Resources for Crops

Title Available As Summary Date ID Author
Compact Soil Sampling Strategy for White Grubs
Annual white grubs (WG) are early-season pests attacking corn seeds and seedlings
Jun 30, 2011 2802-7027
Prevention and Control of Palmer Amaranth in Cotton
Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), a member of the "pigweed" family, is one of the most troublesome weeds in many southern row crops. Seed can germinate all season and plants can grow to over 6 feet in height. Plants have either male flowers that shed pollen or female flowers that can produce up to 600,000 seed per plant. One Palmer amaranth per 30 foot of row can reduce cotton yield by 6 to 12%.
Mar 25, 2015 2805-1001 (PPWS-60NP)
Applied Research on Field Crop Disease Control 2007 May 1, 2009 2808-1005
Prevention and Control of Palmer Amaranth in Soybean
Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), a member of the "pigweed" family, is one of the most troublesome weeds in many southern row crops. Seed can germinate all season and plants can grow to over 6 feet in height. Plants have either male flowers that shed pollen or female flowers that can produce up to 600,000 seed per plant. One Palmer amaranth per meter of row can reduce soybean yield 32%.
Jun 1, 2016 2808-1006 (PPWS-78NP)
Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Fungicides in 2007 May 1, 2009 2810-1016
2011 Virginia Peanut Production Guide Jan 12, 2011 2810-1017
Insect Pest Management in Virginia: Cotton, Peanut, and Soybean 2010 May 1, 2009 2812-1027
Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results, 2008
Peanut is an important crop for the Virginia – Carolina region. It annually brings over $90 million to the economies of this region from over 180,000 acres planted every year. For example this year, 24,000 acres were planted in Virginia and 98,000 in North Carolina. Average yield was 3,400 lb/A in Virginia and 3,500 in North Carolina. Due to environmental similarities and existence of a strong peanut industry tailored to process primarily the large-seeded Virginia- type peanut, growers in Virginia and North Carolina generally grow the same peanut varieties.
May 1, 2009 2812-1030
Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2008 May 1, 2009 2901-1032
Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results 2008 May 1, 2009 2902-1082
Making Replant Decisions for Slug Damaged Corn and Soybean Stands May 14, 2009 2905-1293
Applied Research on Field Crop Disease Control 2008 May 14, 2009 2905-1294
Lisianthus (Eustoma Grandiflorum), A New Species for the Cut Flower Market Jul 22, 2009 2906-1312
Adding Cut Flowers May Increase Profits Jul 15, 2009 2906-1331
Farming in the Mid-Atlantic Jul 27, 2009 2906-1336
Natural Plant Hormones Are Biostimulants Helping Plants Develop Higher Plant Antioxidant Activity For Multiple Benefits Jul 27, 2009 2906-1339
8 Tips for Transitioning to Organic Production Jul 29, 2009 2906-1350
GAPs: Common Sense for Fresh Produce Growers Jul 31, 2009 2906-1359
Reduction in Sediment Movement in Plasticulture Aug 4, 2009 2906-1369
Sell Cut Flowers from Perennial Summer-flowering Bulbs Aug 5, 2009 2906-1370
Determining the Cause of Plant Problems Aug 11, 2009 2906-1382
Characteristics of Good Quality Transplants Apr 24, 2015 2906-1383 (AREC-141NP)
Production of Dahlias as Cut Flowers Aug 11, 2009 2906-1384
The Organic Way - Plant Families Aug 17, 2009 2906-1393
Virginia Tech On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots - Eastern Virginia, August 2009
A Summary of Replicated Research and Demonstration Plots Conducted by Virginia Cooperative Extension in Cooperation with Local Producers and Agribusinesses
Aug 28, 2009 2908-1409
Tools to More Efficiently Manage In-Season Corn Nitrogen Needs Sep 2, 2009 2909-1410
Cost and benefit of seed treatments and Temik 15G in furrow for seedling disease and nematode control in Virginia, 2008 Nov 19, 2009 2911-1419
Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Fungicides in 2008 Nov 19, 2009 2911-1420
Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2009 Dec 17, 2009 2912-1427
Palmer Amaranth Control in Cotton: 2008 & 2009 Efficacy Experiments Dec 22, 2009 2912-1428
Palmer Amaranth Control in Soybean: 2009 Efficacy Experiments Dec 22, 2009 2912-1429
Green Stem Syndrome in Soybean Dec 22, 2009 2912-1430
Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results, 2009. I. Agronomic and Grade Data Jan 11, 2010 3001-1432
Common Diseases of Soybean in the Mid-Atlantic Region Feb 17, 2010 3001-1435
2009 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results, Quality Data Mar 15, 2010 3002-1436
Pop-up and/or Starter Fertilizers for Corn Mar 8, 2010 3002-1438
A Decision Tool to Compare the Profitability of Utilizing Poultry Litter or Commercial Fertilizer to Meet Soil Test Recommendations Mar 17, 2010 3003-1439
Effects of Twin-Row Spacing on Corn Silage Growth Development and Yield in the Shenandoah Valley Mar 18, 2010 3003-1440
Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2009 Mar 24, 2010 3003-1441
Average Relative Yields of Soybean Varieties Tested in the Virginia Official Variety Test 2007-2009 Apr 20, 2010 3004-1443
Suggested Soybean Seeding Rates for Virginia Jun 11, 2010 3006-1447
Corn Fertility Update – Spring 2010 Jun 11, 2010 3006-1448
Small Grains In 2011 Jul 21, 2011 3007-1456
Applied Research on Field Crop Disease Control 2009 Sep 9, 2010 3009-1458
Days to Soybean Physiological Maturity Sep 9, 2010 3009-1459
Peanut Crop Physiology Related Projects at Tidewater Agricultural Research & Extension Center 2009 Sep 9, 2010 3009-1460
Virginia No-Till Fact Sheet Series Number Two: Nitrogen Fertilizer Injection in No-Till Systems
Liquid nitrogen fertilizers have typically been surface applied. This method of application places the fertilizer where the urea nitrogen component of the solution is susceptible to volatilization losses.
