Resources for Virginia Cooperative Extension Unit Office

Title Available As Summary Date ID Author
Easy Keepers: Managing Horses Prone to Obesity May 1, 2009 2805-1002
Safe Brown Bag Lunches*
Keep your brown bag lunch safe by using this information to see which foods in your lunch should be kept cold.
Apr 27, 2015 2806-7003 (FST-203NP)
Hay Preferences for Horse Owners in Northern and Central Virginia May 1, 2009 2807-1004
Equine Boarding Operations in Northern Virginia, 2008 Survey Results May 1, 2009 2808-1014
Virginia Tech On-Farm Wheat Test Plots 2008 May 1, 2009 2808-1015
2011 Virginia Peanut Production Guide Jan 12, 2011 2810-1017
2008 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots May 1, 2009 2812-1025
Measuring Site Index
Site index (SI) is a measurement commonly used by foresters to describe the productivity of a site. Typically this measurement is used to describe sites growing well-stocked even-aged forests. Site index is the average height of the dominant1 and codominant2 trees on the site, at a given age (base age). Typically, the base age for hardwoods and white pine in Virginia is 50 years, while the base age for loblolly pine is 25 years. For example, a SI of 75, base age 50, means that the average height of the dominant and codominant trees on a site will be 75 feet when they are 50 years old (SI50=75). The higher the SI, the higher the site productivity (trees will grow faster than on a site with a lower SI).
Dec 3, 2014 2812-1028 (ANR-125NP)
Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2008 May 1, 2009 2901-1032
Pocket Spending Guide
For many people, the temptation to overspend is hardest to resist when they are out at a store or restaurant. Because their spending and savings plan (budget) is at home in a drawer, the information they need to make a good spending decision isn’t available. One way to help yourself stick to your plan is to keep your information in your pocket, wallet or purse. The example below shows how to set up a pocket spending guide. By filling it out and keeping it with you, you can easily see at any time how much money you have available to spend in each category. A pocket spending guide will help you adjust your spending plan to make your money go where you really want it to go.
Aug 31, 2015 2901-7018(FCS-102NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What about the Air Conditioning System?
As you begin the process of selecting the most efficient air conditioning system for your home, investigate the critical issues of system size, placement, installation, and contractor experience. Your goal is to obtain an efficient system by: sizing the system for the specific cooling load of your home; selecting and properly installing the thermostats or controls; designing a ductwork system to deliver the correct amount of conditioned air to each space; and sealing and insulating all ductwork.
Jun 9, 2014 2901-9001 (BSE-142NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What About Using Ceiling Fans?
Ceiling fans create a breeze, so room occupants feel cooler and more comfortable. With a ceiling fan running, you can raise the thermostat setting by 2 to 4 degrees during the cooling season with no reduction in comfort. Increasing the room temperature by even two degrees can cut your cooling costs 4 to 6%.
Jun 9, 2014 2901-9002 (BSE-117NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What About the Ductwork?
Air distribution or duct systems are designed to supply rooms with air that is “conditioned”—that is, heated or cooled by the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment—and to recirculate or return the same volume of air back to the HVAC equipment. Your duct system has two main air transfer systems: 1) supply, and 2) return. The supply side delivers the conditioned air to the home through individual room registers. The return side picks up inside air and delivers it to the air handler of your central system where heat and moisture are either removed or added and then delivered to the supply side. All of the air drawn into the return duct(s) is conditioned and should be delivered back through the supply registers.
Jun 9, 2014 2901-9003 (BSE-118NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What about the Heating System?
The efficiency of a gas (natural or propane) or oil furnace is measured by the Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE), which describes the heat produced from the energy used. This rating takes into consideration losses from pilot lights, start-up, and stopping. For example, a furnace with an AFUE rating of 80 converts 80% of the fuel it burns into usable heat. New furnaces usually rate in the mid-70s to low 80s, whereas older furnaces will be in the 50s or 60s. ENERGY STAR® qualified oil and gas furnaces have annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) ratings of 83% and 90%, or higher, making them up to 15% more efficient than standard models. Unlike the Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) and Heating Season Performance Factor (HSPF) ratings, the AFUE does not consider the unit’s electricity use for fans and blowers.
Jun 9, 2014 2901-9005 (BSE-119NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What about Insulation?
Insulation is rated in terms of thermal resistance, called R-value, which indicates the resistance to heat flow. Although insulation can slow heat flow—conduction, convection and radiation—its greatest impact is on conduction.
Jun 10, 2014 2901-9006 (BSE-120NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What about the Laundry Area?
The laundry room can be a big consumer of energy—more than 1,000 kilowatt-hours (kWh) a year—and water—and a big producer of unwanted heat and humidity in the summer. It makes good sense to think about both the location and the appliances in it if you want to run an energy-efficient laundry. And there are new washers and dryers on the market now that make it easier than ever to do so.
Jun 9, 2014 2901-9007 (BSE-121NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What about Mold?
Mold has received a lot of attention of late because of high profile lawsuits and television news broadcasts that have highlighted the potential hazards and liabilities associated with indoor mold. What is mold? Molds, along with mildews, yeasts, and mushrooms, all belong to the kingdom fungi. Fungi are unicellular or multicellular organisms that primarily use absorption as a means to obtain energy from their environment, unlike green plants, which use chlorophyll to obtain energy from sunlight. The term “mold” describes unwanted visible fungal growth. “Mildew” is fungi that grows on fabrics or that causes plant disease. The term “yeast” is fungi that are unicellular when cultured.
Jun 26, 2014 2901-9008 (BSE-122NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What about the Water Heater?
Heating water is the third largest energy expense in your home, after heating and cooling the entire space; and, it can account for 15-25% of your utility bill. It’s not hard to see why a family of four, each taking a 5-minute shower a day under inefficient showerheads, can use 700 gallons of water in a week representing a 3-year supply of drinking water for one person! There are several ways to cut down the amount you spend on heating water: a) insulate your water heater and pipes; b) reduce the amount of hot water you use; and c) turn down the thermostat on your water heater.
Jun 26, 2014 2901-9009 (BSE-123NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What about Windows?
The National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) offers a voluntary testing and certification program for thermal performance for windows and residential door products with glass. The NFRC does not conduct structural characteristics, such as impact-resistance, but rather serves as a complementary program that can test the whole window (including frame) for the following characteristics: U-Factor, Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC), Visible Transmittance, Air Leakage, and Condensation Resistance (see sample NFRC label) .
Jun 30, 2014 2901-9010 (BSE-124NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What Are the Differences Between Mobile and Modular Homes?
Mobile and modular homes are factory-built and generally differ in how much of the construction occurs at the factory. The greater the work at the factory, the less labor is needed where the home will be located.
