|Soybean Growth and Development||
Proper management of the soybean crop requires knowledge of how environmental conditions and pests affect growth during vegetative and reproductive stages. For example, too little or too much soil moisture at certain stages may hinder growth and lower yield, and insect pests may damage the crop at one stage but not another. The information below can help you determine the proper timing of various management practices.
|Nov 13, 2015||CSES-134NP|
|The Soil and Me: A Perspective on Soil Health||
Soil is the foundation upon which our natural living world depends; it is otherwise known as the dynamic material that civilization is built on (Lindbo, Kozlowski, and Robinson 2012). Soil serves diverse functions that are critical to the survival of humanity; without the soil, life on earth is inconceivable. It represents the critical zone of the earth where life, water, minerals, and air intersect and interact (fig. 1) because the soil constantly relates with other parts of nature. The soil is considered a living, dynamic resource at the earth’s surface and has been defined as “the unconsolidated mineral or organic material on the immediate surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants” (SSSA 2015). The thickness or depth of this surface or layer varies with the type and environment of the soil.
|Nov 5, 2015||CSES-132NP|
|2015 VIRGINIA ON-FARM WHEAT TEST PLOTS||
The demonstration and research plot results discussed in this publication are a cooperative effort by seven Virginia Cooperative Extension agents, extension specialists from Virginia Tech, and an associate professor at the Virginia State University School of Agriculture. We are proud to present this year’s onfarm small grain plot work to you. We hope the information in this publication will help farmers produce a profitable crop in 2016.
|Aug 12, 2015||ANR-159NP|
|The Nutrient Value of Straw||Jun 19, 2015||CSES-126NP|
|Nitrogen and Sulfur Leaching Potential in Virginia||Jun 19, 2015||CSES-125NP|
|Southeastern U.S. 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook||Jun 19, 2015||AREC-66NP(AREC-152NP)|
|The Mid-Atlantic Nutrient Management Handbook||Jun 9, 2015||CSES-122P|
|IMPACT: Virginia Winter Fruit School Impact||May 13, 2015||AREC-135NP|
|Virginia Cover Crops Fact Sheet Series No. 2: Cover Crop Performance Evaluation in Field and Controlled Studies||May 5, 2015||CSES-121NP|
|Virginia Cover Crops Fact Sheet Series No. 1: Beneficial Uses of Cover Crops||May 5, 2015||CSES-120NP|
|2014 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - II. Quality Data||May 5, 2015||AREC-146NP|
|2014 Virginia Bollgard II Xtendflex Variety Trial||Apr 29, 2015||CSES-113NP|
|Characteristics of Good Quality Transplants||
If you're planning to use transplants this spring make sure the 2005 season gets off to a productive start by planting good quality transplants. While terms like "good quality" leave room for some subjective interpretation, there are characteristics that can be defined to aid in determining if the transplants are of good quality.
|Apr 24, 2015||2906-1383 (AREC-141NP)|
|Prevention and Control of Palmer Amaranth in Cotton||Mar 25, 2015||2805-1001 (PPWS-60NP)|
|Prevention and Control of Palmer Amaranth in Soybean||Mar 19, 2015||2808-1006 (PPWS-59NP)|
|Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2014||
The purpose of this publication is to provide performance data of the many soybean varieties offered for
|Mar 18, 2015||AREC-134NP|
|Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2015||Mar 12, 2015||AREC-124NP|
|Double Cropping Soybeans In Virginia||Mar 11, 2015||CSES-102NP (CSES-104NP)|
|Weed Control in Hops||Mar 11, 2015||ANR-144NP|
|Mid-Atlantic Grain Sorghum Performance Tests 2014||Mar 6, 2015||AREC-133NP|
|Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2014||Feb 25, 2015||ANR-143NP|
|Pest Management Guide: Horticultural and Forest Crops, 2015||Feb 16, 2015||456-017 (ENTO-71P)|
|Pest Management Guide: Field Crops, 2015||Feb 13, 2015||456-016 (ENTO-70P)|
|2014 Insect Pest Management in Virginia Cotton and Peanut||Feb 9, 2015||ENTO-109NP|
|2014 Cotton Variety Testing and On-Farm Results||Jan 30, 2015||AREC-131NP|
|Applied Research On Field Crop Disease Control 2014||Jan 26, 2015||AREC-126NP|
|2015 Virginia Peanut Production Guide||Jan 6, 2015||AREC-117NP|
|2014 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - Agronomic and Grade Data||Jan 6, 2015||AREC-125NP|
|Importance of Farm Phosphorus Mass Balance and Management Options||
Phosphorus is a naturally occurring element that is one of 16 elements essential for plant growth and animal health. Research has documented that applying phosphorus in fertilizers or manure increases crop growth and yield on soils that are below critical agronomic levels, as measured during routine soil testing. Although the economic benefits of phosphorus fertilization on crop production are well-documented, too much of a good thing can be detrimental to the environment. Excessive soil phosphorus is a potential threat to water quality.
|Dec 19, 2014||CSES-98P|
|2014 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots||Dec 11, 2014||ANR-134NP|
|IMPACT: Virginia Potato Disease Advisory Impact||Nov 13, 2014||ANR-105P|
|Roadside Survey of Continuous No-till and Cover Crop Acres in Virginia||
In 2009, the Chesapeake Clean Water Ecosystem Restoration Act (HB 3852/S 1816) was passed, and was intended to strengthen certain standards for the Chesapeake Bay, particularly, to address nonpoint source pollution. Nonpoint source pollution includes that of urban, suburban and agricultural runoff. Cited in the bill was the need to establish and codify the Bay-wide pollution budget, or Total Maximum Daily Loads, (TMDL) for nitrogen, phosphorous and sediment that EPA was in process of developing for the Bay. Hence all states and their perspective watersheds would have pollution caps for all sources of pollution.