Sep 25, 2015 3011-1516(CSES-131NP)
Virginia No-Till Fact Sheet Series Number Three: Manure Injection Nov 16, 2010 3011-1517
Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Fungicides in 2009 Dec 21, 2010 3012-1520
2010 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots Dec 21, 2010 3012-1521
2010 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results: Agronomic and Grade Data Jan 14, 2011 3101-1523
2010 Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots Jan 24, 2011 3101-1524
Average Relative Yields of Soybean Tested in the Virginia Official Variety Test 2008-2010 Jan 25, 2011 3101-1530
2009-2010 Performance of Sorghum Hybrids in the Virginia‐Carolina Region Jan 25, 2011 3101-1531
Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2010 Mar 1, 2011 3102-1536
2010 PEANUT VARIETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION RESULTS Quality Data Mar 24, 2011 3103-1539
Wireworm control experiment in potatoes in Abingdon, VA in 2011 Nov 3, 2011 3110-1596
Applied Research on Field Crop Disease Control 2010 Oct 18, 2011 3110-4009
Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems May 1, 2009 354-312
Potassium Fertilization of Cotton May 1, 2009 418-025
Using the Virginia Cooperative Extension Climate Analysis Web Tool to Develop a Corn Planting Strategy May 1, 2009 424-003
Using the Virginia Cooperative Extension Climate Analysis Web Tool to Better Manage and Predict Wheat Development May 1, 2009 424-004
Phosphorus, Agriculture & The Environment May 1, 2009 424-029
Successful No-Tillage Corn Production Jul 29, 2009 424-030
Fertilizer Types and Calculating Application Rates Aug 4, 2009 424-035
Tips for Profitable Variety Selection: How to Use Data From Different Types of Variety Trials Jul 29, 2011 424-040
Agronomy Handbook, 2000 May 1, 2009 424-100
Virginia Soybean Variety Evaluation Tests 2005 May 1, 2009 424-107-05
Virginia Soybean Variety Evaluation Tests 2006 Apr 28, 2009 424-107-06
Virginia Soybean Variety Evaluation Tests 2004 May 1, 2009 424-107-04
Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2007 May 1, 2009 424-109-07
Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2006 May 1, 2009 424-109-06
Cotton Harvest Aid Selection and Application Timing May 1, 2009 424-201
Virginia Cotton Report, 2006: Effect of Planting Date and Plant Populations on Growth and Yield of Cotton May 1, 2009 424-232
Virginia Cotton Report, 2006: Evaluation of Chemicals and Variety Selection for Control of Nematodes in Cotton May 1, 2009 424-234
Applied Research On Field Crop Disease Control 2006 Apr 28, 2009 424-236
Getting Started in the Production of Field-Grown, Specialty Cut Flowers
Specialty cut flowers are one of the most profitable field crops you can grow. Lynn Byczynski, editor of Growing For Market newsletter (see Resources section), estimates a value of $25,000 to $35,000 per acre for field-grown cuts. The most basic requirements are at least half an acre of open, arable land, a rototiller, and, of course, time and effort. This publication is directed to those new to market gardening, but commercial vegetable growers, tobacco farmers, and young people interested in summer income are all potential candidates. Even grain and livestock farmers have increased profitability in their operations by adding cut flower production. For many greenhouse and nursery operations, mid-summer business is slower, relative to spring. A field-grown cut flower business is a viable option to fill in the summer production and cash flow gap.
May 2, 2014 426-618 (HORT-71P)
Field Production of Cut Flowers: Potential Crops May 1, 2009 426-619
Defoliating Cotton under Adverse Conditions: Drought-stress, Cool Temperatures, and Rank Growth May 1, 2009 427-208
Description and Performance of the Virginia-Market-Type Peanut Cultivars
While the runner-type peanut is the predominant market type grown in the United States, the Virginia-Carolinas region has traditionally grown only the largeseeded, Virginia-type peanut. There are several old — as well as new — Virginia-type cultivars available to the peanut industry. While information on older cultivars is available in Extension publications, information on the most recently released cultivars is lacking. Therefore, this publication will provide growers, shellers, and processors with the latest research-based information on the performance of the newest cultivars and currently grown cultivars.
Nov 3, 2014 432-201 (AREC-103P)
2005 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results May 1, 2009 432-301
2011 Flue-Cured Tobacco Production Guide Mar 24, 2011 436-048
2003 Flue-Cured Tobacco Production Guide May 1, 2009 436-048
2008 Burley Tobacco Production Guide May 1, 2009 436-050-08
2011 Burley Tobacco Production Guide
2011 BURLEY TOBACCO PRODUCTION GUIDE
Mar 22, 2011 436-050
Float Greenhouse Tobacco Transplant Guide May 1, 2009 436-051
Nitrogen Management for White Potato Production Sep 28, 2009 438-012
Manure Spreader Calibration for Rear-discharge Equipment -- Handling Solid and Semi-solid Manures and Poultry Litter May 1, 2009 442-004
Land Application of Broiler and Turkey Litter for Farming Operations Without a DEQ Permit May 1, 2009 442-052
Curing Quality Peanuts in Virginia May 1, 2009 442-062
Impact of Changing From Nitrogen- to Phosphorus-Based Manure Nutrient Management Plans Sep 16, 2009 442-310
Planter/Drill Considerations for Conservation Tillage Systems
No-till planters and drills must be able to cut and handle residue, penetrate the soil to the proper seeding depth, and establish good seed-to-soil contact. Many different soil conditions can be present in the Mid-Atlantic region at planting time. Moist soils covered with residue, which may also be wet, can dominate during the late fall and early spring and, occasionally, in the summer. Although this condition provides an ideal environment for seed germination, it can make it difficult to cut through the residue. In contrast, hard and dry conditions may also prevail. Although cutting residue is easier during dry conditions, it is more difficult to penetrate the hard, dry soils. Proper timing, equipment selection and adjustments, and crop management can overcome these difficult issues.
