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Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
24 Ways to Kill a Tree Apr 8, 2015 430-210 (HORT-112P)
A Checklist for Efficient Log Trucking May 1, 2009 420-094
A Landowner's Guide to Wildlife Abundance through Forestry May 1, 2009 420-138
A Logger's Guide to Harvest Planning May 1, 2009 420-088
All-Age Management, Demonstration Woodlot

Many forest owners value their forest for wildlife habitat, recreation, and aesthetics. Given accurate information, many want to manage their woodlot using sound silviculture but clear-cutting as a regeneration method may not be visually acceptable. While a profitable timber harvest is of interest, a visually pleasing residual stand may be more important. To meet this objective, Stand D1 of the SVAREC forests was selected to demonstrate All-Age Management using group selection silviculture and individual thinning of select trees to create four age classes.

Feb 23, 2015 ANR-132NP
Balsam Woolly Adelgid Jun 24, 2015 3006-1452(ENTO-161NP)
Banded Ash Borer

Adult banded ash borers have somewhat cylindrical, elongated bodies ranging from 8–18 mm (0.3–0.7 inches) long and tapered towards the tip of the abdomen. Adults are grayish-black in color with lighter colored hairs all over the body

May 19, 2015 ENTO-133NP
Boxelder Bug

This bug is about 1/2 inch long and 1/3 as wide. It is black with three red lines on the thorax, a red line along each side, and an oblique red line on each wing. The wings lie flat on the back when at rest. The young nymphs are red and gray. The population of bugs may number into the thousands. Hemiptera: Rhopalidae, Leptocoris trivittatus

Feb 26, 2016 ENTO-186NP
Business Management Practices for Small to Medium Sized Forest Products Firms

One of the most exciting and frightening choices an individual can make is to start a small business. Yet this entrepreneurial spirit is the backbone of our economy and  the free enterprise system that drives many individuals to great success. From  Henry Ford to Frederick Weyerhaeuser, individuals with a good idea can help shape a nation. This book is written to provide the information you will need to start your small forest products company. However, business planning is not what you really want to do.If you are like most entrepreneurs, you have a product or service in mind and want to sell it without a lot of formal planning in mind.

Nov 4, 2015 ANR-160P
Calibrating Hand-held and Backpack Sprayers for Applying Pesticides

Hand-held and backpack sprayers are inexpensive tools used to apply pesticides on small acreages. Home gardens, yards, small orchards, and Christmas tree plantations are examples of areas that often require pesticide applications to protect them from weeds, insects, and diseases. Effective pest control depends on applying the proper amount of pesticide. This can only be done if the spray equipment is calibrated accurately.

Sep 9, 2014 456-502 (ANR-93P)
Characteristics of Common Western Virginia Trees Dec 15, 2014 420-351 (ANR-118NP)
Coloring Christmas Trees Before Harvest Mar 19, 2015 420-638(AREC-116P)
Consider Logging Residue Needs for BMP Implementation When Harvesting Biomass for Energy

Utilization of woody biomass for energy has increased
substantially in Virginia. While there are a number of
definitions for biomass, woody biomass from forest harvesting
operations typically refers to logging residues
such as limbs, tops, and other unmerchantable material
that would otherwise be left behind on-site after the logging
operation is complete. Logging residues are typically
chipped and then transported to facilities where
they are used for fuel. Biomass harvesting in Virginia
most commonly occurs on integrated harvesting operations
where roundwood and biomass are harvested and
utilized at the same time in a single operation.

Aug 7, 2014 ANR-108NP
Creating Silvopastures: Some Considerations When Thinning Existing Timber Stands

Silvopastures intentionally integrate trees with forage
and livestock production in a rotational grazing
system. These systems have the potential to improve
animal comfort, increase farm resource use efficiency,
boost income, and mitigate environmental costs.

