biomass are harvested and
utilized at the same time in a single operation.

Aug 7, 2014 ANR-108NP
Dealing with Timber Theft

Forestland can provide countless hours of recreational benefits as well as an important source of income. Many landowners take careful steps to ensure that their property is managed to maximize the benefits they receive. However, all of this work can be easily eradicated by one of Virginia’s most dreaded forest pests: timber thieves.

Jan 21, 2015 420-136(AREC-107P)
Economics of Producing an Acre of White Pine Christmas Trees May 1, 2009 420-081
Effectiveness of Skid Trail Closure Techniques. Forest Operations Research Highlights

Protection of water quality is a critical component of forest harvesting operations. Virginia’s silvicultural water quality law (§10.1-1181.1 through 10.1-1181.7) prohibits excessive sedimentation of streams as a result of silvicultural operations. Virginia’s logging businesses invest substantial resources implementing BMPs to protect water quality. The Virginia Depart- ment of Forestry (VDOF) is responsible for enforcing this law and inspects all logging operations to ensure protection of water quality. BMP guidelines offer mul- tiple possible options for practices to minimize erosion and sedimentation and protect water quality. Select- ing the most appropriate BMP will depend on specific site conditions, as well as resources available on-site for implementing BMPs. However, research results on BMP implementation can help guide decisions related to BMP implementation for protecting water quality.

Aug 7, 2014 ANR-109NP
Effectiveness of Temporary Stream Crossing Closure Techniques Forest Operations Research Highlights Aug 8, 2014 ANR-110NP
Emerald Ash Borer Feb 7, 2014 HORT-69NP
Emerald Ash Borer

Coleoptera: Buprestidae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire

Plants Attacked: Emerald ash borer (EAB) attacks all species of ash trees that grow in Virginia. Only Asian species of ash trees have shown any resistance to this pest.

May 1, 2009 2904-1290
Emerald Ash Borer Control for Foresters and Landowners Sep 4, 2014 ENTO-76NP
Farm Tractor Logging for Woodlot Owners May 1, 2009 420-090
Forest Harvesting in Virginia, Characteristics of Virginia’s Logging Operations

Virginia’s forests are a vital resource, providing multiple benefits for the
commonwealth’s citizens, forest landowners, and the forest industry. More than
15 million acres, nearly two thirds of the state’s is forested. These forests provide
an estimated $23 billion in total economic output, annually, and provide forestry
related jobs to nearly 145,000 (Rephann 2008). Forest harvesting is often a critical
component of forest management1. Logging operations are essential to implementing
forest management plans and providing income to forest landowners. In 2011, more
than 5,900 timber harvests occurred on more than 248,000 acres of Virginia’s
forested land, and net growth continues to exceed the volume harvested (VDOF 2011).

Feb 10, 2012 ANR-5
Forest Landowner’s Guide To The Measurement Of Timber And Logs

As a forest landowner interested in selling timber, you are naturally interested in the price you will receive
for your product and how that price is determined. The measurement of standing timber and logs may seem
strange and complicated to you, and it is possible that you may be quoted dramatically different prices based
upon differing estimates of the amount of timber you have and the units of measurement used. Methods of
measuring timber and the units of measurement often differ between buyers, and, as a seller, you should have
an understanding of these methods, the units of measurement, and an idea as to a reasonable price for your

Dec 15, 2014 420-085 (ANR-120P)
Guide to Threatened and Endangered Species on Private Lands In Virginia Oct 5, 2010 420-039
Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Jun 11, 2010 3006-1451
Introduction to Growing Christmas Trees in Virginia May 1, 2009 420-080
Invasive Exotic Plant Species Identification and Management Mar 18, 2015 420-320(AREC-106P)
Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima) May 1, 2009 420-322
Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata)

Autumn olive was introduced to the U.S. from Japan and China in 1830. It was originally planted for wildlife habitat, shelterbelts, and mine reclamation, but has escaped cultivation. It is dispersed most frequently by birds and other wildlife, which eat the berries.