Jun 26, 2014 2901-9011 (BSE-125NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What Can Builders Do to Help Prevent Moisture Problems in New Construction?
Buildings should be designed and built to provide comfortable and healthy levels of relative humidity. They should also prevent both liquid water from migrating through building components and water vapor from being trapped in building assemblies, like walls.
Jun 26, 2014 2901-9012 (BSE-126NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What Does the Shape of the House Have to Do With Energy Efficiency?
In a home, heat energy is transferred among all materials and substances that are of different temperatures—within the building materials, inside the building itself, and outside the building envelope. The term “building envelope” refers to all of the external building materials, windows, and walls that enclose the internal space. Heat moves only when there is a difference in temperature, and it always moves from the warm side to the cool side. Heat will continue to “flow” until any touching materials reach the same temperature. However, we usually want the inside of a home to have a different temperature from the outside.
Jun 26, 2014 2901-9013 (BSE-127NP)
ENERGY SERIES: Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use
If you're trying to decide whether to invest in a more energy-efficient appliance or if you'd like to determine your electricity loads, you may want to estimate appliance energy consumption.
Jun 26, 2014 2901-9014 (BSE-137NP)
In Case of a Disaster: Home Inventory May 1, 2009 2903-7023
Making Replant Decisions for Slug Damaged Corn and Soybean Stands May 14, 2009 2905-1293
Consumer Campaign Targets Ethnic Produce at Arlington Markets Jul 27, 2009 2906-1335
Farming in the Mid-Atlantic Jul 27, 2009 2906-1336
U-Picks and Good Ag Practices Jul 28, 2009 2906-1348
Insuring Farm Use Vehicles Aug 4, 2009 2906-1362
Produce Auctions Expand Marketing Options Aug 4, 2009 2906-1366
Pumpkin Post Harvest Handling Aug 4, 2009 2906-1367
Consider Pumpkins and Gourds for Fall Harvest Crop Options Aug 4, 2009 2906-1368
Building Soil Organic Matter with Cover Crops Aug 11, 2009 2906-1381
Determining the Cause of Plant Problems Aug 11, 2009 2906-1382
Characteristics of Good Quality Transplants Apr 24, 2015 2906-1383 (AREC-141NP)
Virginia Tech On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots - Eastern Virginia, August 2009
A Summary of Replicated Research and Demonstration Plots Conducted by Virginia Cooperative Extension in Cooperation with Local Producers and Agribusinesses
Aug 28, 2009 2908-1409
ENERGY SERIES: What about Appliances?
When shopping for appliances, remember that there are actually three prices to consider. The first is the one everyone considers: the purchase price. The second price is for repairs and maintenance. The third price is often forgotten, but equally important: the operating cost of the appliance. Operating cost depends on the cost of fuel (kilowatt-hour, cubic foot, therm, etc.) in your region, how much you use the appliance as well as the way you use it, and the overall energy efficiency of the appliance. Operating cost shows up on your utility bill each month for the life of the appliance. Your refrigerator, for example, may operate effectively for 15–20 years and your dishwasher for about 10 years. You'll need to consider how any given appliance will affect your utility usage.
Jun 26, 2014 2908-9015 (BSE-128NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What about the Bathroom?
Did you know the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that private homes account for more than 20 percent of the energy and about 55 percent of publicly supplied water consumed in the United States? We all know that we can save water if we just turn off the tap while brushing our teeth. We also know that when we reduce the amount of hot water used we also decrease the energy needed to heat the water. But, did you know there are products that can help you save water even when you have to use water?
Jul 1, 2014 2908-9016 (BSE-129NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What about Caulking and Weather-Stripping?
The greatest source of wasted heating and cooling energy in a home is air leaks. If you have a pair of 6' 8" exterior doors in your home that do not have weather-stripping, you can easily have an opening of ¼" all along the edge where the doors meet. This ¼" gap adds up to a 20-square-inch opening to the outside. If you saw a hole this big in your wall, wouldn’t you want it fixed?
Jul 1, 2014 2908-9017 (BSE-130NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What about Dishwashers?
It may come as a surprise that washing a load of dishes in the dishwasher uses less water than doing the same number of dishes by hand. (Dishwashers also do a better job of killing germs, because they use hotter water than you would normally use if washing by hand.) For each cycle, an ENERGYSTAR qualified dishwasher model uses about 4 gallons of water; a non-qualified model uses about 6 gallons.
Jul 1, 2014 2908-9018 (BSE-131NP)
ENERGY SERIES:What about House Design and Room Location?
While a good heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system and other energy saving features can provide you with a comfortable indoor environment, it is even more efficient to prevent heat from entering the house in the first place. By designing a house with the right shape and orientation, and strategically locating rooms, you can save on energy costs for cooling and heating. If renting or purchasing, look for these same features in an existing home.
Jul 1, 2014 2908-9019 (BSE-132NP)
ENERGY SERIES:What about Moisture?
Air is made up of a mixture of gases including oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. It also contains water vapor—water in the form of a gas. The temperature of the air determines how much water vapor it can hold: warm air can hold more than cool air. When the air is saturated, it cannot hold any more, and any extra water vapor will condense into liquid form.
Jul 2, 2014 2908-9020 (BSE-133NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What about Radiant Barriers?
Reflective insulation systems are made from aluminum foils with a variety of backings such as roof sheathing, kraft paper, plastic film, cardboard, bubble wrap, etc. The resistance to heat flow depends on the direction of heat flow with this type of insulation most effective in reducing downward heat flow and requiring an air space next to the reflective side. Reflective systems are usually located between roof rafters, floor joists, or wall studs. Reflective insulation placed in walls or on the attic floor must be perforated to allow water vapor to pass through it.
Jul 7, 2014 2908-9021 (BSE-138NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What about Refrigerators and Freezers?
Your refrigerator is the only appliance that works continuously in your home 24 hours a day. In most households, the refrigerator is the single biggest energy consuming kitchen appliance. According to ENERGY STAR, replacing a refrigerator bought in 1990 with a new ENERGY STAR qualified model can save enough to pay for lighting an average household for nearly four months.
Jul 2, 2014 2908-9022 (BSE-143NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What about the Roof?
Roofing is more than shingles, tile, or metal. A roof system consists of several components, properly assembled to provide the appropriate shelter for a structure. These include structural elements, moisture barriers, and possibly insulation or ventilation.
Jul 2, 2014 2908-9023 (BSE-134NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What about Ventilation?
“Ventilation” is “the natural or mechanical process of supplying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing air from, any space.” “Infiltration” is the uncontrolled leakage of air through cracks and gaps in the building envelope, especially around windows and doors. Infiltration deals with uncontrolled situations. In our homes we want to be able to control air movement.