Aug 8, 2014 442-457 (BSE-147P)
Japanese Beetle in Field Corn May 1, 2009 444-106
Root-knot Nematode in Field Corn May 1, 2009 444-107
Asiatic Garden Beetle in Field Corn May 1, 2009 444-108
Slugs in Field Corn May 1, 2009 444-109
Integrated Pest Management Peanut Scouting Manual
In the competitive global peanut market, you need to lower production costs. At the same time, you also need to keep pesticide residues in peanuts to a minimum; protect rivers, streams, and lakes from runoff; and prevent chemicals from leaching through the soil to groundwater. Using IPM to protect crops only from pests that are likely to cause economic losses is a good way to meet these goals.
Nov 13, 2014 444-126
Identifying Soybean Fields at Risk to Leaf-Feeding Insects May 1, 2009 444-203
Cabbage and Seedcorn Maggot May 1, 2009 444-231
European Corn Borer May 1, 2009 444-232
The Peanut Southern Corn Rootworm Advisory
The southern corn rootworm (SCR) has long been considered a major pest of peanuts in North Carolina and Virginia. However, researchers and Extension faculty at Virginia Tech and NC State have determined through more than 400 commercial field trials that the majority of peanut fields do not need to be treated. They have developed and tested a simple-to-use advisory that identifies those fields not at risk for pod damage or economic loss. The Southern Corn Rootworm Advisory can save you time and money as well as help you use insecticides more efficiently.
Nov 13, 2014 444-351
Managing Stink Bugs in Cotton: Research in the Southeast Region Sep 23, 2009 444-390
Corn Earworm Biology and Management in Soybeans
Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, is the most common and destructive insect pest of soybeans grown in Virginia. Although infestation severity varies, about one-third of our acreage is treated annually. This costs farmers 1.5 to 2 million dollars annually, and requires the application of many pounds of insecticide to crop lands. We may never eliminate this pest from Virginia soybeans, but knowledge of the biology and use of best management practices can help limit insecticide controls to those fields that meet economic threshold criteria. This publication provides current information on corn earworm biology, prediction of outbreaks, pest advisories, scouting procedures, and recently revised economic thresholds.
Nov 13, 2014 444-770
Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions I: Background and General Information May 1, 2009 450-301
Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions II: Identification, Biology, and Ecology May 1, 2009 450-302
Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions III: Control with Fungicides May 1, 2009 450-303
Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions IV: Cropping Systems and Cultural Practices May 1, 2009 450-304
Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions V: Monitoring, Tracking, and Scouting May 1, 2009 450-305
Soybean Disease Control: Response of Soybeans to Foliar Sprays of Fungicides in 2005 May 1, 2009 450-561
Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Foliar Fungicides in 2006
The spread of soybean rust northward through states along the Atlantic Coast began on soybeans in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida. The disease was first reported in South Carolina on 21 August, North Carolina on 14 September, and Virginia on 9 October. The epidemic of 2006 was far reaching in that disease outbreaks occurred on soybeans as far north as Illinois and Indiana and east to Virginia
May 1, 2009 450-562
Applied Research On Field Crop Disease Control 2005 May 1, 2009 450-564-05
Applied Research On Field Crop Disease Control 2004 May 1, 2009 450-564
Comparison of Yield, Maturity, Value and Susceptibility to TSWV in Virginia- and Runner-type Varieties of Peanut in 2004 May 1, 2009 450-567
Soil Test Note #2 - Field Crops
Most Virginia soils are acidic and require lime applications at three- to five-year intervals. Maintaining the correct soil pH has several benefits, such as encouraging healthy root development and making sure nutrients in the soil are available to the plant. For example, low pH can cause aluminum toxicity and can decrease phosphorus availability.
Sep 25, 2014 452-702 (CSES-100P)
Pest Management Guide: Field Crops, 2017 Feb 17, 2017 456-016 (ENTO-221P)
Pest Management Guide: Horticultural and Forest Crops, 2017 Feb 17, 2017 456-017 (ENTO-222P)
Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2013
These demonstration and research plot results are an effort of Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) Agents and Specialists, area producers, and agribusiness. The purpose of this publication is to provide research-based information to aid in the decision-making process for soybean producers in Virginia. It provides an unbiased evaluation of varieties, management practices, and new technologies through on-farm replicated research using producer equipment and time. These experiments enable producers to make better management decisions based on research and provide greater opportunity to improve yields and profits, which improves quality of life for them and their families.
Jan 22, 2014 ANR-101NP
The Basics of Hardwood-Log Shiitake Mushroom Production and Marketing
Shiitake mushroom production offers an income opportunity for Virginia’s small-farm operators and smallwoodlot owners while providing enjoyment for others. It is also a relatively simple food-production activity, like gardening, that can be a hobby or used for teaching. This publication describes a technique for shiitake production and marketing that can be used and adapted by Virginia farmers, hobbyists, or teachers. It describes common techniques based on the available research, as well as areas of disagreement and typical difficulties producers may face, such as pests. In addition to production methods, this publication describes some of the basics of the finances and marketing of shiitake mushrooms for those interested in using them for income production.
Apr 3, 2014 ANR-102P
IMPACT: Virginia Potato Disease Advisory Impact
Potatoes are a major food crop on the Eastern Shore of Virginia, with average annual cash receipts of $14 million (2011-13).
Nov 13, 2014 ANR-105P
2014 Virginia On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots
The demonstration and research plot results discussed in this publication are a cooperative effort by six Virginia Cooperative Extension agents, extension specialists from Virginia Tech, and an assistant professor at the Virginia State University School of Agriculture. We are proud to present this year’s on farm small grain plot work to you. We hope the information in this publication will help farmers produce a profitable crop in 2015.
Aug 11, 2014 ANR-113NP
2014 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots
These demonstration and replicated studies provide information that can be used by Virginia corn growers to make better management decisions on their farms. Refer to individual results for more details.