Sep 30, 2016 CSES-155P
Dealing with Timber Theft

Forestland can provide countless hours of recreational benefits as well as an important source of income. Many landowners take careful steps to ensure that their property is managed to maximize the benefits they receive. However, all of this work can be easily eradicated by one of Virginia’s most dreaded forest pests: timber thieves.

Jan 21, 2015 420-136(AREC-107P)
Defining Silvopastures: Integrating Tree Production With Forage-Livestock Systems for Economic, Environmental, and Aesthetic Outcomes

To many Virginia landowners, silvopasture is a
somewhat novel term composed of common elements:
“silvo,” a derivation of the Latin “silva,” refers to
woods or forest; “pasture” refers to the plants that
make up grazing lands — the basis for most ruminant
livestock production. While these words are readily
recognized individually, there is some confusion about
the combined term — “silvopasture.” The aim of this
publication is to reduce confusion by clearly defining
silvopasture, explaining why and how trees might
be managed together with forages and livestock, and
describing some of the hurdles and opportunities that
come with managing these agroforestry systems.

May 23, 2016 CSES-146P
Economics of Producing an Acre of White Pine Christmas Trees May 1, 2009 420-081
Effectiveness of Skid Trail Closure Techniques. Forest Operations Research Highlights

Protection of water quality is a critical component of forest harvesting operations. Virginia’s silvicultural water quality law (§10.1-1181.1 through 10.1-1181.7) prohibits excessive sedimentation of streams as a result of silvicultural operations. Virginia’s logging businesses invest substantial resources implementing BMPs to protect water quality. The Virginia Depart- ment of Forestry (VDOF) is responsible for enforcing this law and inspects all logging operations to ensure protection of water quality. BMP guidelines offer mul- tiple possible options for practices to minimize erosion and sedimentation and protect water quality. Select- ing the most appropriate BMP will depend on specific site conditions, as well as resources available on-site for implementing BMPs. However, research results on BMP implementation can help guide decisions related to BMP implementation for protecting water quality.

Aug 7, 2014 ANR-109NP
Effectiveness of Temporary Stream Crossing Closure Techniques Forest Operations Research Highlights Aug 8, 2014 ANR-110NP
Emerald Ash Borer Feb 7, 2014 HORT-69NP
Emerald Ash Borer

The first indication of damage by the emerald ash borer is cracks in the branch’s high in the tree followed by canopy dieback. Tunneling by the larvae cause girdling and death of branches and the trunk. Early feeding damage by emerald ash borer will be difficult to detect because trees show few symptoms. Woodpeckers feeding on EAB larvae leave holes in the bark that can be seen by looking up into the tree. As the infestation progresses the trees starts to thin out and branches in the top sections of the tree start to die. Many trees will have a large number of new shoots on the trunk called epicormic branching. Often these branches occur at the junction of thelive and dead sections of the trees. Epicormic branching may also occur at the base of the tree after the tree has died. EAB can live in twigs as small as 1 inch in diameter but can also breed in trunks of fully mature trees. It usually takes 2-5 years for damage to be noticed and the EAB damage kills the tree shortly thereafter.

Mar 17, 2016 2904-1290 (ENTO-200NP)
Emerald Ash Borer Control for Foresters and Landowners Sep 4, 2014 ENTO-76NP
Farm Tractor Logging for Woodlot Owners May 1, 2009 420-090
Forest Harvesting in Virginia, Characteristics of Virginia’s Logging Operations

Virginia’s forests are a vital resource, providing multiple benefits for the
commonwealth’s citizens, forest landowners, and the forest industry. More than
15 million acres, nearly two thirds of the state’s is forested. These forests provide
an estimated $23 billion in total economic output, annually, and provide forestry
related jobs to nearly 145,000 (Rephann 2008). Forest harvesting is often a critical
component of forest management1. Logging operations are essential to implementing
forest management plans and providing income to forest landowners. In 2011, more
than 5,900 timber harvests occurred on more than 248,000 acres of Virginia’s
forested land, and net growth continues to exceed the volume harvested (VDOF 2011).