Jul 7, 2014 2908-9024 (BSE-135NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What is the Whole-House Systems Approach to Energy Efficiency?
The whole-house systems approach looks at the entire house as an energy system with interdependent parts. Like a human body, when one part functions poorly it affects the performance of the entire system. For instance, the benefits of an energy-efficient air conditioner are lessened when a duct system leaks, windows don’t close tightly, the attic is uninsulated, and humid summer breezes are drifting in under the door.
Jul 7, 2014 2908-9025 (BSE-136NP)
Tools to More Efficiently Manage In-Season Corn Nitrogen Needs Sep 2, 2009 2909-1410
On Farm Mortality Disposal Options for Livestock Producers
All livestock producers at some point are faced with decisions regarding how to dispose of livestock mortality from their farm. Each option has its own benefits and limitations based on accessibility, regulatory restrictions, expense, and biosecurity concerns. Livestock producers should also know that it is their responsibility to dispose of dead animals within 48 hours by one of the approved methods highlighted below. There are approved and preferred methods of animal mortality management according to the Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). Farmers should choose the option that best suits their farm’s mortality disposal needs.
Jul 31, 2013 2909-1412 (ANR-77NP)
PPE Glove’s Chemical Resistance Ratings Oct 2, 2009 2910-1416
Resources for Rural Families Coping with Economic Stress and Anxiety Nov 16, 2009 2911-1418
Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Fungicides in 2008 Nov 19, 2009 2911-1420
2009 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots
A summary of replicated research conducted by Virginia Cooperative Extension in cooperation with local producers and agribusinesses
Jan 27, 2010 3001-1434
Cooking with Local Foods Apr 16, 2010 3001-9027
A Decision Tool to Compare the Profitability of Utilizing Poultry Litter or Commercial Fertilizer to Meet Soil Test Recommendations Mar 17, 2010 3003-1439
Effects of Twin-Row Spacing on Corn Silage Growth Development and Yield in the Shenandoah Valley Mar 18, 2010 3003-1440
Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2009 Mar 24, 2010 3003-1441
Cultivating Virginia Farm-to-School: Growing from Grassroots Mar 18, 2010 3003-9028
Suggested Soybean Seeding Rates for Virginia Jun 11, 2010 3006-1447
Corn Fertility Update – Spring 2010 Jun 11, 2010 3006-1448
Virginia Tech On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots, Eastern Virginia, August 2010 Aug 19, 2010 3008-1457
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Albemarle and Fluvanna Counties, Virginia, March-May 2009 Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 12, 2010 3010-1502
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Augusta County, Virginia, September - November 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 12, 2010 3010-1505
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Caroline County, Virginia, January-February 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 22, 2010 3010-1508
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Culpeper County, Virginia, November-December 2008, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 22, 2010 3010-1509
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Dinwiddie County, Virginia, February-March 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 22, 2010 3010-1510
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Greene County, Virginia, April-May 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 23, 2010 3010-1511
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in King George County, Virginia, January-February 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 23, 2010 3010-1512
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Prince George County, Virginia, January-February 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 24, 2010 3010-1513
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Rockbridge County, Virginia, September-November 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 29, 2010 3010-1514
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Rockingham County, Virginia, August-September 2009, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Nov 29, 2010 3010-1515
Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Fungicides in 2009 Dec 21, 2010 3012-1520
2010 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots Dec 21, 2010 3012-1521
Agritourism: Ideas and Resources Jul 14, 2009 310-004
2010 Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots Jan 24, 2011 3101-1524
Preparing for an Emergency: The Smart Thing to Do
Preparing for emergencies is not new. Your grandparents probably have extra supplies, such as: soap and shampoo in the bathroom closets, onions and potatoes stored in the basement, and canned goods on pantry shelves in their home. They understood the value of having a little extra on hand in case of emergencies.
Oct 1, 2014 3104-1590 (VCE-467NP/VCE-468NP)
2011 Virginia On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots Aug 12, 2011 3108-1593
Water Garden Plants Sep 29, 2011 3109-1594
Wireworm control experiment in potatoes in Abingdon, VA in 2011 Nov 3, 2011 3110-1596
Applied Research on Field Crop Disease Control 2010 Oct 18, 2011 3110-4009
A Community-Based Food System: Building Health, Wealth, Connection, and Capacity as the Foundation of Our Economic Future Aug 2, 2011 3306-9029
Freezing Fruits and Vegetables May 1, 2009 348-596
Storage and Handling of Commercially Packaged Foods
Proper selection of foods at the grocery store and appropriate storage and handling practices at home are necessary to maintain the quality and safety of commercially processed foods and perishable foods. When foods are improperly handled or stored, bacteria can grow, causing the product to spoil quickly or be unsafe to eat — regardless of the expiration date on the package.
Jun 23, 2015 348-954(AREC-149P)
My Money, Lesson 1: Where Do I Begin? May 1, 2009 354-073
My Money, Lesson 2: Spending Leaks May 1, 2009 354-074
My Money, Lesson 3: Where Does All the Money Go? May 1, 2009 354-075
My Money, Lesson 4: Credit Reports May 1, 2009 354-076
My Money, Lesson 5: Spending Plans May 1, 2009 354-077
My Money, Lesson 6: Putting It All Together May 1, 2009 354-078
4-H Honey Bee Leaders Guide Book I - The Buzz About Bees:Honey Bee Biology and Behavior
To the 4-H Leader: The honey bee project (Books 1 - 4) is intended to teach young people the basic biology and behavior of honey bees in addition to hands-on beekeeping management skills. The honey bee project books begin with basic honey bee and insect information (junior level) and advance to instruction on how to rear honey bee colonies and extract honey (senior level). These project books are intended to provide in-depth information related to honey bee management, yet they are written for the amateur beekeeper, who may or may not have previous experience in rearing honey bees.