Dec 11, 2014 ANR-134NP
Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2014
These demonstration and research plot results are an effort of Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) Agents and Specialists, area producers, and agribusiness. The purpose of this publication is to provide research-based information to aid in the decision-making process for soybean producers in Virginia. It provides an unbiased evaluation of varieties, management practices, and new technologies through on-farm replicated research using producer equipment and time. These experiments enable producers to make better management decisions based on research and provide greater opportunity to improve yields and profits, which improves quality of life for them and their families.
Feb 25, 2015 ANR-143NP
Weed Control in Hops
Because hops are long-lived perennials, controlling weeds near plants without causing injury can be challenging. Furthermore, empty spaces between rows can quickly become filled with weeds if left unmanaged. Growers therefore need a year-round weed management plan. An important part of that plan is identifying the common weeds at the site and understanding their life cycles. Once weeds have been identified, a management plan can be developed using cultural, chemical, or integrated approaches.
Mar 11, 2015 ANR-144NP
2015 VIRGINIA ON-FARM WHEAT TEST PLOTS
The demonstration and research plot results discussed in this publication are a cooperative effort by seven Virginia Cooperative Extension agents, extension specialists from Virginia Tech, and an associate professor at the Virginia State University School of Agriculture. We are proud to present this year’s onfarm small grain plot work to you.
Aug 12, 2015 ANR-159NP
2015 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots
A summary of replicated research and demonstration plots conducted by Virginia Cooperative Extension in cooperation with local producers and agribusinesses
Dec 14, 2015 ANR-172NP
2015 Virginia OnFarm Soybean Test Plots
These demonstration and research plot results are a collaborative effort of Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) Agents and Specialists, area producers, and agribusiness. The purpose of this publication is to provide researchbased information to aid in the decisionmaking process for soybean producers in Virginia.
Jan 25, 2016 ANR-177NP
2016 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots
The research and demonstration plots discussed in this publication are a cooperative effort by nine Virginia Cooperative Extension employees, a faculty member at Virginia State University, numerous producers, and many members of the agribusiness community. The field work and printing of this publication are mainly supported by the Virginia Corn Check-Off Fund through the Virginia Corn Board. Anyone who would like a copy should contact their local extension agent, who can request a copy from the Essex County Extension office.
Dec 9, 2016 ANR-235NP
Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2016
These demonstration and research plot results are a collaborative effort of Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) Agents and Specialists, area producers, and agribusiness. The purpose of this publication is to provide research-based information to aid in the decision-making process for soybean producers in Virginia. It provides an unbiased evaluation of varieties, management practices, and new technologies through on-farm replicated research using producer equipment and time. These experiments enable producers to make better management decisions based on research and provide greater opportunities to improve yields and profits, which improves quality of life for them and their families.
Jan 13, 2017 ANR-244NP
2012 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots Nov 29, 2012 ANR-31NP
2012 Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots Jan 11, 2013 ANR-37NP
2011 Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots Jan 17, 2012 ANR-8
2013 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots
These demonstration and replicated studies provide information that can be used by Virginia corn growers to make better management decisions on their farms. Refer to individual results for more details.
Dec 4, 2013 ANR-96NP
2009-2011 Performance of Sorghum Hybrids in the Virginia-Carolina Region
Based on data from the U.S. Grain Council (www.grains.org), grain sorghum is the third most important cereal crop grown in the United States and the fifth most important cereal crop grown in the world. The United States, with approximately 9.7 million acres harvested in the 2009-10 cropping season, is the world’s largest producer of grain sorghum, followed by India and Nigeria. Sorghum production in the U.S. is concentrated in the central and southern plains of five states — Kansas, Texas, Nebraska, Oklahoma, and Missouri — representing approximately 89 percent of total production. In many parts of the world, sorghum has traditionally been used for food. In the United States, sorghum is primarily used for animal feed, but also for food and industry derivatives such as wallboard and biodegradable packaging materials. Recently, sweet sorghums have been considered for bioenergy feedstock production.
Apr 25, 2013 AREC-11P
2017 Virginia Peanut Production Guide
The primary considerations when selecting peanut varieties are yield, grade factors, disease, pests, and drought and heat response. A good practice is recording for each field the variety, yield, rainfall, and disease and insect incidence every year. This will allow producers to identify the most productive and less problematic fields, also the most productive varieties for each field.
Feb 17, 2017 AREC-117NP
Applied Research on Field Crop Disease Control 2011 Feb 1, 2012 AREC-12
Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2016
Proper soil fertility management ensures sufficient nutrients for maximum cotton production. Obtaining and maintaining appropriate soil nutrient concentrations is imperative, as fertilizer inputs are the largest component of production budgets for Virginia cotton farmers. At the same time, excessive nutrient application wastes money, wastes natural resources, and can negatively impact yields and environmental quality.
Feb 22, 2016 AREC-124NP (AREC-165NP)
2014 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - Agronomic and Grade Data
\Due to suitability to the environmental conditions and existence of a strong peanut industry tailored to process primarily the large-seeded Virginia-type peanut, growers in Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina generally grow Virginia-type cultivars. In the view of a common interest in the Virginia-type peanut, the three states are working together through a multi-state project, the Peanut Variety Quality Evaluation (PVQE), to evaluate advanced breeding lines and commercial cultivars throughout their production regions.
Jan 6, 2015 AREC-125NP
Applied Research On Field Crop Disease Control 2014
The research described in this book was designed to evaluate strategies for improving disease control and the efficiency of crop production in Virginia. Commercial products are named for informational purposes only. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, and Virginia State University do not advocate or warrant products named nor do they intend or imply discrimination against those not named.
Jan 26, 2015 AREC-126NP
2014 Cotton Variety Testing and On-Farm Results
The official cotton variety testing program (OVT) evaluates the performance of commercial and experimental cotton varieties. Varieties were tested at three non-irrigated locations during 2014. All locations were planted using a two row Seed Research Equipment Solutions Classic Aire planter. All locations were harvested using a 2-row John Deere 9930 cotton picker modified with a system to collect cotton in mesh bags for weighing. The 2014 OVT received 51 entries from five seed companies. Each company was charged an entry fee for each hybrid per location entered. Five extra varieties were entered in the Suffolk trial #1 location as part of a regional variety testing program protocol.