Feb 10, 2012 ANR-5
Forest Landowner’s Guide To The Measurement Of Timber And Logs

As a forest landowner interested in selling timber, you are naturally interested in the price you will receive
for your product and how that price is determined. The measurement of standing timber and logs may seem
strange and complicated to you, and it is possible that you may be quoted dramatically different prices based
upon differing estimates of the amount of timber you have and the units of measurement used. Methods of
measuring timber and the units of measurement often differ between buyers, and, as a seller, you should have
an understanding of these methods, the units of measurement, and an idea as to a reasonable price for your

Dec 15, 2014 420-085 (ANR-120P)
Forests of Virginia: Importance, Composition, Ecology, Threats, and Management Mar 4, 2016 465-315 (ANR-163P)
Galls and Rust made by Mites

Galls are abnormal growths of plant tissue induced by insects and other organisms. Gall-making parasites release growth-regulating chemicals as they feed, causing adjacent plant tissues to form a gall. The parasite then develops within the relative security of the gall. Galls come in an endless variety of forms. Many are strikingly colored or curiously shaped. Each gall-making species causes a gall structurally different from all others. By noting the type of host plant and the structure of the gall, one can identify the gall-making mite without actually seeing it.

May 8, 2015 ENTO-147NP
Galls made by Wasps May 14, 2015 ENTO-145NP
Galls made by aphids, adelgids, phylloxerans, psyllids, and midges May 8, 2015 ENTO-146NP
Guide to Threatened and Endangered Species on Private Lands In Virginia Oct 5, 2010 420-039
Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Dec 16, 2016 3006-1451 (ENTO-228NP)
Introduction to Growing Christmas Trees in Virginia Apr 24, 2015 420-080 (AREC-122P)
Invasive Exotic Plant Species Identification and Management Mar 18, 2015 420-320(AREC-106P)
Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima) May 4, 2015 420-322(ANR-122P)
Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata)

Autumn olive was introduced to the U.S. from Japan and China in 1830. It was originally planted for wildlife habitat, shelterbelts, and mine reclamation, but has escaped cultivation. It is dispersed most frequently by birds and other wildlife, which eat the berries.

Dec 3, 2014 420-321 (ANR-123P)
Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.) Jan 20, 2015 420-323(ANR-124P)
Investing in Sustainable Forestry; A Guide for Virginia’s Forest Landowners May 18, 2011 420-186
Lean Inventory Management in the Wood Products Industry: Examples and Applications Sep 28, 2010 420-148
Locust Borer, Megacyllene robiniae (Forst.) Coleoptera: Cerambycidae May 8, 2015 ENTO-141NP
Managing Wildlife Damage: Snakes Aug 26, 2010 420-021
Measuring Site Index
Site index (SI) is a measurement commonly used by foresters to describe the productivity of a site. Typically this measurement is used to describe sites growing well-stocked even-aged forests. Site index is the average height of the dominant1 and codominant2 trees on the site, at a given age (base age). Typically, the base age for hardwoods and white pine in Virginia is 50 years, while the base age for loblolly pine is 25 years. For example, a SI of 75, base age 50, means that the average height of the dominant and codominant trees on a site will be 75 feet when they are 50 years old (SI50=75). The higher the SI, the higher the site productivity (trees will grow faster than on a site with a lower SI).
Dec 3, 2014 2812-1028 (ANR-125NP)
Measuring Standing Trees and Logs

Timber may be sold as stumpage (trees before they are cut) or as harvested products (sawlogs, veneer logs, or pulpwood). If trees are sold as harvested products, the sale is customarily based upon measured volume. Trees marketed as stumpage may be sold by boundary, a measured estimate of stand volume, or individual tree measurements.