Feb 27, 2014 380-071(4H-255NP)
Mid-Atlantic 4-H Market Goat Project Guide May 1, 2009 380-310
My Project May 1, 2009 388-569
Virginia Wildlife Project - Wildlife Foods May 1, 2009 390-405
Virginia 4-H Beef Heifer Project Junior Record Book Jun 27, 2013 4H-140P
Virginia 4-H Beef Heifer Project Senior Record Book Jul 1, 2013 4H-141P
Virginia 4-H Market Beef Project Junior Record Book Aug 23, 2013 4H-142P
Virginia 4-H Market Beef Project Senior Record Book Aug 27, 2013 4H-143P
Virginia 4-H Market Goat Project Junior Record Book Aug 27, 2013 4H-144P
Virginia 4-H Market Goat Project Senior Record Book Aug 27, 2013 4H-145P
Virginia 4-H Market Hog Project Junior Record Book Aug 27, 2013 4H-146P
Virginia 4-H Market Hog Project Senior Record Book Aug 27, 2013 4H-147P
Virginia 4-H Market Lamb Project Junior Record Book Aug 27, 2013 4H-148P
Virginia 4-H Market Lamb Project Senior Record Book Aug 27, 2013 4H-149P
Virginia 4-H Sheep Flock Project Junior Record Book Sep 30, 2013 4H-150P
Virginia 4-H Sheep Flock Project Senior Record Book Sep 27, 2013 4H-151P
Express Yourself! Public Speaking and Presentations Jun 27, 2013 388-028 (4H-160NP)
Teen Leadership and Development Fact Sheets: Preparing Teens for Opportunities Beyond the Local Level
Virginia 4-H offers a wide variety of opportunities beyond the local level that enable teens to develop the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and aspirations needed for success. However, before we involve teens in opportunities such as State 4-H Cabinet, State 4-H Congress, Virginia 4-H All Stars, Citizenship Washington Focus, National 4-H Congress, and National 4-H Conference, we — as 4-H professionals — must be sure the teens are adequately prepared for such ventures. This fact sheet provides tips on how to prepare your teens for district, state, national, and international 4-H opportunities.
Jun 18, 2014 4H-283P
Teen Leadership and Development Fact Sheets: Recruitment and Retention of Teens
Often, society hears negative reports related to teens — for example, 51 percent cheated on a test in the last year (Josephson Institute of Ethics 2012) — and the lack of positive opportunities provided for teens contributes to these statistics. Research shows that when teens are engaged in long-term, positive opportunities with caring adults, they are more likely to be academically productive in high school and to graduate (Lerner et al. 2011). 4-H Youth Development provides the longitudinal opportunities and caring adults who promote positive outcomes for teens. However, the recruitment and retention of teen 4-H members is often difficult because of family and community factors. While these factors may inhibit positive teen opportunities, there are other factors that can help overcome the barriers.
Jun 18, 2014 4H-284P
General Horse Information Agents Need To Know Jul 20, 2016 4H-308 (APSC-127P)
Teen Leadership and Development Fact Sheets: Working Effectively With Teen Volunteers Oct 21, 2015 4H-510P
4-H Animal Science Financial Record Keeping Lessons
This is the first in a series of six lessons that focus on 4-H livestock financial record keeping. It discusses the importance of matching your livestock project animal with your farm’s facilities. This activity will help members learn to set and achieve goals in their animal projects. The discussion about the factors to consider and the questions to ask themselves will help members answer the questions in the project planning section of the record book.
Aug 29, 2016 4H-540P
4-H Member Record Book - Novice Oct 19, 2016 4H-689NP
4-H Member Record Book • Experienced Junior Oct 19, 2016 4H-690NP
4-H Member Record Book • Experienced Senior Oct 19, 2016 4H-691NP
Table Setting Contest Scoresheet
Kari Sponaugle,Associate Extension Agent, 4-H Youth Development Kelly Mallory, Associate Extension Agent, 4-H Madison Coop Extension Service Kaci Daniel, Extension Agent, 4-H Youth DevelopmentKari Sponaugle,Associate Extension Agent, 4-H Youth Development Kelly Mallory, Associate Extension Agent, 4-H Madison Coop Extension Service Kaci Daniel, Extension Agent, 4-H Youth Development
Jul 27, 2017 4H-719NP (4H-766NP)
Cattle Identification: Freeze Branding May 1, 2009 400-301
Marketing Cull Cows in Virginia Oct 20, 2009 400-761
Environmental Streptococcal and Coliform Mastitis May 1, 2009 404-234
Feeding and Management of Weanling Horses for Healthy Skeletal Development May 1, 2009 406-007
Virginia 4-H Horse Project Junior Record Book Oct 5, 2017 406-122 (4H-694P)
Virginia 4-H Horse Project Senior Record Book Oct 5, 2017 406-123 (4H-710P)
Survival Guide for 4-H Leaders May 1, 2009 406-130
Horse Manure Management May 1, 2009 406-208
No-Till Seeding of Forage Grasses and Legumes May 1, 2009 418-007
Fertilizing Cool-Season Forages with Poultry Litter versus Commercial Fertilizer Sep 16, 2009 418-142
4-H Forestry Projects
Trees and the products that come from them provide more jobs than any other industry in Virginia. People who work in the forest industry include foresters, loggers, sawmill operators, furniture makers, paper mill workers, nurserymen, and arborists.
May 1, 2009 420-025
Skidder Safety and Efficiency: A Discussion Leader's Guide May 26, 2009 420-122
Virginia 4-H Forestry Judging Project Book May 1, 2009 420-125
Invasive Exotic Plant Species Identification and Management
Invasive exotic species are plants that are not native to a given area and have the ability to out-compete indigenous plant species. Invasive exotics are often brought into their non-native surroundings by humans with good intentions.
Mar 18, 2015 420-320(AREC-106P)
Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata)
Autumn olive was introduced to the U.S. from Japan and China in 1830. It was originally planted for wildlife habitat, shelterbelts, and mine reclamation, but has escaped cultivation. It is dispersed most frequently by birds and other wildlife, which eat the berries.
Dec 3, 2014 420-321 (ANR-123P)
Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima)
Ailanthus, also known as tree-of-heaven and paradise- tree, is a major nuisance to foresters, farmers, and homeowners alike. Its prolific seeding and ability to sprout from roots and stumps and grow quite rapidly just about anywhere make it a serious competitor and threat to native species and cultivated crops. On top of that, ailanthus is allelopathic, producing substances that are toxic to and inhibit the growth of neighboring plants.
May 4, 2015 420-322(ANR-122P)
Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.)
Several species of Asian honeysuckle have been introduced in the United States for their ornamental and wildlife values. Honeysuckle is perhaps the most widespread exotic invasive in the U.S., now found in at least 38 states. The Asian honeysuckle produces abundant seeds which are dispersed by birds and other wildlife. It also spreads by sprouting from its roots. Because it tolerates shade from other plants, it grows in forest understories.
Jan 20, 2015 420-323(ANR-124P)
Characteristics of Common Western Virginia Trees
Forest management is a complex process. Silviculture—a system in which healthy communities of trees and other vegetation are established and maintained for the benefit of people—uses forest ecology to guide complex management prescriptions that mimic forest disturbances and processes. Silvics—the natural characteristics of trees—play an important role in prescribing effective silviculture.