Jan 30, 2015 AREC-131NP
Mid-Atlantic Grain Sorghum Performance Tests 2014
The 2014 grain sorghum OVT tests contained 52 hybrids; 41 hybrids were planted as a full season crop and 21 as double crop. Full season and double cropping tests were conducted at three locations, at the Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center (TAREC) in Suffolk, VA, in a farmer field near Windsor, VA, in Isle of Wight County, and at the Virginia State University’s Randolph Farm near Petersburg, VA.
Mar 6, 2015 AREC-133NP
Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2014
The purpose of this publication is to provide performance data of the many soybean varieties offered for sale in Virginia. These data should be of benefit to producers and agribusinesses in making selections of varieties for their use. It is realized that not all varieties that are offered for sale in Virginia are included in these tests. There is no implication that varieties not included are inferior in any way, but only that they have not been tested.
Mar 18, 2015 AREC-134NP
IMPACT: Virginia Winter Fruit School Impact
Tree fruits are important to the agricultural economy in Virginia. The commonwealth ranks sixth in the nation in apple production, with a crop valued at more than $68 million, and 20th in peach production, with a crop valued at $4.5 million. Although smaller in acreage, cherries, pears, and plums also play an important role in some areas of Virginia. These fruit crops are susceptible to an everchanging array of insects, plant diseases, and weeds, and pest management programs are complex and knowledge-intensive.
May 13, 2015 AREC-135NP
2012 Flue-cured Tobacco Production Guide Feb 23, 2012 436-048 (AREC-14)
2014 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - II. Quality Data
Along with agronomic and grade information, data on kernel and pod quality are essential for release of new peanut cultivars to ensure acceptability by the entire peanut trade. The present report contains the quality data collected on 5 Virginia-type commercially available cultivars and 25 advanced breeding lines tested in the Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation (PVQE) small plots in 2014. The small PVQE plots with 36 varieties were tested at five locations in Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina: Suffolk, VA, Martin Co., NC, Rocky Mount, NC, Bladen, NC, and Blackville, SC.
May 5, 2015 AREC-146NP
2016 Virginia Peanut Production Guide
Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included in this publication as a convenience to the reader. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in this publication does not imply endorsement by Virginia Tech nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. Individuals who use agricultural chemicals are responsible for ensuring that the intended use complies with current regulations and conforms to the product label. Be sure to obtain information about usage regulations and examine a current product label before applying any chemical.
Jan 28, 2016 AREC-157NP
Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2011 Feb 15, 2012 AREC-16
Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results, 2015 I. Agronomic and Grade Data
Due to suitability to the environmental conditions and existence of a strong peanut industry tailored to process primarily the large-seeded Virginia-type peanut, growers in Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina generally grow Virginia-type cultivars.
Jan 25, 2016 AREC-164NP
2015 Cotton Variety Testing and On-Farm Results
The official cotton variety testing program (OVT) evaluates the performance of commercial and experimental cotton varieties. Varieties were tested at four non-irrigated locations during 2015. All locations were All locations were planted using a two row Seed Research Equipment Solutions Classic Aire planter. All locations were harvested using a 2-row commercial cotton picker modified with a system to collect cotton in mesh bags for weighing or weigh on picker with electronic scales. The 2015 OVT received 33 entries from five seed companies. Each company was charged an entry fee for each hybrid per location entered. Eight extra varieties were entered in the Suffolk-TAREC location as part of a regional variety testing program protocol.planted using a two row Seed Research Equipment Solutions Classic Aire planter.
Feb 4, 2016 AREC-166NP
Average Relative Yields of Soybean Tested in the Virginia Official Variety Test 2009-2011 Mar 22, 2012 AREC-17NP
Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2015
The purpose of this publication is to provide performance data of the many soybean varieties offered for sale in Virginia. These data should be of benefit to producers and agribusinesses in making selections of varieties for their use. It is realized that not all varieties that are offered for sale in Virginia are included in these tests. There is no implication that varieties not included are inferior in any way, but only that they have not been tested.
Feb 19, 2016 AREC-170NP
Applied Research on Field Crop Disease Control 2015 Apr 19, 2016 AREC-173NP
Peanut Variety & Quality Evaluation Results 2016
Due to suitability to the environmental conditions and existence of a strong peanut industry tailored to process primarily the large-seeded Virginia-type peanut, growers in Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina generally grow Virginia-type cultivars. In the view of a common interest in the Virginia-type peanut, the three states are working together through a multi-state project, the Peanut Variety Quality Evaluation (PVQE), to evaluate advanced breeding lines and commercial cultivars throughout their production regions.
Dec 20, 2016 AREC-198NP
Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare, L.) Diseases Head mold Aug 21, 2012 AREC-20NP
2016 Virginia Grain Sorghum Performance Tests Feb 17, 2017 AREC-201NP
2016 Cotton Variety Testing and On-Farm Results Feb 23, 2017 AREC-204NP
2016 Pre-Commercial Evaluation of ENLIST® Varieties in the Southeastern US Feb 23, 2017 AREC-205NP
2016 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation results
Along with agronomic and grade information, data on kernel and pod quality are essential for release of new peanut cultivars to ensure acceptability by the entire peanut trade. The present report contains the quality data collected on 4 Virginia-type cultivars that currently are on the market and 21 advanced breeding lines tested in the Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation (PVQE) small plots in 2016.