|Oct 13, 2014||CSES-103NP|
|Peanut (Arachis hypogaea, L.) Nutrition||
Maintaining the right soil pH for each crop ensures optimal nutrient uptake by plants. For peanut, the recommended pH range is 5.8 – 6.2. If soil pH is higher than 6.2, manganese (Mn) or boron (B) deficiency may occur; if pH is less than 5.8, zinc (Zn) toxicity problems could be favored. Therefore, taking soil samples correctly is very important for correcting soil pH. A single composite sample should be taken for each 5 irrigated and 10 rainfed acres. This sample should be composed of 20 or more subsamples collected from an imaginary grid uniformly covering the land area. The subsamples should be well mixed together and only a small composite sample should be retained and sent to the soil lab.
|Sep 1, 2014||PPWS-40NP|
|2014 Virginia On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots||
The demonstration and research plot results discussed in this publication are a cooperative effort by six Virginia Cooperative Extension agents, extension specialists from Virginia Tech, and an assistant professor at the Virginia State University School of Agriculture. We are proud to present this year’s onfarm small grain plot work to you. We hope the information in this publication will help farmers produce a profitable crop in 2015.
|Aug 11, 2014||ANR-113NP|
|Sensor-Based, Variable-Rate Nitrogen Applications in Virginia||
Variable-rate applications (VRA) of nitrogen (N) fertilizers are a new option to assist producers with real-time fertilizer rate decisions. Two commercially available systems that allow variable-rate nitrogen applications are GreenSeeker (Trimble Navigation Limited; www. ntechindustries.com/greenseeker-home.html) and the OptRx Crop Sensor (Ag Leader Technology; www. agleader.com/products/directcommand/optrx/). A discussion of the science behind these systems, potential economic benefits, and other methodologies to make VRA is discussed in Virginia Cooperative Extension publication 442-505, “Precision Farming Tools: Variable-Rate Application” (Grisso et al. 2011).
|Aug 8, 2014||CSES-90P|
|Planter/Drill Considerations for Conservation Tillage Systems||
No-till planters and drills must be able to cut and handle residue, penetrate the soil to the proper seeding depth, and establish good seed-to-soil contact. Many different soil conditions can be present in the Mid-Atlantic region at planting time. Moist soils covered with residue, which may also be wet, can dominate during the late fall and early spring and, occasionally, in the summer. Although this condition provides an ideal environment for seed germination, it can make it difficult to cut through the residue. In contrast, hard and dry conditions may also prevail. Although cutting residue is easier during dry conditions, it is more difficult to penetrate the hard, dry soils. Proper timing, equipment selection and adjustments, and crop management can overcome these difficult issues.
|Aug 8, 2014||442-457 (BSE-147P)|
|2014 Virginia Peanut Production Guide||May 2, 2014||AREC-58NP|
|The Basics of Hardwood-Log Shiitake Mushroom Production and Marketing||Apr 3, 2014||ANR-102P|
|2013 Tri-State Grain Sorghum Performance Tests||Mar 26, 2014||AREC-83NP|
|2013 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - II. Quality Data||Mar 14, 2014||AREC-85NP|
|Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2013||
The purpose of this publication is to provide performance data of the many soybean varieties offered for sale in Virginia. These data should be of benefit to producers and agribusinesses in making selections of varieties for their use. It is realized that not all varieties that are offered for sale in Virginia are included in these tests. There is no implication that varieties not included are inferior in any way, but only that they have not been tested.
|Feb 21, 2014||AREC-79NP|
|Applied Research on Field Crop Disease Control 2013||Feb 1, 2012||AREC-12|
|Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2014||Feb 7, 2014||AREC-62NP|
|Soybean Insect Guide||Feb 7, 2014||AREC-68NP|
|Disease Management in No-Till Corn in Virginia||Feb 7, 2014||AREC-67NP|
|Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2013||Jan 22, 2014||ANR-101NP|
|2013 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - Agronomic and Grade Data||Jan 16, 2014||AREC-64NP|
|2013 Insect Pest Management In Virginia Cotton, Peanut, Soybean, and Sorghum||Dec 10, 2013||AREC-61NP|
|2013 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots||Dec 4, 2013||ANR-96NP|
|Soybean Reproductive Development Stages||Nov 25, 2013||AREC-59NP|
|North American Grapevine Yellows Disease: Current Knowledge and Management Recommendations for Wine Growers||Sep 18, 2013||AREC-48P|
|Cotton Harvest Aid Cheat Sheet||Aug 28, 2013||CSES-65NP|
|Increasing Fresh Produce Availability From Local Sources||Jul 19, 2013||AREC-50NP|
|Virginia Soybean Update||Jul 10, 2013||AREC-49NP|
|Growing 'Titan': A Large-Seeded, Virginia-Type Peanut for Specialty Markets||Jun 18, 2013||AREC-42P|
|Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results, Quality Data||Apr 26, 2013||AREC-41NP|
|2009-2011 Performance of Sorghum Hybrids in the Virginia-Carolina Region||Apr 25, 2013||AREC-11P|
|2011 - 2012 Runner vs. Virginia Peanut Test Results||Apr 12, 2013||AREC-44NP|
|Planting Considerations and Variety Performance for Virginia Cotton Producers||
The purpose of this publication is to provide performance data of the many soybean varieties offered for sale in Virginia. These data should be of benefit to producers and agribusinesses in making selections of varieties for their use. It is realized that not all varieties that are offered for sale in Virginia are included in these tests. There is no implication that varieties not included are inferior in any way, but only that they have not been tested.