Dec 3, 2014 420-321 (ANR-123P)
Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.) Jan 20, 2015 420-323(ANR-124P)
Investing in Sustainable Forestry; A Guide for Virginia’s Forest Landowners May 18, 2011 420-186
Lean Inventory Management in the Wood Products Industry: Examples and Applications Sep 28, 2010 420-148
Managing Wildlife Damage: Snakes Aug 26, 2010 420-021
Measuring Site Index
Site index (SI) is a measurement commonly used by foresters to describe the productivity of a site. Typically this measurement is used to describe sites growing well-stocked even-aged forests. Site index is the average height of the dominant1 and codominant2 trees on the site, at a given age (base age). Typically, the base age for hardwoods and white pine in Virginia is 50 years, while the base age for loblolly pine is 25 years. For example, a SI of 75, base age 50, means that the average height of the dominant and codominant trees on a site will be 75 feet when they are 50 years old (SI50=75). The higher the SI, the higher the site productivity (trees will grow faster than on a site with a lower SI).
Dec 3, 2014 2812-1028 (ANR-125NP)
Measuring Standing Trees and Logs

Timber may be sold as stumpage (trees before they are cut) or as harvested products (sawlogs, veneer logs, or pulpwood). If trees are sold as harvested products, the sale is customarily based upon measured volume. Trees marketed as stumpage may be sold by boundary, a measured estimate of stand volume, or individual tree measurements.

Standing-tree and log volumes can be measured using a scale stick designed to fit Virginia timber conditions. With it you can measure the diameter of a tree, the number of 16-foot logs or the length of pulpwood in a tree, and the diameter and length of sawlogs. Tables printed on the stick provide for varying board-foot volumes for standing trees and for sawlogs of varying lengths.

Jul 14, 2009 420-560
Moving Toward Sustainable Forestry: Strategies for Forest Landowners Dec 15, 2014 420-144 (AREC-108NP)
One-Year Health, Mortality, and Growth in Southeast Virginia of Shortleaf Pine From Three Sources Apr 22, 2013 ANR-28P
Options for Clearing Land: Pasture Establishment for Horses

You have considered the ramifications of clearing your land (To Clear or Not To Clear – That Is the Question, Virginia Cooperative Extension publication 465-340), and you have decided to go forward. Now this publication addresses a question many new landowners ask: How do I clear land?

May 1, 2009 465-341
Pales Weevil

Pales weevil feeds on all pines within its range. It will also feed, although to a lesser extent, on Douglas-fir, fir, hemlock, juniper, larch, northern white-cedar, and spruce.

Dec 11, 2014 2902-1102 (ENTO-103NP)
Pest Management Guide: Field Crops, 2015 Feb 13, 2015 456-016 (ENTO-70P)
Pest Management Guide: Horticultural and Forest Crops, 2015 Feb 16, 2015 456-017 (ENTO-71P)
Pesticide Applicator Manuals Nov 17, 2011 VTTP-2
Pine Bark Adelgid Mar 6, 2015 2907-1402 (ENTO-120NP)
Pine Tortoise Scale, Hemiptera: Coccidae, Toumeyella numismaticum Jan 25, 2011 3101-1529
Poison Ivy: Leaves of three? Let it be!

Those who experience the blisters, swelling, and extreme itching that result from contact with poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans), poison oak (Toxicodendron pubescens), or poison sumac (Toxicodendron vernix) learn to avoid these pesky plants. Although poison oak and poison sumac do grow in Virginia, poison ivy is by far the most common. This publication will help you identify poison ivy, recognize the symptoms of a poison ivy encounter, and control poison ivy around your home.

May 1, 2009 426-109
Powell River Project - Coal-resource Contracting Terms for Productive Postmining Forests Feb 26, 2010 460-143
Powell River Project - Establishing Groundcover for Forested Postmining Land Uses Feb 19, 2010 460-124
Powell River Project - Growing Christmas Trees on Reclaimed Surface-mined Land Sep 2, 2009 460-116
Powell River Project - How to Restore Forests on Surface-mined Land

Most coal-bearing lands in the Appalachian region were forested prior to mining. The region’s forests are predominantly upland oak-hickory and Appalachian mixed hardwoods. These forests provide many benefits to landowners and the public. Solid wood and paper products are perhaps the most tangible benefits, but a predictable flow of high-quality water from forested watersheds into regional streams is another vital benefit provided by the region’s forests. Forests also fix carbon from the atmosphere, provide wildlife food and cover, and provide recreational opportunities and an aesthetically pleasing environment.