Standing-tree and log volumes can be measured using a scale stick designed to fit Virginia timber conditions. With it you can measure the diameter of a tree, the number of 16-foot logs or the length of pulpwood in a tree, and the diameter and length of sawlogs. Tables printed on the stick provide for varying board-foot volumes for standing trees and for sawlogs of varying lengths.

Jul 14, 2009 420-560
Moving Toward Sustainable Forestry: Strategies for Forest Landowners Dec 15, 2014 420-144 (AREC-108NP)
One-Year Health, Mortality, and Growth in Southeast Virginia of Shortleaf Pine From Three Sources Apr 22, 2013 ANR-28P
Options for Clearing Land: Pasture Establishment for Horses

You have considered the ramifications of clearing your land (To Clear or Not To Clear – That Is the Question, Virginia Cooperative Extension publication 465-340), and you have decided to go forward. Now this publication addresses a question many new landowners ask: How do I clear land?

May 1, 2009 465-341
Pales Weevil

Pales weevil feeds on all pines within its range. It will also feed, although to a lesser extent, on Douglas-fir, fir, hemlock, juniper, larch, northern white-cedar, and spruce.

Dec 11, 2014 2902-1102 (ENTO-103NP)
Pest Management Guide: Field Crops, 2016 Jan 26, 2016 456-016 (ENTO-167P)
Pest Management Guide: Horticultural and Forest Crops, 2016 Jan 26, 2016 456-017 (ENTO-163P)
Pesticide Applicator Manuals Nov 17, 2011 VTTP-2
Pine Bark Adelgid Mar 6, 2015 2907-1402 (ENTO-120NP)
Pine Tortoise Scale

Foliage drops, needles usually shorter and may kill tree over period of years -
most damaging on seedlings and young saplings. Often black sooty mold is associated with infestations.

Mar 24, 2016 3101-1529 (ENTO-207NP)
Poison Ivy: Leaves of three? Let it be!

Those who experience the blisters, swelling, and extreme itching that result from contact with poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans), poison oak (Toxicodendron pubescens), or poison sumac (Toxicodendron vernix) learn to avoid these pesky plants. Although poison oak and poison sumac do grow in Virginia, poison ivy is by far the most common. This publication will help you identify poison ivy, recognize the symptoms of a poison ivy encounter, and control poison ivy around your home.

May 1, 2009 426-109
Powell River Project - Coal-resource Contracting Terms for Productive Postmining Forests Feb 26, 2010 460-143
Powell River Project - Establishing Groundcover for Forested Postmining Land Uses Feb 19, 2010 460-124
Powell River Project - Growing Christmas Trees on Reclaimed Surface-mined Land Sep 2, 2009 460-116
Powell River Project - How to Restore Forests on Surface-mined Land

Most coal-bearing lands in the Appalachian region were forested prior to mining. The region’s forests are predominantly upland oak-hickory and Appalachian mixed hardwoods. These forests provide many benefits to landowners and the public. Solid wood and paper products are perhaps the most tangible benefits, but a predictable flow of high-quality water from forested watersheds into regional streams is another vital benefit provided by the region’s forests. Forests also fix carbon from the atmosphere, provide wildlife food and cover, and provide recreational opportunities and an aesthetically pleasing environment.

Mar 30, 2011 460-123
Powell River Project - Mine Permitting to Establish Productive Forests as Post-Mining Land Uses Sep 29, 2009 460-141
Powell River Project - Recovery of Native Plant Communities After Mining

This publication summarizes research on the impacts of reclamation practices on re-establishment of native Appalachian forest ecosystems and describes practices
that may be used during reclamation to encourage re-establishment of native hardwood-forest plant communities.