|Mar 11, 2013||AREC-43NP|
|Average Relative Yields of Soybean Tested in the Virginia Official Variety Test 2010-2012||Mar 1, 2013||AREC-35NP|
|Manure Injection in No-Till and Pasture Systems||Feb 27, 2013||CSES-22P|
|Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2012||
||Feb 14, 2013||AREC-40|
|2012 Insect Pest Management in Virginia Cotton, Peanut, and Soybean||Jan 28, 2013||AREC-37NP|
|2012 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - Agronomic and Grade Data||Jan 16, 2013||AREC-32NP|
|2012 Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots||Jan 11, 2013||ANR-37NP|
|2012 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots||Nov 29, 2012||ANR-31NP|
|Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare, L.) Weed Control||
||Nov 16, 2012||AREC-29NP|
|2012 Performance of Sorghum Hybrids in Virginia||Nov 26, 2012||AREC-30NP|
|Troubleshooting The Soybean Crop||Nov 16, 2012||AREC-25NP|
|Effects of Drought and Heat on Peanut (Arachis hypogaea, L.) Production||
||Sep 20, 2012||AREC-27NP|
|Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare, L.) Marketability Grain Color and Relationship to Feed Value||
||Aug 31, 2012||AREC-23NP|
|Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare, L.) Insects Corn earworm [Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)]||
||Aug 31, 2012||AREC-21NP|
|2011 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - Quality Data||Aug 28, 2012||AREC-6|
|Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare, L.) Diseases Head mold||
||Aug 21, 2012||AREC-20NP|
|Pyridine Herbicide Carryover: Causes and Precautions||May 9, 2012||VTTP-6NP|
|Average Relative Yields of Soybean Tested in the Virginia Official Variety Test 2009-2011||Mar 22, 2012||AREC-17NP|
|2012 Flue-cured Tobacco Production Guide||Feb 23, 2012||436-048 (AREC-14)|
|Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2011||
||Feb 15, 2012||AREC-16|
|Applied Research on Field Crop Disease Control 2011||Feb 1, 2012||AREC-12|
|2011 Insect Pest Management in Virginia Cotton, Peanut, and Soybean||Feb 1, 2012||AREC-7|
|2011 Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots||Jan 17, 2012||ANR-8|
|2011 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results, Agronomic and Grade Data||Jan 9, 2012||AREC-5|
|Best Management Practices for Bioenergy Crops: Reducing the Invasion Risk||Jan 5, 2012||PPWS-8P|
|Soybean Neamtode Management Guide||
Nematodes, or unsegmented roundworms, feed in or on roots of plants. More than 100 species of plant-parasitic nematodes feed on soybean roots, but only a few are economically important. In Virginia, most nematode species can be found in the sandier Coastal Plain soils. However, some nematode species can also develop and reproduce on the heavier-textured soils of the Piedmont and Shenandoah Valley. This guide will focus on those that can cause damage to soybeans in Virginia.
|Jan 2, 2012||AREC-1|
|Peanut Crop Physiology Related Projects at Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center 2010||Dec 16, 2011||PPWS-2|
|Pesticide Applicator Manuals||Nov 17, 2011||VTTP-2||
|Wireworm control experiment in potatoes in Abingdon, VA in 2011||Nov 3, 2011||3110-1596|
|Applied Research on Field Crop Disease Control 2010||Oct 18, 2011||3110-4009|
|Tips for Profitable Variety Selection: How to Use Data From Different Types of Variety Trials||
Selecting an appropriate, high-yielding variety is one of the most important management decisions that producers make. Yield potential is clearly important, but the decision is complicated by such factors as the cropping system, the need for disease resistance, end-use quality goals, year-to-year climatic variation, and the need to select multiple varieties in order to reduce risk by spreading out flowering and maturity dates.
|Jul 29, 2011||424-040|
|Small Grains In 2011||
The following tables present results from barley and wheat varietal tests conducted in Virginia in
|Jul 21, 2011||3007-1456|
|Compact Soil Sampling Strategy for White Grubs||
Annual white grubs (WG) are early-season pests attacking corn seeds and seedlings (Figure 1). Heavy WG infestations can cause stand and yield losses of up to 20%. Because grubs occur in the soil, their presence in fields and subsequent damage to corn may go unnoticed until too late. Also, 30% overwintering mortality in WG densities is typical in VA. Insecticidal seed treatments such as clothianidin (PonchoTM) and thiamethoxam (CruiserTM) are the tools of choice for controlling soil insect pests. Growers typically must decide whether to purchase insecticide-treated seed well in advance of spring planting.