Dec 15, 2014 420-351 (ANR-118NP)
Nitrogen and Phosphorous Fertilization of Corn May 1, 2009 424-027
Fertilizer Types and Calculating Application Rates Aug 4, 2009 424-035
Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots 2006 May 1, 2009 424-038-06
2007 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots May 1, 2009 424-038-07
Tips for Profitable Variety Selection: How to Use Data From Different Types of Variety Trials Jul 29, 2011 424-040
Virginia On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots, 2005 May 1, 2009 424-050
Virginia On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots, 2006 May 1, 2009 424-050-06
Virginia On-Farm Wheat Test Plots, 2007 May 1, 2009 424-050-07
Deep Tillage Prior to No-Till Corn: Research and Recommendations May 1, 2009 424-053
Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2007 May 1, 2009 424-109-07
Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2006 May 1, 2009 424-109-06
Urban Water-Quality Management - What Is a Watershed? May 1, 2009 426-041
Urban Water-Quality Management - Winterizing the Water Garden
Water gardens require maintenance throughout the year. Preparation for the winter months is especially important for the survival of both the aquatic plants and the wildlife in and around the pond. Some plants will not tolerate winter weather and must be removed from the pond while cold-hardy plants need only to be completely immersed in the pond.
Mar 19, 2015 426-042 (HORT-125P)
Urban Water-Quality Management: Rain Garden Plants
A rain garden is a landscaped area specially designed to collect rainfall and storm-water runoff. The plants and soil in the rain garden clean pollutants from the water as it seeps into the ground and evaporates back into the atmosphere. For a rain garden to work, plants must be selected, installed, and maintained properly.
Mar 18, 2015 426-043 (HORT-130P)
Urban Water-Quality Management: Purchasing Aquatic Plants Apr 8, 2015 426-044 (HORT-122P)
Urban Water-Quality Management: Wildlife in the Home Pond Garden
Small home pond gardens support aquatic plants and also attract a variety of wildlife. Turtles, frogs, birds, snakes, lizards, and raccoons as well as many other animals may use these ponds. Most wildlife needs water to survive and will seek out ponds for drinking, bathing, habitat, and in some cases, reproduction.
Mar 19, 2015 426-045 (HORT-126P)
Poison Ivy: Leaves of three? Let it be! May 1, 2009 426-109
Patriotic Gardens: How to Plant a Red, White and Blue Garden Jul 17, 2015 426-210 (HORT-185)
America's Anniversary Garden: A Statewide Corridor and Entrance Enhancement Program Jul 23, 2015 426-211 (HORT-186P)
Patriotic Gardens: Bulbs for a Red, White, and Blue Spring Garden
Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) developed the America’s Anniversary Garden™ to help individuals, communities, and groups commemorate America’s 400th Anniversary with a signature landscape or garden. These signature gardens have red, white, and blue color schemes. Although the commemoration has passed, this guide continues to be useful for creating a patriotic garden. This is the third in a series of VCE garden design, plant selection, plant installation, and maintenance publications for America’s Anniversary Garden™.
Apr 9, 2015 426-220(HORT-163P)
Patriotic Gardens: Red, White, and Blue Native Plants
In 2007, Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) developed the America’s Anniversary Garden to help individuals, communities, and groups commemorate America’s 400th Anniversary with a signature landscape, garden, or container planting. These signature gardens have red, white, and blue color schemes. Although the commemoration has passed, this guide continues to be useful for creating a patriotic garden.
Jan 14, 2015 426-223 (HORT-86P)
America's Anniversary Garden: Red, White, and Blue in Fall and Winter Gardens
Virginia Cooperative Extension developed the America’s Anniversary Garden to help individuals, communities, and groups commemorate America’s 400th anniversary with a signature landscape or garden. These signature gardens have red, white, and blue color schemes. Other VCE garden design, plant selection, plant installation, and maintenance publications for patriotic gardens are listed in the Resources section.
Apr 10, 2015 426-228(HORT-164P)
Control of Common Pasture and Hayfield Weeds in Virginia and West Virginia May 1, 2009 427-002
Identification and Control of Common Reed (Phragmites australis) in Virginia May 1, 2009 427-101
Aerating Your Lawn Dec 1, 2012 430-002
Home Lawn Fertilization in Virginia: Frequently asked Questions May 1, 2009 430-003
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites -- The Walnut Tree: Allelopathic Effects and Tolerant Plants Apr 10, 2015 430-021(HORT-113P)
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites -- Air Pollution Apr 8, 2015 430-022 (HORT-123P)
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites — Trees for Landscape Containers and Planters
Planting trees in aboveground containers and planters is becoming a common practice on sites that are not suited for inground planting. Containers differ from raised planters in that they are usually smaller in volume and moveable, whereas planters are generally larger, and often built as part of the permanent hardscape (paving, etc.). The greatest challenge in selecting trees for containers and planters is in choosing trees that can survive temperature extremes, and that can establish roots in a limited volume of substrate (potting soil). Consider several factors when selecting containers and trees including environmental influences, container and planter design, substrate type, and tree characteristics.
Apr 9, 2015 430-023 (HORT-119P)
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites — Trees for Hot Sites
Hot landscape sites require special consideration before trees are planted. Trees can survive, and even thrive, in hot sites if the site is prepared correctly, if heat-tolerant species are selected, and if the trees are properly maintained. A variety of different locations and situations qualify as hot landscape sites.
Apr 9, 2015 430-024 (HORT-118P)
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites — Screening
Using trees as living screens can easily enhance living and working spaces. Before selecting trees for screening, first determine the screen’s purpose, whether functional or environmental. Screening can be used to define an area, modify or hide a view, create privacy, block wind, dust, salt and snow, control noise, filter light, and direct traffic flow.
Apr 9, 2015 430-025 (HORT-117P)
Trees for Problem Landscape Sites — Wet and Dry Sites
To grow, all trees require air, light, water and nutrients. Some trees can survive over a wide range of climatic and soil conditions, whereas others are very site specific. Both wet and dry sites present establishment and growth challenges, making selection of the right tree for the right site very important.
Apr 8, 2015 430-026 (HORT-114P)
Trees and Shrubs for Acid Soils
The trees and shrubs on your new home site are growing poorly, so you take samples to the Extension office and the agent suggests a soil test. Test results show that your soil has a pH of 4.5, which is rated as strongly acid. The agent suggests you either take corrective action to raise the pH or grow different plants. What do the test results mean? What are “acid soils” and what does pH measure? Why does this matter to your plants? How can you correct the situation or what alternative trees and shrubs can you grow?
Apr 8, 2015 430-027 (HORT-115P)
Trees for Parking Lots and Paved Areas May 1, 2009 430-028
Trees and Shrubs that Tolerate Saline Soils and Salt Spray Drift
Concentrated sodium (Na), a component of salt, can damage plant tissue whether it contacts above or below ground parts. High salinity can reduce plant growth and may even cause plant death. Care should be taken to avoid excessive salt accumulation from any source on tree and shrub roots, leaves or stems. Sites with saline (salty) soils, and those that are exposed to coastal salt spray or paving de-icing materials, present challenges to landscapers and homeowners.