Feb 25, 2010 460-140
Powell River Project - Restoring the Value of Forests on Reclaimed Mined Land Dec 4, 2009 460-138
Principles of Regeneration Silviculture in Virginia Aug 25, 2009 420-405
Redheaded Pine Sawfly Jun 24, 2015 3006-1453(ENTO-162NP)
Safe and Efficient Practices for Trucking Unmanufactured Forest Products May 8, 2009 420-310
Selection and Care of Christmas Trees May 1, 2009 420-641
Shortleaf Pine: An Option for Virginia Landowners May 1, 2009 420-165
Skidder Safety and Efficiency: A Discussion Leader's Guide

This handbook is designed to accompany the Skidder Safety and Efficiency training DVD available from Virginia Cooperative Extension www.ext.vt.edu, Forest Resources Association www. forestresources.org, and the Virginia SHARP Logger Program www.sharplogger.vt.edu. The following pages contain a transcription of the video narrative, along with suggestions for discussion topics.

May 26, 2009 420-122
So You Want To Sell Timber Sep 23, 2015 ANR-154P
Species for Christmas Tree Planting in Virginia May 1, 2009 420-082
Statistical Process Control: Applications and Examples for Forest Products Industries Apr 7, 2015 ANR-140NP
Sustainable Forestry: A Guide for Virginia Forest Landowners Feb 3, 2016 420-139 (ANR-157P)
The ABCs of Cost Allocation in the Wood Products Industry: Applications in the Furniture Industry Sep 17, 2010 420-147
The Role of Logging Business Owners in Forest Certification
Many forest products companies and landowners participate in forest certification programs. Forest certification programs set standards for sustainable forest management and verify that they are being met. Certification programs can demonstrate to consumers that certified forest products come from trees that were grown and harvested sustainably. Participants in certification programs commit to meeting sustainable forest management standards and are periodically audited by a third party to verify compliance.
May 22, 2013 ANR-51NP
The Virginia Tech – U.S. Forest Service December 2015 Housing Commentary: A

In December, the housing data was mixed. Total starts and permits declined on a month-over-month basis. Single-family permits, new and existing sales, housing under construction, completions, and all construction expenditure sectors improved month-over-month. All the aforementioned sectors were positive on a year-over-year basis. From a regional perspective, all data were mixed across all segments. 

Feb 24, 2016 ANR-182NP
The Virginia Tech – U.S. Forest Service December 2015 Housing Commentary: Part B

If current laws governing federal taxes and spending generally remained in place, by CBO’s projections, real GDP would grow by 2.7 percent this calendar year and by 2.5 percent in 2017, as measured by the change from the fourth quarter of the previous year. From 2018 through 2020, the economy would grow at an average annual rate of 2.0 percent, CBO projects.

Feb 25, 2016 ANR-183NP
The Virginia Tech – U.S. Forest Service February 2016 Housing Commentary: Section I

In January, the housing data was less than inspiring. Two things: First, it was January's data (historically a slow month) and two, it was one-month’s data. We need 3, 4, or 5-months data to assess the direction of the housing market. In January, total and single-family starts, permits, new house sales, and new single-family construction spending all declined month-over-month.

Apr 29, 2016 ANR-189NP (ANR-196NP)
The Virginia Tech – U.S. Forest Service February 2016 Housing Commentary: Section II

“Home prices continue to climb at more than twice the rate of inflation. The low inventory of homes for sale -- currently about a five month supply – means that would-be sellers seeking to trade-up are having a hard time finding a new, larger home. The recovery of the sale and construction of new homes has lagged the gains seen in existing home sales.

May 4, 2016 ANR-190NP (ANR-197NP)
The Virginia Tech – U.S. Forest Service March 2016 Housing Commentary: Section I

In March, seasonally-adjusted housing data was mostly negative, with a few series indicating minimal increases. All data series remain positive year-over-year, particularly single-family starts and completions. Regionally, data were mixed across all sectors and of particular note was the substantial decrease in West’s new single-family house sales. From the beginning of 2010, housing has improved incrementally. However, most sectors of the housing market remain well less than their respective historical averages.