|Jun 30, 2011||2802-7027|
|2011 Flue-Cured Tobacco Production Guide||
The flue-cured tobacco budget is an estimate of the costs to produce 2500 pounds of marketable tobacco. Expense values used in the budget are based upon projected input prices and recommended production practices. Every producer is encouraged to adjust this budget using the right hand
|Mar 24, 2011||436-048|
|2010 PEANUT VARIETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION RESULTS Quality Data||
Along with agronomic and grade information, data on kernel and pod quality are essential for release of new peanut cultivars to ensure acceptability by the entire peanut trade. The present report contains the quality data collected on 11 Virginia-type cultivars that currently are on the market and 25 advanced breeding lines tested in the Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation (PVQE) small plots in 2010. The small PVQE plots with 36 varieties were tested at six locations in Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina: Suffolk, VA, Southampton Co., VA, Martin Co., NC, Rocky Mount, NC, Whiteville, NC, and Florence, SC. At Suffolk three and at Martin Co., NC, two planting dates were achieved. For the other locations, only one planting date was done. Each genotype was replicated 3 times at each location and planting date. Varieties’ names and pedigree are presented in Table 1. Since none of the advanced breeding lines were proposed for release, PVQE seed increase plots were not planted in 2010. A detailed description of the plant material, test locations, weather conditions, and cultural practices is included in the PVQE 2010 Results. I. Agronomic and Grade Data, at http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/3101/3101-1523/3101-1523.html.
|Mar 24, 2011||3103-1539|
|2011 Burley Tobacco Production Guide||
The production of an ample supply of uniform, healthy plants that are available reasonably early in the transplanting season is the first step for a successful crop. The best practice is to produce your own transplants. Doing so will reduce the likelihood of importing disease and pest problems onto your farm. The next best alternative is to buy transplants from someone in your local community. If you must import transplants
|Mar 22, 2011||436-050|
|Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2010||
||Mar 1, 2011||3102-1536|
|2009-2010 Performance of Sorghum Hybrids in the Virginia‐Carolina Region||Jan 25, 2011||3101-1531|
|Average Relative Yields of Soybean Tested in the Virginia Official Variety Test 2008-2010||Jan 25, 2011||3101-1530|
|2010 Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots||Jan 24, 2011||3101-1524|
|2010 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results: Agronomic and Grade Data||Jan 14, 2011||3101-1523|
|Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Fungicides in 2009||Dec 21, 2010||3012-1520|
|2010 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots||Dec 21, 2010||3012-1521|
|Virginia No-Till Fact Sheet Series Number Two: Nitrogen Fertilizer Injection in No-Till Systems||Sep 25, 2015||3011-1516(CSES-131NP)|
|Virginia No-Till Fact Sheet Series Number Three: Manure Injection||Nov 16, 2010||3011-1517|
|Peanut Crop Physiology Related Projects at Tidewater Agricultural Research & Extension Center 2009||Sep 9, 2010||3009-1460|
|Days to Soybean Physiological Maturity||Sep 9, 2010||3009-1459|
|Applied Research on Field Crop Disease Control 2009||Sep 9, 2010||3009-1458|
|Description and Performance of the Virginia-Market-Type Peanut Cultivars||Nov 3, 2014||432-201 (AREC-103P)|
|Corn Fertility Update – Spring 2010||Jun 11, 2010||3006-1448|
|Suggested Soybean Seeding Rates for Virginia||Jun 11, 2010||3006-1447|
|Average Relative Yields of Soybean Varieties Tested in the Virginia Official Variety Test 2007-2009||
Selecting high-yielding soybean varieties is one of the most important steps for profitable production. To help
Multi-year averages give greater confidence to variety performance. Data presented here is an average taken
Actual yield and other performance data from these tests are available at your county Cooperative Extension
|Apr 20, 2010||3004-1443|
|Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2009||
The purpose of the publication is to provide research-based information to aid in the decision-making process for grain producers in Virginia. It provides an unbiased evaluation of certain varieties, management practices, and new technology through on-farm replicated research using producer equipment and time. The plot work and analyzed results enable those producers to make management decisions based on research and provides them a greater opportunity to improve yields and profits, which can improve the quality of life for them and their families. The success of these on-farm plots is very dependant on the cooperative effort of the producer and the assisting agribusiness.
|Mar 24, 2010||3003-1441|
|Effects of Twin-Row Spacing on Corn Silage Growth Development and Yield in the Shenandoah Valley||Mar 18, 2010||3003-1440|
|A Decision Tool to Compare the Profitability of Utilizing Poultry Litter or Commercial Fertilizer to Meet Soil Test Recommendations||Mar 17, 2010||3003-1439|
|2009 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results, Quality Data||Mar 15, 2010||3002-1436|
|Pop-up and/or Starter Fertilizers for Corn||Mar 8, 2010||3002-1438|
|Common Diseases of Soybean in the Mid-Atlantic Region||
Common diseases of soybean are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi and nematodes. Some diseases are spread by insect vectors and nematodes while others are spread by wind, splashing rain, or movement in soil. The best way to determine if disease control would be profitable is to first identify the diseases that are capable of causing conomic yield losses. Symptoms of disease include plant damage caused by a pathogen and the reaction of plants to infection. Signs are the visible evidence of the pathogen. Some diseases have characteristic symptoms and signs that are identifiable in the field.