Mar 6, 2017 AREC-208NP
Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare, L.) Insects Corn earworm [Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)] Aug 31, 2012 AREC-21NP
Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare, L.) Marketability Grain Color and Relationship to Feed Value Aug 31, 2012 AREC-23NP
Troubleshooting The Soybean Crop Nov 16, 2012 AREC-25NP
Effects of Drought and Heat on Peanut (Arachis hypogaea, L.) Production Sep 20, 2012 AREC-27NP
Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare, L.) Weed Control Nov 16, 2012 AREC-29NP
2012 Performance of Sorghum Hybrids in Virginia Nov 26, 2012 AREC-30NP
2012 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - Agronomic and Grade Data Jan 16, 2013 AREC-32NP
Average Relative Yields of Soybean Tested in the Virginia Official Variety Test 2010-2012 Mar 1, 2013 AREC-35NP
2012 Insect Pest Management in Virginia Cotton, Peanut, and Soybean Jan 28, 2013 AREC-37NP
Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2012 Feb 14, 2013 AREC-40
Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results, Quality Data Apr 26, 2013 AREC-41NP
Growing 'Titan': A Large-Seeded, Virginia-Type Peanut for Specialty Markets Jun 18, 2013 AREC-42P
Planting Considerations and Variety Performance for Virginia Cotton Producers Mar 11, 2013 AREC-43NP
2011 - 2012 Runner vs. Virginia Peanut Test Results Apr 12, 2013 AREC-44NP
North American Grapevine Yellows Disease: Current Knowledge and Management Recommendations for Wine Growers
North American grapevine yellows (NAGY) is a lethal, insect-transmitted disease of grapevines caused by phytoplasmas (cell wall-less bacteria). North American grapevine yellows occurs throughout the Mid-Atlantic region of the U.S., but it is particularly prevalent in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont regions of Virginia, where it causes significant vine loss in susceptible Vitis vinifera varieties. This publication reviews what is known about NAGY, provides management options based on our current knowledge, and describes ongoing research needed to better understand this complex disease.
Sep 18, 2013 AREC-48P
Virginia Soybean Update
The Virginia Soybean Update Blog provides Extension agents, farmers, and crop advisers updates about soybean field conditions and practices that may need implementation in the near future. Detailed articles are largely taken from the Virginia Soybean Update newsletter, which is published monthly during the soybean growing season. Shorter updates are published weekly.
Jul 10, 2013 AREC-49NP
2011 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results, Agronomic and Grade Data Jan 9, 2012 AREC-5
Increasing Fresh Produce Availability From Local Sources
In 2012, several partners came together for a unified mission, “to both educate and provide locally grown fresh produce” to citizens of the Eastern Shore of Virginia (Fig. 1). The best way to fight hunger and provide locally sourced fresh vegetables is to demonstrate proper production practices and teach citizens where they can find information that they need to be successful in their gardens.
Jul 19, 2013 AREC-50NP
2014 Virginia Peanut Production Guide
The primary considerations when selecting peanut varieties are yield, grade factors, disease, pests, and drought and heat response. A good practice is recording for each field the variety, yield, rainfall, and disease and insect incidence every year. This will allow producers to identify the most productive and less problematic fields, also the most productive varieties for each field.
May 2, 2014 AREC-58NP
Soybean Reproductive Development Stages
Remove the soybean plant at ground level to make it easier to stage. Examine each main stem node one at a time to determine the development stage. Focus on the top four nodes that contain fully developed leaves (shown below). A fully developed leaf is one that is located immediately below a node containing a leaf with unrolled or unfolded leaflets (leaflet edges are no longer touching). The soybean crop is considered to be at a particular stage when 50% of the plants reach that stage. Listed with stage description for R1 through R6 are the approximate number of days to R7, or physiological maturity, for full season (FS) soybean planted in May and double crop (DC) soybean planted in June/July.
Nov 25, 2013 AREC-59NP
2011 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - Quality Data Aug 28, 2012 AREC-6
2013 Insect Pest Management In Virginia Cotton, Peanut, Soybean, and Sorghum Dec 10, 2013 AREC-61NP
Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2014
Proper soil fertility management ensures sufficient nutrients for maximum cotton production. Obtaining and maintaining appropriate soil nutrient concentrations is imperative, as fertilizer inputs are the largest component of production budgets for Virginia cotton farmers. At the same time, excessive nutrient application wastes money, wastes natural resources, and can negatively impact yields and environmental quality.
Feb 7, 2014 AREC-62NP
2013 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - Agronomic and Grade Data Jan 16, 2014 AREC-64NP
Southeastern U.S. 2016 Vegetable Crop Handbook
New varieties and strains of particular varieties of vegetables are constantly being developed throughout the world. Since it is impossible to list and describe all of them, only some of the better performing commercial types are listed in the specific crop section, either alphabetically or in order of relative maturity from early to late. These varieties are believed to be suitable for commercial production under most conditions.
Feb 22, 2017 AREC-66NP (AREC-169NP)
Disease Management in No-Till Corn in Virginia
No-till cropping avoids the use of tillage for seedbed preparation or weed control, and crop residues left on the soil surface reduce soil erosion, minimize runoff, and increase soil moisture. No-till cropping has several advantages in terms of reduced crop production costs (fuel, labor, machinery) and soil conservation, but alterations to the biotic and abiotic environment in no-till compared to conventionally tilled fields provide unique challenges in terms of insect, weed, and disease management. The following provides recommendations for disease management in no-till corn but can be applied to other no-till cropping systems. Disease incidence and severity is not necessarily greater in no-till compared to conventional tillage, and in some cases disease may be reduced. Effects of no-till on diseases are variable and dependent on the specific pathogen, crop, and environment.
Feb 7, 2014 AREC-67NP
Soybean Insect Guide
Numerous kinds of insects can be found in soybeans. Most are beneficial or harmless, but some can cause yield loss and even crop failure if not controlled.
Feb 7, 2014 AREC-68NP
2011 Insect Pest Management in Virginia Cotton, Peanut, and Soybean Feb 1, 2012 AREC-7
Applied Research on Field Crop Disease Control 2013 Feb 1, 2012 AREC-12
Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2013
The purpose of this publication is to provide performance data of the many soybean varieties offered for sale in Virginia. These data should be of benefit to producers and agribusinesses in making selections of varieties for their use. It is realized that not all varieties that are offered for sale in Virginia are included in these tests. There is no implication that varieties not included are inferior in any way, but only that they have not been tested.