Mar 30, 2011 460-123
Powell River Project - Mine Permitting to Establish Productive Forests as Post-Mining Land Uses Sep 29, 2009 460-141
Powell River Project - Recovery of Native Plant Communities After Mining

This publication summarizes research on the impacts of reclamation practices on re-establishment of native Appalachian forest ecosystems and describes practices
that may be used during reclamation to encourage re-establishment of native hardwood-forest plant communities.

Feb 25, 2010 460-140
Powell River Project - Restoring the Value of Forests on Reclaimed Mined Land Dec 4, 2009 460-138
Principles of Regeneration Silviculture in Virginia Aug 25, 2009 420-405
Redheaded Pine Sawfly Jun 16, 2010 3006-1453
Safe and Efficient Practices for Trucking Unmanufactured Forest Products May 8, 2009 420-310
Selection and Care of Christmas Trees May 1, 2009 420-641
Shortleaf Pine: An Option for Virginia Landowners May 1, 2009 420-165
Skidder Safety and Efficiency: A Discussion Leader's Guide

This handbook is designed to accompany the Skidder Safety and Efficiency training DVD available from Virginia Cooperative Extension www.ext.vt.edu, Forest Resources Association www. forestresources.org, and the Virginia SHARP Logger Program www.sharplogger.vt.edu. The following pages contain a transcription of the video narrative, along with suggestions for discussion topics.

May 26, 2009 420-122
Species for Christmas Tree Planting in Virginia May 1, 2009 420-082
Sustainable Forestry: A Guide for Virginia Forest Landowners May 1, 2009 420-139
The ABCs of Cost Allocation in the Wood Products Industry: Applications in the Furniture Industry Sep 17, 2010 420-147
The Role of Logging Business Owners in Forest Certification
Many forest products companies and landowners participate in forest certification programs. Forest certification programs set standards for sustainable forest management and verify that they are being met. Certification programs can demonstrate to consumers that certified forest products come from trees that were grown and harvested sustainably. Participants in certification programs commit to meeting sustainable forest management standards and are periodically audited by a third party to verify compliance.
May 22, 2013 ANR-51NP
Thining Hardwoods, Demonstration Woodlot

Most forest owners value their forest for wildlife habitat, recreation and aesthetics. Given accurate information, they may manage their woodlot to achieve these and other goals using sound silviculture. Thinning over-stocked woodlots is one silvicultural management tool. Thinning can modify spacing and diversity of species to meet desired goals which may include timber, wildlife, aesthetics and more. Thinning also improves woodlot vigor by removing over-mature, suppressed, defective or weakened trees. To meet theses objective, Stand D2 was selected for a thinning research & demonstration site.

Feb 23, 2015 ANR-133NP
To Certify or Not? An Important Question for Virginia’s Family Forest Owners

Family forest owners ask themselves many questions about their properties, such as if and when to cut timber, what types of wildlife to manage for, how to control exotic invasive species, and how to protect water quality. An increasingly common question that forest owners ask is whether they should certify their forests.

This publication can help forest owners determine if certification is an appropriate option. It defines certification, as well as its benefits and costs, and describes three common certification programs in Virginia. It also covers how family forest owners can begin the certification process, lists sources of additional information, and answers frequently asked questions.

Sep 9, 2013 ANR-50P
To Clear or Not To Clear -- That Is the Question

There are several reasons why someone might want to clear woodland. Pasture for livestock, space for horseback riding, creating a vista, making space for a garden, increasing lawn size, or establishing a field for hay or other crops are but a few. Regardless of the reason, it is important to carefully evaluate all options and thoroughly understand the ramifications.

May 1, 2009 465-340
Tree Crops For Marginal Farmland -- Christmas Trees

This publication describes the most effective practices used to grow Christmas trees in the southern United States and the cost of those practices. It includes a financial analysis with typical costs and expected returns.

Only eastern white pine and Virginia pines are discussed in this guide. But other species, such as Scotch pine and Fraser fir, also can be grown profitably in some locations in the South. To use this publication to best advantage, read it straight through. Take special note of the cultural practices described and their estimated costs. Think about potential markets for the harvest. Read how to evaluate your potential investment, and think about the other benefits of tree crops. Read the case studies to get a better idea of how these investments can be evaluated. To conduct a financial analysis of your own situation, carefully estimate all the production costs, then take your estimates to the local Extension agent or farm management agent for assistance.