|Feb 17, 2010||3001-1435|
|Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results, 2009. I. Agronomic and Grade Data||
Peanut is an important crop for the Virginia and the Carolinas. It annually brings over $90 million to the economies of this region from over 180,000 acres planted every year. For example this year, 12,000 acres were planted in Virginia and 70,000 in North Carolina. Average yield was approximately 3,500 lb/A in both states. Due to environmental similarities and existence of a strong peanut industry tailored to process primarily the large-seeded Virginia- type peanut, growers in Virginia and North Carolina generally grow the same peanut varieties. More recently, farmers in South Carolina started to grow the large-seeded Virginia-type varieties as well. For example this year, growers in South Carolina planted approximately 70,000 acres of Virginia-type peanut. In the view of this common interest in the Virginia-type peanut, the three states are working together through a multi-state project, the Peanut Variety Quality Evaluation Project (PVQE), to evaluate advanced breeding lines and standard varieties throughout their production regions. The objectives of this project are: 1) to determine yield, grade, quality, and disease response of released peanut varieties and advanced breeding lines at various locations in the Virginia and the Carolinas, 2) develop a database for Virginia-type peanut to allow research-based selection of the best genotypes by growers, industry, and the breeding programs, and 3) to identify the most suited peanut genotypes for various regions that can be developed into varieties. This report contains agronomic and grade data of the PVQE tests in 2009.
|Jan 11, 2010||3001-1432|
|Green Stem Syndrome in Soybean||Dec 22, 2009||2912-1430|
|Palmer Amaranth Control in Soybean: 2009 Efficacy Experiments||Dec 22, 2009||2912-1429|
|Palmer Amaranth Control in Cotton: 2008 & 2009 Efficacy Experiments||Dec 22, 2009||2912-1428|
|Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2009||
||Dec 17, 2009||2912-1427|
|Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Fungicides in 2008||Nov 19, 2009||2911-1420|
|Cost and benefit of seed treatments and Temik 15G in furrow for seedling disease and nematode control in Virginia, 2008||Nov 19, 2009||2911-1419|
|Nitrogen Management for White Potato Production||
One of the challenges of white potato production, as with any crop, is the efficient management of nitrogen
|Sep 28, 2009||438-012|
|Managing Stink Bugs in Cotton: Research in the Southeast Region||
Stink bug pests across the south eastern cotton belt consist of three main species: the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say); the green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say); and the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) Due to the diverse environmental conditions across this production region, population levels of these species vary widely across seasons, states, and fields. In North Carolina and Virginia, green and brown stink bugs are the primary species, while southern green and brown stink bugs predominate in Georgia,and all three species are commonly observed in South Carolina.
|Sep 23, 2009||444-390|
|Impact of Changing From Nitrogen- to Phosphorus-Based Manure Nutrient Management Plans||
Animal manures are a good source of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) for agricultural crops, but they have an imbalance in their N to P ratio, so that if they are applied to meet crop N needs, then P is overapplied. For many years, manures have been applied to meet crop N needs, which has resulted in some soils containing more P than crops require, leading to environmental concerns. Regulations have been developed to limit P losses from manures and soils high in P by moving manure nutrient management from an N basis to a P basis.
|Sep 16, 2009||442-310|
|Tools to More Efficiently Manage In-Season Corn Nitrogen Needs||Sep 2, 2009||2909-1410|
|Virginia Tech On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots - Eastern Virginia, August 2009||
The demonstration and research plot results discussed in this publication are a cooperative effort by seven Virginia Cooperative Extension agents, several extension specialists from Virginia Tech, area
|Aug 28, 2009||2908-1409|
|The Organic Way - Plant Families||
Knowing which family a plant belongs to can be useful in making decisions about crop rotations for managing pests and soil fertility. Plants that are in a family are genetically related, so they share similar characteristics.
|Aug 17, 2009||2906-1393|
|Production of Dahlias as Cut Flowers||
Beginning cut flower growers, dazzled by brilliant photographs, often order dahlia tubers from bulb company catalogs for Spring planting. The hopeful grower normally pays five or six dollars per plant and either receives one single tuber or a small clump of tubers that resemble little brown yams. The grower carefully plants the tubers six inches deep in early May in full sun and hopes for the best.
|Aug 11, 2009||2906-1384|
|Determining the Cause of Plant Problems||Aug 11, 2009||2906-1382|
|Sell Cut Flowers from Perennial Summer-flowering Bulbs||
Commercial producers of field-grown flower cut flowers generally have a wide selection of crops to sell in April, May and June. Many species of annual and especially perennial cut flowers bloom during these three months. A group of plants that may offer new opportunities for sales of cut flowers during mid-summer are summer-flowering bulbs.
|Aug 5, 2009||2906-1370|
|Reduction in Sediment Movement in Plasticulture||
Tomato plasticulture is currently one of the most profitable agricultural enterprises on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. The advantages of plastic mulch include soil warming, weed suppression, water and fertilizer conservation and early yield enhancement. However, runoff and sediment movement may adversely impact the rapidly expanding clam aquaculture enterprises that are extremely sensitive to changes in water quality, including sediment movement.
|Aug 4, 2009||2906-1369|
|Fertilizer Types and Calculating Application Rates||Aug 4, 2009||424-035|
|GAPs: Common Sense for Fresh Produce Growers||
Over the past several years, when and where we can, cooperative extension has introduced the GAPs (Good Agricultural Practices) program to fresh produce growers across the state. In particular the message has been directed to our wholesale growers who sell to brokers and commercial chain stores.
|Jul 31, 2009||2906-1359|
|Successful No-Tillage Corn Production||Jul 29, 2009||424-030|
|8 Tips for Transitioning to Organic Production||
The transition phase can be difficult for growers transitioning to organic production. During the transition phase the farming system is undergoing many changes in physical, chemical and biological properties.