May 17, 2016 ANR-202NP
The Virginia Tech – U.S. Forest Service March 2016 Housing Commentary: Section II

In March, seasonally-adjusted housing data was mostly negative, with a few series indicating minimal increases. All data series remain positive year-over-year, particularly single-family starts and completions. Regionally, data were mixed across all sectors and of particular note was the substantial decrease in West’s new single-family house sales. From the beginning of 2010, housing has improved incrementally. However, most sectors of the housing market remain well less than their respective historical averages.

May 17, 2016 ANR-203NP
The Virginia Tech – U.S. Forest Service October 2015 Housing Commentary: Section I

October's housing data was variable and mildly disappointing, with total starts negative on a month-over-month (single-family too) and year-over-year basis. New sales, permits, and single-family and improvement construction spending improved on a monthly basis. The same cannot be written about existing sales and completions, which decreased. On a regional basis, permits, starts, and completions were mixed; with housing under construction being positive. The housing market typically slows this time of year. Hence we should look at all data on a long-term basis and not from a monthly perspective.

Mar 24, 2016 ANR-191NP
The Woods In Your Backyard: Learning to Create and Enhance Natural Areas Around Your Home

Small lots, such as the one you may own, are a big deal. The vast majority of land owners have less than 10 acres. This land, wooded or not, is a vital source for all. By enhancing or creating natural areas and woodland on your lot, you can enjoy recreation, aesthetics, wildlife, and water quality. If your lot connects to other lots, there’s ample opportunity to make an even bigger impact by getting neighbors involved! Owners of even just a few acres can make a positive difference in their environment through planning and implementing simple stewardship practices learned at the Woodland Stewardship Education's “The Woods in Your Backyard” workshop. The basic stewardship practices learned at the workshop will bring you many personal benefits

May 17, 2016 ANR-199NP
Thinning Hardwoods, Demonstration Woodlot

Most forest owners value their forest for wildlife habitat, recreation and aesthetics. Given accurate information, they may manage their woodlot to achieve these and other goals using sound silviculture. Thinning over-stocked woodlots is one silvicultural management tool. Thinning can modify spacing and diversity of species to meet desired goals which may include timber, wildlife, aesthetics and more. Thinning also improves woodlot vigor by removing over-mature, suppressed, defective or weakened trees. To meet theses objective, Stand D2 was selected for a thinning research & demonstration site.

Apr 24, 2015 ANR-133NP (ANR-149NP)
Timber Selling Tips: Forestry Fact Sheet for Landowners Sep 23, 2015 ANR-155P
To Certify or Not? An Important Question for Virginia’s Family Forest Owners

Family forest owners ask themselves many questions about their properties, such as if and when to cut timber, what types of wildlife to manage for, how to control exotic invasive species, and how to protect water quality. An increasingly common question that forest owners ask is whether they should certify their forests.

This publication can help forest owners determine if certification is an appropriate option. It defines certification, as well as its benefits and costs, and describes three common certification programs in Virginia. It also covers how family forest owners can begin the certification process, lists sources of additional information, and answers frequently asked questions.

Sep 9, 2013 ANR-50P
To Clear or Not To Clear -- That Is the Question

There are several reasons why someone might want to clear woodland. Pasture for livestock, space for horseback riding, creating a vista, making space for a garden, increasing lawn size, or establishing a field for hay or other crops are but a few. Regardless of the reason, it is important to carefully evaluate all options and thoroughly understand the ramifications.

May 1, 2009 465-340
Tree Crops For Marginal Farmland -- Christmas Trees

This publication describes the most effective practices used to grow Christmas trees in the southern United States and the cost of those practices. It includes a financial analysis with typical costs and expected returns.

Only eastern white pine and Virginia pines are discussed in this guide. But other species, such as Scotch pine and Fraser fir, also can be grown profitably in some locations in the South. To use this publication to best advantage, read it straight through. Take special note of the cultural practices described and their estimated costs. Think about potential markets for the harvest. Read how to evaluate your potential investment, and think about the other benefits of tree crops. Read the case studies to get a better idea of how these investments can be evaluated. To conduct a financial analysis of your own situation, carefully estimate all the production costs, then take your estimates to the local Extension agent or farm management agent for assistance.