Apr 8, 2015 430-031 (HORT-111P)
Pruning Crapemyrtles May 1, 2009 430-451
Lawn Moss: Friend or Foe? May 1, 2009 430-536
String Trellising of Tomatoes to Improve Quality and Profits May 1, 2009 438-017
Manure Spreader Calibration for Rear-discharge Equipment -- Handling Solid and Semi-solid Manures and Poultry Litter May 1, 2009 442-004
Hay Fire Prevention and Control May 1, 2009 442-105
Constructing High-tensile Wire Fences May 1, 2009 442-132
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Suffolk, Virginia
The Household Water-Quality Education Program was offered through the VCE Suffolk Office during the fall of 2007. Any household resident of the city who used a private water supply was eligible to participate.
May 1, 2009 442-202
Biomethane Technology May 1, 2009 442-881
Fuel Ethanol May 1, 2009 442-884
Virginia Farmstead Assessment System: Household Wastewater Treatment and Septic Systems May 1, 2009 442-903
Aphids in Virginia Small Grains: Life Cycles, Damage and Control
Four species of aphids attack small grains in Virginia — greenbug, corn leaf aphid, bird cherry-oat aphid, and English grain aphid. In general, these aphids are small pear-shaped insects (1/16 to 1/8 inch long) that are green to nearly black, or sometimes pinkish in color. Immature aphids look just like adults except smaller. Both winged and wing-less forms can occur in the same colony. All grain aphids have a pair of conicles, tailpipe-like projections, on the top side of the tail end. Aphids feed singly or in colonies on upper and lower leaf surfaces and stems. They feed near plant bases when plants are young or during cold weather, and on upper-canopy leaves, stems, and even grain heads later in the season.
Nov 13, 2014 444-018
Bluegrass Billbug Pest Management in Orchardgrass Jul 1, 2010 444-040
Hunting Billbug Pest Management in Orchardgrass Jul 1, 2010 444-041
Using Pitfall Traps to Monitor Insect Activity May 1, 2009 444-416
Direct Marketers and the Virginia Sales Tax May 26, 2009 448-073
Using the Internet for Direct Marketing May 1, 2009 448-505
Soybean Disease Control: Response of Soybeans to Foliar Sprays of Fungicides in 2005 May 1, 2009 450-561
Soil Test Note 5: Fertilizing With Manures Aug 19, 2009 452-705
To Clear or Not To Clear -- That Is the Question
The economic and ecological considerations of clear cutting wooded acreage.
May 1, 2009 465-340
Options for Clearing Land: Pasture Establishment for Horses May 1, 2009 465-341
Farm Financial Risk Management Series Part II: Introduction of Financial Systems for New and Beginning Farmers
There are many factors to consider before starting a new farm enterprise. Financial management is an important component in the startup and decision-making processes for beginning farmers. The purpose of this series of publications is to inform Virginia agribusiness owners and managers about farm financial risk management tools, techniques, and resources available to help them prepare and use a financial systems approach for their operations.
Oct 19, 2016 AAEC-115P
Farm Financial Risk Management Series Part III: Introduction to Farm Planning Budgets for New and Beginning Farmers
There are many factors to consider before starting a new farm enterprise. Financial management is an important component in the startup and decision-making processes for beginning farmers. The purpose of this series of publications is to inform Virginia agribusiness owners and managers about farm financial risk management tools, techniques, and resources available to help them prepare and use a financial systems approach for their operations.
Oct 19, 2016 AAEC-116P
A Farmer’s Responsibilities to His Business
Who is the most valuable person on your farm? Herdsman? Milker? Tractor driver? Many owners forget that they are the most important person on their farm. Why do many dairy farmers immediately call their veterinarian when an animal is sick? Yet many farmers postpone visiting the family doctor when they are sick because “they are too busy and it will get better in a couple of days.” How many times does delaying visiting the family doctor result in the owner visiting the local hospital emergency room and spending several days in the hospital? How many farmers have an annual checkup with their family doctor? How many illnesses (e.g. diabetes, hyper tension, and skin cancer) can be detected at the annual checkup? Many of these health problems can be treated and monitored by their family physician before they grow into major problems. If the owner cannot manage his business when he is ill, who will manage it for him? The farmers’ health and well being is the most important asset on his/her farm.
Jun 6, 2014 AAEC-69NP
Introduction to Labor Issues for Beginning Farmers
There are many factors to consider before you start a new farm enterprise. Labor issues are often underemphasized in the decision-making processes of beginning farmers. It is important to consider who you will hire, where you will find help, how you will manage your employees, and what legal matters are relevant to your farm.
Feb 25, 2015 AEE-106NP
Successful Farm Startup for Beginners: Virginia Beginning Farmer and Rancher Coalition Program
Starting a farm is an exciting yet challenging opportunity. As with any new undertaking, there is a lot to think about before beginning a farm venture. Gaining access to farmland, viable markets, capital and credit, as well as hands-on training and resources are some of the most important startup issues to consider as part of the planning process. You are likely asking yourself, “Where do I begin?” The purpose of this resource is to help newcomers make informed decisions at the start of the planning process. This “quick guide” is primarily designed for beginning farmers and ranchers, but service providers will also find this resource useful for answering questions about the farm startup process. This foundational work offers a valuable starting point on which to create a successful whole farm plan for a new agricultural venture.
Oct 14, 2013 AEE-67P
Community, Local, and Regional Food Systems (CLRFS) Forum Report Oct 7, 2016 ALCE-156NP
Community, Local, and Regional Food Systems (CLRFS) Forum Executive Summary
Virginia’s food system directly impacts the survival and viability of farms and farmland; the economic development of rural and urban communities; the care, restoration, and resilience of ecological resources such as local waterways; and critical health issues. We use the language of community, local, and regional food systems to broadly define a complex and interconnected set of systems and pathways that comprise sustainable food production, processing, distribution, consumption, and waste management to bring about social, economic, and ecological change that benefits all residents.
Oct 7, 2016 ALCE-157NP
Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2013
These demonstration and research plot results are an effort of Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) Agents and Specialists, area producers, and agribusiness. The purpose of this publication is to provide research-based information to aid in the decision-making process for soybean producers in Virginia. It provides an unbiased evaluation of varieties, management practices, and new technologies through on-farm replicated research using producer equipment and time. These experiments enable producers to make better management decisions based on research and provide greater opportunity to improve yields and profits, which improves quality of life for them and their families.