|Jul 29, 2009||2906-1350|
|Natural Plant Hormones Are Biostimulants Helping Plants Develop Higher Plant Antioxidant Activity For Multiple Benefits||
For the November, 2003 SE Strawberry Expo at Durham, NC, I was asked to make a presentation on the topic "Introduction to Foliar Feeding." Several folks helped me find background reference information on this subject, which was used to assemble this presentation and is included herein. I hope this information will help you produce better berry, fruit and vegetable crops!
|Jul 27, 2009||2906-1339|
|Farming in the Mid-Atlantic||Jul 27, 2009||2906-1336|
|Lisianthus (Eustoma Grandiflorum), A New Species for the Cut Flower Market||
A wildflower known in certain western states as Prairie Gentian has fallen into the hands of plant breeders to become a really hot new cut flower species - lisianthus. This flower is beautiful. The blooms are graceful and refined. They resemble rose buds on long sturdy stems. I
|Jul 22, 2009||2906-1312|
|Adding Cut Flowers May Increase Profits||
Vegetable growers who sell produce at farmers' markets, at roadside stands, to restaurants and to local supermarkets may find that they can bring in additional income by adding fresh cut flowers to the inventory of products they sell.
|Jul 15, 2009||2906-1331|
|Making Replant Decisions for Slug Damaged Corn and Soybean Stands||
Slugs cause significant economic injury to corn and soybean crops in Virginia every year. Symptoms of slug feeding will vary depending on the size or the growth stage of the crop, and the size of the slug. In corn, slug damage is typically limited to defoliation of emerging leaves.
|May 14, 2009||2905-1293|
|Applied Research on Field Crop Disease Control 2008||
Cool temperatures and rainfall delayed planting of cotton and peanut until after 20 April in Virginia. Thereafter, rainfall was widely scattered and soil temperatures averaged above 60 ºF which allowed planting to proceed in a timely manner. Most crops showed good emergence after planting throughout Eastern Virginia, except for some stand losses in early plantings of corn.
|May 14, 2009||2905-1294|
|2011 Virginia Peanut Production Guide||Jan 12, 2011||2810-1017|
|Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results 2008||May 1, 2009||2902-1082|
|Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2008||May 1, 2009||2901-1032|
|Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results, 2008||May 1, 2009||2812-1030|
|Insect Pest Management in Virginia: Cotton, Peanut, and Soybean 2010||May 1, 2009||2812-1027|
|Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Fungicides in 2007||May 1, 2009||2810-1016|
|Applied Research on Field Crop Disease Control 2007||May 1, 2009||2808-1005|
|Float Greenhouse Tobacco Transplant Guide||
Commercial greenhouse production of tobacco transplants first appeared in Virginia in the mid-1980's. Initial adoption of this technology was slow due to the high cost of the structures and equipment. However, widespread acceptance of greenhouse tobacco transplant production has occurred in the 1990's. This has largely resulted from lower greenhouse costs, increased labor costs, and the generally good experiences of early greenhouse tobacco growers.
|May 1, 2009||436-051|
|2008 Burley Tobacco Production Guide||
Print entire publication in PDF (PDF | 8MB) (112 pages)
|May 1, 2009||436-050-08|
|2003 Flue-Cured Tobacco Production Guide||
||May 1, 2009||436-048|
|Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Foliar Fungicides in 2006||May 1, 2009||450-562|
|Soybean Disease Control: Response of Soybeans to Foliar Sprays of Fungicides in 2005||May 1, 2009||450-561|
|Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions V: Monitoring, Tracking, and Scouting||May 1, 2009||450-305|
|Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions IV: Cropping Systems and Cultural Practices||May 1, 2009||450-304|
|Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions III: Control with Fungicides||May 1, 2009||450-303|
|Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions II: Identification, Biology, and Ecology||May 1, 2009||450-302|
|Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions I: Background and General Information||May 1, 2009||450-301|
|Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2006||May 1, 2009||424-109-06|
|Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2007||May 1, 2009||424-109-07|
|Virginia Soybean Variety Evaluation Tests 2004||May 1, 2009||424-107-04|
|Virginia Soybean Variety Evaluation Tests 2005||May 1, 2009||424-107-05|
|Potassium Fertilization of Cotton||May 1, 2009||418-025|
|Applied Research On Field Crop Disease Control 2004||May 1, 2009||450-564|
|Applied Research On Field Crop Disease Control 2005||May 1, 2009||450-564-05|
|Phosphorus, Agriculture & The Environment||
Phosphorus (P) is a naturally occurring element that can be found in the earth's crust, water, and all living organisms. Phosphorus (P) is one of 16 elements that are essential for plant growth. Soils in Virginia are naturally low in phosphorus, and most cropping systems on these soils require supplemental phosphorus to maximize their yield potential.
|May 1, 2009||424-029|
|Using the Virginia Cooperative Extension Climate Analysis Web Tool to Develop a Corn Planting Strategy||
With adequate soil moisture, early-planted corn generally out yields late-planted corn due to its better use of sunlight during June and July. The goal for most producers is to plant as early as possible and still achieve rapid emergence and a good crop stand.
|May 1, 2009||424-003|
|Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems||
American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium, Araliaceae family) is a familiar plant to many people in the Southern Appalachian region. For several generations, “digging sang” has been an enjoyable and profitable activity for many mountain people.