May 1, 2009 446-605
Tree Crops for Marginal Farmland: Loblolly Pine

The Tree Crops for Marginal Farmland Project seeks to provide farmers with basic information about grow­ing and marketing tree crops. Tree crops have many advantages for farmers with marginal or unused land. The cost of inputs is relatively low, economic returns may be quite competitive with alternatives, and there are important environmental benefits.

There are five introductory guides in this series, and each has an accompanying videotape. They provide information on a specific tree crop which can be grown on small or medium-sized tracts of marginal or unused farmland. All these crops are common to areas of the southeastern United States, but their economic poten­tial should be investigated by farmers.

Jun 23, 2009 446-609
Trees and Shrubs for Acid Soils

The trees and shrubs on your new home site are growing poorly, so you take samples to the Extension office and the agent suggests a soil test. Test results show that your soil has a pH of 4.5, which is rated as strongly acid. The agent suggests you either take corrective action to raise the pH or grow different plants.

May 1, 2009 430-027
Trees and Shrubs for Overhead Utility Easements

Trees are valuable assets in commercial, private, and public landscapes. Trees add aesthetic beauty, modify and enhance the environment, serve architectural and engineering functions, and increase property and community economic values. These same trees that enhance landscapes, however, are a major challenge for utility companies. Most people have grown accustomed to reliable, uninterrupted electric, telephone and cable service in their homes and offices. Unfortunately, trees are one of the major causes of power outages in areas of overhead utility lines due to direct tree contact with lines, or to trees or tree limbs falling on the lines.

May 1, 2009 430-029
Trees and Shrubs that Tolerate Saline Soils and Salt Spray Drift

Concentrated sodium (Na), a component of salt, can damage plant tissue whether it contacts above or below ground parts. High salinity can reduce plant growth and may even cause plant death. Care should be taken to avoid excessive salt accumulation from any source on tree and shrub roots, leaves or stems. Sites with saline (salty) soils, and those that are exposed to coastal salt spray or paving de-icing materials, present challenges to landscapers and homeowners.

May 1, 2009 430-031
Trees and Water Jul 30, 2012 ANR-18NP
Trees for Parking Lots and Paved Areas

Parking lots and paved areas are essential urban features that tend to be unsightly in their basic form. Municipal ordinances often mandate specific amounts of parking for different types of commercial or residential land use, as well as landscaping for these parking areas. Landscaping in and around parking lots and pavement improves appearance, prevents soil erosion, and reduces carbon dioxide through photosynthesis. Planted areas also reduce storm water drainage problems, reduce the detrimental effects of wind and noise, and enhance human comfort by providing heat-reducing shade.

May 1, 2009 430-028
Twig Girdler/Twig Pruner Mar 16, 2015 2911-1423 (ENTO-124NP)
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: An Overview May 1, 2009 420-150
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Benefits to Communities and Landowners May 1, 2009 420-153
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Effects on Plant and Animal Communities May 1, 2009 420-152
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Effects on Water Quality May 1, 2009 420-151
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Factors Influencing Adoption May 1, 2009 420-154
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Planning, Establishment, and Maintenance May 1, 2009 420-155
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Resources for Virginia Landowners May 1, 2009 420-156
Urban Forestry Issues May 1, 2009 420-180
Value, Benefits, and Costs of Urban Trees May 1, 2009 420-181
Virginia Logger Safety Checklist Booklet

This booklet contains sample forms, sample policies, and guidelines for maintaining safety records.  Formats are suggested and can be modified by each operation.  Use of this booklet and completion of suggested forms will assist with OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Act) requirements as related to logging operations.  A list of agencies and contacts is included for additional information and consultation.

Aug 5, 2011 3108-1592
Virginia Master Naturalist, Basic Training Course, Forest Ecology and Management in Virginia Mar 21, 2013 465-315 (ANR-43NP)
Virginia Pine Sawfly Mar 16, 2015 2911-1424 (ENTO-125NP)
Wood Identification for Species Native to Virginia Sep 24, 2013 ANR-64P
Wood Magic: A wood science curriculum for fourteen-to eighteen-year-olds Nov 9, 2009 388-809
Wood Magic: A wood science curriculum for nine to eleven year olds Nov 9, 2009 388-807