Jan 22, 2014 ANR-101NP
IMPACT: Virginia Potato Disease Advisory Impact
Potatoes are a major food crop on the Eastern Shore of Virginia, with average annual cash receipts of $14 million (2011-13).
Nov 13, 2014 ANR-105P
2014 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots
These demonstration and replicated studies provide information that can be used by Virginia corn growers to make better management decisions on their farms. Refer to individual results for more details.
Dec 11, 2014 ANR-134NP
Welcome to the Woods! A Guide for New Virginia Woodland Owners
We all depend on and benefit from the woods every day, whether we know it or not. The trees, shrubs, plants, animals, and soil that make up your woods provide you, your neighbors, and your region with a host of environmental, social, and economic benefits.
May 13, 2015 ANR-136P
TREE Cookies Etc. Winter 2015 Jan 13, 2015 ANR-139NP
Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2014
These demonstration and research plot results are an effort of Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) Agents and Specialists, area producers, and agribusiness. The purpose of this publication is to provide research-based information to aid in the decision-making process for soybean producers in Virginia. It provides an unbiased evaluation of varieties, management practices, and new technologies through on-farm replicated research using producer equipment and time. These experiments enable producers to make better management decisions based on research and provide greater opportunity to improve yields and profits, which improves quality of life for them and their families.
Feb 25, 2015 ANR-143NP
Weed Control in Hops
Because hops are long-lived perennials, controlling weeds near plants without causing injury can be challenging. Furthermore, empty spaces between rows can quickly become filled with weeds if left unmanaged. Growers therefore need a year-round weed management plan. An important part of that plan is identifying the common weeds at the site and understanding their life cycles. Once weeds have been identified, a management plan can be developed using cultural, chemical, or integrated approaches.
Mar 11, 2015 ANR-144NP
So You Want To Sell Timber
Research into the attitudes and actions of private forest landowners shows that although very few own their forestland for the purpose of producing timber, most will sell timber at least once in their lifetimes. Private forest landowners sell timber for a variety of reasons that range from purely financial to solely for management purposes. Often landowners do not consider selling timber until they have an immediate need for cash. Other times the landowner has planned an immediate commercial thinning with a full timber harvest scheduled in 10 years. Whatever the reason(s) for a timber sale, careful consideration of objectives is paramount.
Sep 23, 2015 ANR-154P
Timber Selling Tips: Forestry Fact Sheet for Landowners
Timber harvesting is a valuable tool to help forest landowners realize certain financial and land management goals. Following are some suggestions to consider before selling timber.
Sep 23, 2015 ANR-155P
2015 VIRGINIA ON-FARM WHEAT TEST PLOTS
The demonstration and research plot results discussed in this publication are a cooperative effort by seven Virginia Cooperative Extension agents, extension specialists from Virginia Tech, and an associate professor at the Virginia State University School of Agriculture. We are proud to present this year’s onfarm small grain plot work to you.
Aug 12, 2015 ANR-159NP
2015 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots
A summary of replicated research and demonstration plots conducted by Virginia Cooperative Extension in cooperation with local producers and agribusinesses
Dec 14, 2015 ANR-172NP
2012 Virginia On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots Jul 20, 2012 ANR-19NP
2011 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots (formerly VCE pub #3012-1521) Dec 9, 2011 ANR-2
2016 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots
The research and demonstration plots discussed in this publication are a cooperative effort by nine Virginia Cooperative Extension employees, a faculty member at Virginia State University, numerous producers, and many members of the agribusiness community. The field work and printing of this publication are mainly supported by the Virginia Corn Check-Off Fund through the Virginia Corn Board. Anyone who would like a copy should contact their local extension agent, who can request a copy from the Essex County Extension office.
Dec 9, 2016 ANR-235NP
What is a Virginia Master Naturalist? Jan 20, 2017 ANR-242
Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2016
These demonstration and research plot results are a collaborative effort of Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) Agents and Specialists, area producers, and agribusiness. The purpose of this publication is to provide research-based information to aid in the decision-making process for soybean producers in Virginia. It provides an unbiased evaluation of varieties, management practices, and new technologies through on-farm replicated research using producer equipment and time. These experiments enable producers to make better management decisions based on research and provide greater opportunities to improve yields and profits, which improves quality of life for them and their families.
Jan 13, 2017 ANR-244NP
2012 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots Nov 29, 2012 ANR-31NP
TREE Cookies Etc. Winter 2012/13 Jan 22, 2013 ANR-33
2012 Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots Jan 11, 2013 ANR-37NP
Going To Market Jun 29, 2017 ANR-46NP (FST-273NP)
Late Blight of Tomato and Potato Jan 20, 2012 ANR-6
TREE Cookies Etc. Spring 2010 Mar 15, 2013 ANR-61
TREE Cookies Etc. Winter 2011/12 Mar 18, 2013 ANR-62
Catastrophic Livestock and Poultry Carcass Disposal
This guide is intended to assist Virginia’s farmers in understanding their mortality disposal options during natural disasters and non-infectious disease events. Blizzards, tornadoes, extreme heat, and floods are just a few examples of the severe weather events that may result in significant losses to farm animal populations. Animal losses often cause significant financial losses to the farmers who rely on the income from these animals. Compounding the financial impact of these animal losses is the burden of responsibly disposing of the resulting animal carcasses. Improperly managed, animal carcasses have the potential to spread disease and contaminate surface and groundwater supplies.
Nov 19, 2013 ANR-76NP (ANR-90NP)
2013 Virginia On-Farm Wheat Test Plots
The demonstration and research plot results discussed in this publication are a cooperative effort by eight Virginia Cooperative Extension agents, extension specialists from Virginia Tech, and an assistant professor at the Virginia State University School of Agriculture. We are proud to present this year’s on-farm small grain plot work to you. We hope the information in this publication will help farmers produce a profitable crop in 2014.
Jul 31, 2013 ANR-78NP
2011 Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots Jan 17, 2012 ANR-8
2013 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots
These demonstration and replicated studies provide information that can be used by Virginia corn growers to make better management decisions on their farms. Refer to individual results for more details.
Dec 4, 2013 ANR-96NP
2017 Virginia Peanut Production Guide
The primary considerations when selecting peanut varieties are yield, grade factors, disease, pests, and drought and heat response. A good practice is recording for each field the variety, yield, rainfall, and disease and insect incidence every year. This will allow producers to identify the most productive and less problematic fields, also the most productive varieties for each field.