|May 1, 2009||354-312|
|Field Production of Cut Flowers: Potential Crops||
Do you have a roto-tiller and at least 1/2 acre of land? Consider cut flower production. Commercial vegetable growers, tobacco farmers, and young people interested in summer income are all potential candidates. Andy Hankins, VCE Extension Specialist for Alternative Agriculture, notes that even large-scale grain and livestock farmers have regained some profitability in their operations by adding cut flower production. For many greenhouse and nursery operations, mid-summer business is slow relative to spring. A field-grown cut flower business is a viable option to fill in the summer production and cash flow gap.
|May 1, 2009||426-619|
|Getting Started in the Production of Field-Grown, Specialty Cut Flowers||
Specialty cut flowers are one of the most profitable field crops you can grow. Lynn Byczynski, editor of Growing For Market newsletter (see Resources section), estimates a value of $25,000 to $35,000 per acre for field-grown cuts. The most basic requirements are at least half an acre of open, arable land, a rototiller, and, of course, time and effort. This publication is directed to those new to market gardening, but commercial vegetable growers, tobacco farmers, and young people interested in summer income are all potential candidates. Even grain and livestock farmers have increased profitability in their operations by adding cut flower production. For many greenhouse and nursery operations, mid-summer business is slower, relative to spring. A field-grown cut flower business is a viable option to fill in the summer production and cash flow gap.
|May 2, 2014||426-618 (HORT-71P)|
|Corn Earworm Biology and Management in Soybeans||
Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, is the most common and destructive insect pest of soybeans grown in Virginia. Although infestation severity varies, about one-third of our acreage is treated annually. This costs farmers 1.5 to 2 million dollars annually, and requires the application of many pounds of insecticide to crop lands. We may never eliminate this pest from Virginia soybeans, but knowledge of the biology and use of best management practices can help limit insecticide controls to those fields that meet economic threshold criteria. This publication provides current information on corn earworm biology, prediction of outbreaks, pest advisories, scouting procedures, and recently revised economic thresholds.
|Nov 13, 2014||444-770|
|The Peanut Southern Corn Rootworm Advisory||
The southern corn rootworm (SCR) has long been considered a major pest of peanuts in North Carolina and Virginia. However, researchers and Extension faculty at Virginia Tech and NC State have determined through more than 400 commercial field trials that the majority of peanut fields do not need to be treated. They have developed and tested a simple-to-use advisory that identifies those fields not at risk for pod damage or economic loss. The Southern Corn Rootworm Advisory can save you time and money as well as help you use insecticides more efficiently.
|Nov 13, 2014||444-351|
|European Corn Borer||
Description of DamageEuropean corn borer (ECB) is a major pest of corn grown for grain in Virginia. This pest is found throughout the commonwealth, but its population density fluctuates from year to year in a given locality. Typical damage to corn plants caused by this insect are reduced plant vigor leading to subsequent ear drop and stalk lodging.
When fully grown, ECB larvae are 3/4 to 1 inch in length and creamy-white to pink in color. The larval head capsule is dark brown and, on top of each abdominal ring or segment, there are several small dark brown or black spots. (Figure 1)
|May 1, 2009||444-232|
|Cabbage and Seedcorn Maggot||
Cabbage maggots canbe very destructive pests of early-season plantings of cole crops: cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, and brussels sprouts. Additional hosts include beet, radish, turnip, and celery.
Seedcorn maggots are known to attack asparagus, cabbage, turnip, radish, onion, beet, spinach, potato, and sprouting corn seeds. Seedcorn maggots can also be very damaging to beans and peas and new plantings of alfalfa.
|May 1, 2009||444-231|
|Identifying Soybean Fields at Risk to Leaf-Feeding Insects||
||May 1, 2009||444-203|
|Integrated Pest Management Peanut Scouting Manual||
Integrated Pest ManagementIn the competitive global peanut market, you need to lower production costs. At the same time, you also need to keep pesticide residues in peanuts to a minimum; protect rivers, streams, and lakes from runoff; and prevent chemicals from leaching through the soil to groundwater. Using IPM to protect crops only from pests that are likely to cause economic losses is a good way to meet these goals.
The Three Keys to IPM
|Nov 13, 2014||444-126|
|Slugs in Field Corn||
Scientific Names: Deroceras reticulatum (gray garden slug) (Fig. 1), Deroceras laeve (marsh slug) (Fig. 2), Arion subfuscus (dusky slug) (Fig. 3)
Size: Mature slugs vary in size from 1/2 inch to several inches in length; however, the typical size range of slugs found in cornfields is about 1/2 to 1 1/4 inches.
Color: Mature slugs are gray to brownish-gray, depending on the species. Immature slugs resemble adults in color (Fig. 4).
|May 1, 2009||444-109|
|Asiatic Garden Beetle in Field Corn||
Species: Maladera castanea (Arrow)
Size: The adult beetle is 5/16 to 7/16 of an inch long (slightly smaller than a Japanese beetle adult). A fully developed grub (third instar) measures about 3/4 inch long
Color: The adult is chestnut brown or reddish brown in color and faintly iridescent (Fig. 1). The grub (immature stage) is off white except for a distinct head capsule and three pairs of true legs that vary from in color from orange to dark brown.