May 1, 2009 446-605
Tree Crops for Marginal Farmland: Loblolly Pine

The Tree Crops for Marginal Farmland Project seeks to provide farmers with basic information about grow­ing and marketing tree crops. Tree crops have many advantages for farmers with marginal or unused land. The cost of inputs is relatively low, economic returns may be quite competitive with alternatives, and there are important environmental benefits.

There are five introductory guides in this series, and each has an accompanying videotape. They provide information on a specific tree crop which can be grown on small or medium-sized tracts of marginal or unused farmland. All these crops are common to areas of the southeastern United States, but their economic poten­tial should be investigated by farmers.

Jun 23, 2009 446-609
Trees and Shrubs for Acid Soils

The trees and shrubs on your new home site are growing poorly, so you take samples to the Extension office and the agent suggests a soil test. Test results show that your soil has a pH of 4.5, which is rated as strongly acid. The agent suggests you either take corrective action to raise the pH or grow different plants.

Apr 8, 2015 430-027 (HORT-115P)
Trees and Shrubs that Tolerate Saline Soils and Salt Spray Drift Apr 8, 2015 430-031 (HORT-111P)
Trees and Water Jul 30, 2012 ANR-18NP
Trees for Parking Lots and Paved Areas

Parking lots and paved areas are essential urban features that tend to be unsightly in their basic form. Municipal ordinances often mandate specific amounts of parking for different types of commercial or residential land use, as well as landscaping for these parking areas. Landscaping in and around parking lots and pavement improves appearance, prevents soil erosion, and reduces carbon dioxide through photosynthesis. Planted areas also reduce storm water drainage problems, reduce the detrimental effects of wind and noise, and enhance human comfort by providing heat-reducing shade.

May 1, 2009 430-028
Twig Girdler/Twig Pruner Mar 16, 2015 2911-1423 (ENTO-124NP)
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: An Overview May 1, 2009 420-150
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Benefits to Communities and Landowners May 1, 2009 420-153
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Effects on Plant and Animal Communities May 1, 2009 420-152
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Effects on Water Quality May 1, 2009 420-151
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Factors Influencing Adoption May 1, 2009 420-154
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Planning, Establishment, and Maintenance May 1, 2009 420-155
Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Resources for Virginia Landowners May 1, 2009 420-156
Urban Forestry Issues May 1, 2009 420-180
Value, Benefits, and Costs of Urban Trees May 1, 2009 420-181
Virginia Logger Safety Checklist Booklet

This booklet contains sample forms, sample policies, and guidelines for maintaining safety records.  Formats are suggested and can be modified by each operation.  Use of this booklet and completion of suggested forms will assist with OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Act) requirements as related to logging operations.  A list of agencies and contacts is included for additional information and consultation.

Aug 5, 2011 3108-1592
Virginia Pine Sawfly Mar 16, 2015 2911-1424 (ENTO-125NP)
Welcome to the Woods! A Guide for New Virginia Woodland Owners May 13, 2015 ANR-136P
Wood Identification for Species Native to Virginia Sep 24, 2013 ANR-64P
Wood Magic: A wood science curriculum for fourteen-to eighteen-year-olds Nov 9, 2009 388-809
Wood Magic: A wood science curriculum for nine to eleven year olds Nov 9, 2009 388-807
Yellow Poplar Weevil

Rice-shaped holes about 1/16 inches result from adult feeding. Larval feeding forms mines, usually two per leaf. If they are both on the same side of midrib, one is extensive, and the other dwarfed. If the insect lays eggs on opposite sides of the midrib, both mines develop normally.

Nov 6, 2015 ENTO-172NP