Feb 21, 2014 AREC-79NP
2013 Tri-State Grain Sorghum Performance Tests
The 2013 grain sorghum OVT tests contained 45 hybrids planted as a full season crop and 22 as double crop. Full season tests were conducted at three locations, at the Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center (TAREC) in Suffolk, VA, in a farmer field near Homeville, VA, in Sussex County, and at the Virginia State University’s Randolph Farm near Petersburg, VA. The double crop sorghum trials were conducted at two locations, at the TAREC and in a farmer field near Windsor, VA, in the Isle of Weight County.
Mar 26, 2014 AREC-83NP
2013 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results - II. Quality Data
Along with agronomic and grade information, data on kernel and pod quality are essential for release of new peanut cultivars to ensure acceptability by the entire peanut trade. The present report contains the quality data collected on 10 Virginia-type commercially available cultivars and 26 advanced breeding lines tested in the Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation (PVQE) small plots in 2013.
Mar 14, 2014 AREC-85NP
Soybean Neamtode Management Guide Jan 2, 2012 AREC-1
Understanding Soil Moisture Sensors: A Fact Sheet for Irrigation Professionals in Virginia
In the Commonwealth of Virginia, water resources are increasingly being scrutinized due to changing surface water or groundwater availability. Access to good quality water is a continuing concern, and in many communities, managing water use — particularly consumptive use — is a priority to conserve public water supplies to meet the needs of a growing population.
Sep 23, 2016 BSE-198P
Double Cropping Soybeans In Virginia
Double cropping is simply growing and harvesting two crops in one year. In the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, soybeans are commonly double-cropped after a winter small-grain crop, usually wheat. However, double cropping is not limited to the small-grain-soybean system. Other crops, such as grain sorghum or even corn, could fit into a double-cropping system with small grains. Soybean can be grown after other winter crops, such as canola, or after a spring crop, such as snap beans. As long as both crops can complete their development in time to allow profitable production of the entire system, numerous double-cropping systems are possible.
Mar 11, 2015 CSES-102NP (CSES-104NP)
Roadside Survey of Continuous No-till and Cover Crop Acres in Virginia
In 2009, the Chesapeake Clean Water Ecosystem Restoration Act (HB 3852/S 1816) was passed, and was intended to strengthen certain standards for the Chesapeake Bay, particularly, to address nonpoint source pollution. Nonpoint source pollution includes that of urban, suburban and agricultural runoff. Cited in the bill was the need to establish and codify the Bay-wide pollution budget, or Total Maximum Daily Loads, (TMDL) for nitrogen, phosphorous and sediment that EPA was in process of developing for the Bay. Hence all states and their perspective watersheds would have pollution caps for all sources of pollution.
Oct 13, 2014 CSES-103NP
2014 Virginia Bollgard II Xtendflex Variety Trial
Lint yield and fiber quality of commercially available cotton varieties and experimental lines of Bollgard II XtendFlex tested in 2014 in Suffolk, VA.
Apr 29, 2015 CSES-113NP
Virginia Cover Crops Fact Sheet Series No. 1: Beneficial Uses of Cover Crops
The general purpose of a cover crop is to improve the soil, the broader environment, or other crops in rotation, not for direct harvest. Cover crops, depending on which are selected, are capable of providing many diverse assets. This publication provides a short description of these main benefits.
May 5, 2015 CSES-120NP
Virginia Cover Crops Fact Sheet Series No. 2: Cover Crop Performance Evaluation in Field and Controlled Studies
Cover crops increase soil organic matter, reduce erosion, suppress weeds, forage for nutrients, and reduce fertilizer costs (Clark, 2007). Cover crop species vary greatly and provide varied benefits. Performance evaluation of cover crop species and mixtures is needed in Virginia.
May 5, 2015 CSES-121NP
The Mid-Atlantic Nutrient Management Handbook
Delaware, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia, and Virginia, the five states in the Mid-Atlantic region, all require Certified Nutrient Management Plans to be completed for certain agricultural programs.
Jun 9, 2015 CSES-122P
Nitrogen and Sulfur Leaching Potential in Virginia
Early summer often means locally heavy and sporadic rainfall as thunderstorms deliver intense rains, and 2015 appears to be no different with many areas in eastern Virginia receiving 3+ inches of rain in a few days (Figure 1). These storms also often coincide with the timing of sidedress nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) applications on corn. While some rainfall after sidedress is very beneficial to facilitate N movement into soil, heavy rain (2+ inches) often leaves us wondering how much, if any, of that recently-applied N remains and if additional N is needed.
Jun 19, 2015 CSES-125NP
The Nutrient Value of Straw
The mature and dried stem, leaves, and chaff remaining after barley and wheat are harvested is known as straw. Many farmers around Virginia harvest straw by baling in small bales, large round bales, or large square bales that range in weight from 40 to 1,000 lbs. plus per bale.
Jun 19, 2015 CSES-126NP
The Soil and Me: A Perspective on Soil Health
Soil is the foundation upon which our natural living world depends; it is otherwise known as the dynamic material that civilization is built on (Lindbo, Kozlowski, and Robinson 2012). Soil serves diverse functions that are critical to the survival of humanity; without the soil, life on earth is inconceivable. It represents the critical zone of the earth where life, water, minerals, and air intersect and interact (fig. 1) because the soil constantly relates with other parts of nature. The soil is considered a living, dynamic resource at the earth’s surface and has been defined as “the unconsolidated mineral or organic material on the immediate surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants” (SSSA 2015). The thickness or depth of this surface or layer varies with the type and environment of the soil.
Nov 5, 2015 CSES-132NP
Soybean Growth and Development
Proper management of the soybean crop requires knowledge of how environmental conditions and pests affect growth during vegetative and reproductive stages. For example, too little or too much soil moisture at certain stages may hinder growth and lower yield, and insect pests may damage the crop at one stage but not another. The information below can help you determine the proper timing of various management practices.
Nov 13, 2015 CSES-134NP
Yellow Corn in Virginia – Spring 2016
Many of the corn fields on the Eastern Shore and in Eastern Virginia are “yellow” and stunted due to the weather this Spring (Figs. 1 and 2) and is similar to conditions that Virginia farmers experienced in Spring 2010. There are many reasons for the corn to be yellow that range from nutrient deficiencies to abiotic factors.