Description: The beetle abdomen is covered by a pair of hardened forewings, or elytra, which are not used in flight. Instead, their main purpose is to protect the hind wings, which are folded up under the elytra when the insect is not in flight. The grub has a distinct head capsule and three pairs of true legs and will fold into a 'C' shape when disturbed (Fig. 2). It is very easy to differentiate an Asiatic garden beetle grub from other annual white grub species with the aid of a 10x power hand lens. The grub has a single transverse row of spines on the underside of the last abdominal segment, or raster, and a 'Y' shaped anal slit (Fig. 3).
|May 1, 2009||444-108|
|Root-knot Nematode in Field Corn||
Species: Meloidogyne incognita (southern root-knot nematode), M. arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode), M. javanica (Javanese root-knot nematode), M. hapla (northern root-knot nematode; not found in corn)
Size: Adult females are up to 1/16 inch in diameter.
Color: Adult females are a translucent cream color.
Description: Adult females are pear shaped and sedentary.
|May 1, 2009||444-107|
|Japanese Beetle in Field Corn||
Scientific Name: Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae Popillia japonica Newman
Size: Adult is 1/3 to 1/2 inch long; the fully developed grub or larva is 1/2 to 1 inch long.
Color: The adult is shiny metallic green with copperbrown wing covers and is characterized by the presence of five tufts of white hairs which protrude from under the wing covers along each side of the abdomen, with two additional tufts of white hairs on the tip of the abdomen (Fig. 1); the grub has a distinct head capsule that is dark brown to orange in color with the rest of the body an off-white or grayish color due to the presence of soil or fecal matter in the hindgut (Fig. 2).
|May 1, 2009||444-106|
|Comparison of Yield, Maturity, Value and Susceptibility to TSWV in Virginia- and Runner-type Varieties of Peanut in 2004||May 1, 2009||450-567|
|2005 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results||May 1, 2009||432-301|
|Using the Virginia Cooperative Extension Climate Analysis Web Tool to Better Manage and Predict Wheat Development||
Wheat development is affected by nutrients, water, light, and other factors; but temperature consistently determines how quickly or slowly plants move ahead in forming leaves, roots, tillers, and grain heads. The plant's development stage at any point during the season is affected very predictably by how warm or cool the season has been up to that point. This knowledge, combined with educated guesses about how the rest of the growing season will progress, can be extremely valuable information to the grower, who can then make more informed management decisions to include predicting the maturity/harvest schedule.
|May 1, 2009||424-004|
|Defoliating Cotton under Adverse Conditions: Drought-stress, Cool Temperatures, and Rank Growth||
Modern chemical harvest aids are applied to induce leaf abscission, hasten mature-boll dehiscence, and inhibit regrowth (Gwathmey and Hayes 1997; Snipes and Cathey 1992). Their use can result in increased machine harvest efficiency and fewer lodged plants while reducing boll rot, the trash in seed cotton, and the time from defoliation to harvest (Benedict 1984). The challenge of using harvest aids is the inconsistent way cotton responds to them, making defoliation one of the most unpredictable management practices (Benedict 1984; Gwathmey and Hayes 1997).
|May 1, 2009||427-208|
|Virginia Cotton Report, 2006: Evaluation of Chemicals and Variety Selection for Control of Nematodes in Cotton||May 1, 2009||424-234|
|Virginia Cotton Report, 2006: Effect of Planting Date and Plant Populations on Growth and Yield of Cotton||May 1, 2009||424-232|
|Cotton Harvest Aid Selection and Application Timing||May 1, 2009||424-201|
|Soil Test Note #2 - Field Crops||
Most Virginia soils are acidic and require lime applications at three- to five-year intervals. Maintaining the correct soil pH has several benefits, such as encouraging healthy root development and making sure nutrients in the soil are available to the plant. For example, low pH can cause aluminum toxicity and can decrease phosphorus availability.
|Sep 25, 2014||452-702 (CSES-100P)|
|Land Application of Broiler and Turkey Litter for Farming Operations Without a DEQ Permit||
Poultry litter (poultry manure and a bedding material such as sawdust, pine bark, or peanut hulls) is a good source of nutrients and organic matter for growing crops. Land application of poultry litter on farms has been the mainstay of effective and safe usage for years. Unfortunately, improper management of litter applications may cause nutrient enrichment and/or contamination of surface and ground water resources. The key to proper management is an understanding of the nutrients available in the litter, the nutrient requirements of the crops to be produced, and the potential for the litter and/or nutrients to reach surface or ground waters.
|May 1, 2009||442-052|
|Manure Spreader Calibration for Rear-discharge Equipment -- Handling Solid and Semi-solid Manures and Poultry Litter||
To maximize crop productivity and minimize adverse environmental effects, it is critical that land applications of manures meet, but not exceed, crop nutrient requirements. To assure that the actual manure application rate matches the desired application rate, manure-spreading equipment must be calibrated. The goal of manure spreader calibration is to determine the amount of manure, on a weight per unit area basis, that is being applied to a field. This publication describes three methods for manure spreader calibration for spreaders handling solid and semi-solid manures.
|May 1, 2009||442-004|
|Agronomy Handbook, 2000||May 1, 2009||424-100||
|Curing Quality Peanuts in Virginia||
This bulletin is written from the viewpoint that peanut production is a business and the grower is the manager of that business. It is the role of public service agencies to provide accurate information concerning the consequences of management decisions, not to tell growers how to run their business.
|May 1, 2009||442-062|
|Applied Research On Field Crop Disease Control 2006||Apr 28, 2009||424-236|
|Virginia Soybean Variety Evaluation Tests 2006||Apr 28, 2009||424-107-06|