Oct 10, 2016 CSES-171NP
Value and implications of corn stover removal from Virginia fields
There has recently been increased interest in the use of crop residues for different industrial uses in the US and the world. Corn residue is frequently cited as the most likely candidate for alternate industrial uses because of the large area of production and the relatively large amount of residue produced per acre. Among the potential alternate uses for corn stover, biofuel production has received the greatest attention.
Apr 6, 2017 CSES-180 (CSES-182NP)
Facts About Industrial Hemp Aug 14, 2017 CSES-196NP
Predicting Soybean Reproductive Stages in Virginia Oct 7, 2017 CSES-197P
Manure Injection in No-Till and Pasture Systems Feb 27, 2013 CSES-22P
Cotton Harvest Aid Cheat Sheet Aug 28, 2013 CSES-65NP
Sensor-Based, Variable-Rate Nitrogen Applications in Virginia
Variable-rate applications (VRA) of nitrogen (N) fertilizers are a new option to assist producers with real-time fertilizer rate decisions. Two commercially available systems that allow variable-rate nitrogen applications are GreenSeeker (Trimble Navigation Limited; www. ntechindustries.com/greenseeker-home.html) and the OptRx Crop Sensor (Ag Leader Technology; www. agleader.com/products/directcommand/optrx/). A discussion of the science behind these systems, potential economic benefits, and other methodologies to make VRA is discussed in Virginia Cooperative Extension publication 442-505, “Precision Farming Tools: Variable- Rate Application” (Grisso et al. 2011).
Aug 8, 2014 CSES-90P
Importance of Farm Phosphorus Mass Balance and Management Options
Phosphorus is a naturally occurring element that is one of 16 elements essential for plant growth and animal health. Research has documented that applying phosphorus in fertilizers or manure increases crop growth and yield on soils that are below critical agronomic levels, as measured during routine soil testing. Although the economic benefits of phosphorus fertilization on crop production are well-documented, too much of a good thing can be detrimental to the environment. Excessive soil phosphorus is a potential threat to water quality.
Dec 19, 2014 CSES-98P
Determining Harvesting Time for Corn Silage May 5, 2016 DASC-82NP
Winter Crops as a Feed Source for Dairy Cattle Jun 27, 2016 DASC-85NP
2014 Insect Pest Management in Virginia Cotton and Peanut Feb 9, 2015 ENTO-109NP
Summary of insecticide efficacy for control of wireworms on potatoes – Virginia (2003-2015)
Wireworms are the subterranean larval stage of click beetles. These insects can remain in the soil for several years attacking potato seed pieces or tubers or seeds and roots of other crops that are planted in the field.
Dec 23, 2015 ENTO-176NP
Insect Pest Management in Virginia Cotton, Peanut, and Soybean 2015 Mar 8, 2016 ENTO-184NP
Insecticide and Acaricide Research on Vegetables in Virginia 2016
This booklet contains arthropod pest management research conducted on vegetable crops in eastern Virginia in 2016. Research was conducted at several locations in Virginia including: 1) the Virginia Tech Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center (AREC) near Painter, VA.
Dec 14, 2016 ENTO-229NP
Advanced Irrigation Management for Container-Grown Ornamental Crop Production
Container-grown plants are constrained with regard to root growth, and are affected by factors including container size, substrate, weather, nutrition, and irrigation. Typical soilless substrates will hold less plant-available water than a typical field soil, making water management a critical component of any container-grown plant production system. A well-designed and managed irrigation system, which works in concert with the aforementioned factors, can provide the necessary quantity of water to support plant growth in an efficient manner.
Sep 23, 2016 HORT-218P
Evaluation of Blackberry Varieties in Virginia
Blackberries (Rubus spp.) are of interest among strawberry and vegetable growers in Virginia looking to diversify their crops. Including blackberries in farm plans could allow these growers to keep their farms and pick-your-own activities open to customers for a longer duration, increasing agritourism and sales; however, Virginia growers lack information on blackberry varieties that perform well in the state.
Oct 7, 2016 HORT-226P
Managing Troublesome Crop Weeds: Current Practices Jul 25, 2017 PPWS-101NP
Peanut Crop Physiology Related Projects at Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center 2010 Dec 16, 2011 PPWS-2
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea, L.) Nutrition
Maintaining the right soil pH for each crop ensures optimal nutrient uptake by plants. For peanut, the recommended pH range is 5.8 – 6.2. If soil pH is higher than 6.2, manganese (Mn) or boron (B) deficiency may occur; if pH is less than 5.8, zinc (Zn) toxicity problems could be favored. Therefore, taking soil samples correctly is very important for correcting soil pH. A single composite sample should be taken for each 5 irrigated and 10 rainfed acres. This sample should be composed of 20 or more subsamples collected from an imaginary grid uniformly covering the land area. The subsamples should be well mixed together and only a small composite sample should be retained and sent to the soil lab.
Sep 1, 2014 PPWS-40NP
2015 Virginia Grain Sorghum Performance Tests
The 2015 grain sorghum OVT tests contained 21 hybrids planted as a full season crop and 22 as double crop. Full season tests were conducted at three locations, the Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center (TAREC) in Suffolk, VA, the Eastern Virginia Agricultural Research and Extension Center (EVAREC) in Warsaw, VA, and in a farmer field near Windsor, VA, in Isle of Wight County. The double crop sorghum trials were conducted at three locations, the TAREC, in a farmer field near Windsor, VA, in Isle of Wight County, and in a farmer field near Locust Grove, VA, in Orange County.
Feb 12, 2016 PPWS-72NP
Best Management Practices for Bioenergy Crops: Reducing the Invasion Risk Jan 5, 2012 PPWS-8P
Pesticide Applicator Manuals Nov 17, 2011 VTTP-2
Pyridine Herbicide Carryover: Causes and Precautions May 9, 2012 VTTP-6NP