Feb 17, 2017 AREC-117NP
Impact of Cotton Monoculture, Variety Selection, and Chemical Inputs on Disease Control, 2011 Jan 27, 2012 AREC-13
2014 Cotton Variety Testing and On-Farm Results
The official cotton variety testing program (OVT) evaluates the performance of commercial and experimental cotton varieties. Varieties were tested at three non-irrigated locations during 2014. All locations were planted using a two row Seed Research Equipment Solutions Classic Aire planter. All locations were harvested using a 2-row John Deere 9930 cotton picker modified with a system to collect cotton in mesh bags for weighing. The 2014 OVT received 51 entries from five seed companies. Each company was charged an entry fee for each hybrid per location entered. Five extra varieties were entered in the Suffolk trial #1 location as part of a regional variety testing program protocol.
Jan 30, 2015 AREC-131NP
IMPACT: Virginia Winter Fruit School Impact
Tree fruits are important to the agricultural economy in Virginia. The commonwealth ranks sixth in the nation in apple production, with a crop valued at more than $68 million, and 20th in peach production, with a crop valued at $4.5 million. Although smaller in acreage, cherries, pears, and plums also play an important role in some areas of Virginia. These fruit crops are susceptible to an everchanging array of insects, plant diseases, and weeds, and pest management programs are complex and knowledge-intensive.
May 13, 2015 AREC-135NP
Average Relative Yields of Soybean Tested in the Virginia Official Variety Test 2009-2011 Mar 22, 2012 AREC-17NP
Vineyard Financial Calculator
The Vineyard Financial Calculator is an educational tool that is useful for comparing the financial performance of different vineyard operational scenarios. This tool's intended user is an individual or organization exploring the financial requirements of vineyard establishment and operation in Virginia. The tool was designed to forecast the approximate pretax annual cash inflows and outflows of a vineyard − information required to build a business prospectus. Users can modify certain input variables, such as vineyard size and labor costs, as well as outputs, such as crop level, to tailor the projections to personal expectations. The VFC is only a predictive tool; actual results could vary from those predicted due to site conditions, variances in costs, or unanticipated gains or losses.
Mar 7, 2017 AREC-188NP
Peanut Variety & Quality Evaluation Results 2016
Due to suitability to the environmental conditions and existence of a strong peanut industry tailored to process primarily the large-seeded Virginia-type peanut, growers in Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina generally grow Virginia-type cultivars. In the view of a common interest in the Virginia-type peanut, the three states are working together through a multi-state project, the Peanut Variety Quality Evaluation (PVQE), to evaluate advanced breeding lines and commercial cultivars throughout their production regions.
Dec 20, 2016 AREC-198NP
Troubleshooting The Soybean Crop Nov 16, 2012 AREC-25NP
2014 Virginia Peanut Production Guide
The primary considerations when selecting peanut varieties are yield, grade factors, disease, pests, and drought and heat response. A good practice is recording for each field the variety, yield, rainfall, and disease and insect incidence every year. This will allow producers to identify the most productive and less problematic fields, also the most productive varieties for each field.
May 2, 2014 AREC-58NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Fluvanna and Louisa Counties, Virginia. October 2010, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-10
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Montgomery County, Virginia. March 2010, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-11
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Nelson County, Virginia. November 2010. Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-12
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Madison and Orange Counties, Virginia. November 2010. Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-13
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Loudoun County, Virginia. June 2010, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-14
ENERGY SERIES: What about Landscaping and Energy Efficiency?
Landscaping has always played an important role in modifying the home environment for thermal comfort. Throughout the history of civilization, housing has been designed to offer protection from the most severe conditions imaginable. Until the invention of mechanical cooling and heating systems, people relied heavily on their ability to modify their surroundings to deal with extreme climates.
Jul 7, 2014 BSE-145NP
Household Water Quality in Albemarle County, Virginia
In April 2013, residents from Albemarle County participated in a drinking water clinic sponsored by the local Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) office and the Virginia Household Water Quality Program. Clinic participants received a confidential water sample analysis and attended educational meetings where they learned how to interpret their water test results and address potential issues. According to survey data collected, 67 samples were tested, serving 156 individuals. The most common household water quality issues identified were lead and sodium, as well as the presence of acidic water and total coliform bacteria. The figure found at the end of this report shows these common water quality issues along with basic information on standards, causes, and treatment options.
Aug 14, 2014 BSE-151NP
Parkinson’s Disease - Life Experiences
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a part of your life whether you have it or if someone you love has it. In either case, it has already changed certain parts of your life whether you know it or not and the changes will continue to happen in varying degrees over time. Two things are certain with PD, you will progress and it will be at your own pace. Everything else is up for grabs!
Oct 17, 2014 BSE-181NP
Understanding Soil Moisture Sensors: A Fact Sheet for Irrigation Professionals in Virginia
In the Commonwealth of Virginia, water resources are increasingly being scrutinized due to changing surface water or groundwater availability. Access to good quality water is a continuing concern, and in many communities, managing water use — particularly consumptive use — is a priority to conserve public water supplies to meet the needs of a growing population.
Sep 23, 2016 BSE-198P
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Buckingham County, Virginia. September 2011, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-28
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Clarke and Frederick Counties, Virginia. March 2011, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-29
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Isle of Wight County, Virginia, June 2011, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-30
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Lee and Scott Counties March 2011, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-31
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Loudoun County, Virginia. May 2011, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-32
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Russell and Tazewell Counties 2011, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-33
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Lunenburg and Nottoway Counties 2011, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-34
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Smyth County, Virginia February 2011. Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-35
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Spotsylvania and Stafford Counties, Virginia. October 2011. Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-36
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in the Northern Neck, Virginia (Northumberland, Lancaster, Richmond, Westmoreland, and Essex Counties), March and September 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 19, 2013 BSE-61NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Albemarle County, Virginia, April 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 19, 2013 BSE-62NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Spotsylvania and Stafford Counties, Virginia, August 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 19, 2013 BSE-63NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Southwest Virginia (Buchanan, Dickenson, Lee, Russell, Scott, Tazewell, and Wise Counties), Spring and Fall 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 21, 2013 BSE-64NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Prince William County, Virginia, November 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 22, 2013 BSE-65NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Loudoun County, Virginia, May 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 22, 2013 BSE-66NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Frederick County, Virginia, May 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 22, 2013 BSE-67NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Warren County, Virginia, June 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 22, 2013 BSE-68NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Southside, Virginia (Halifax, Mecklenburg, Charlotte, Lunenburg, and Brunswick Counties), September 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 22, 2013 BSE-69NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Botetourt County, Virginia. July 2010, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-7
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Page and Shenandoah Counties, Virginia, June 2012, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Feb 22, 2013 BSE-70NP
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Frederick County, Virginia. May 2010, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-8
Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Floyd County, Virginia. April 2010, Virginia Household Water Quality Program Jan 3, 2012 BSE-9
Roadside Survey of Continuous No-till and Cover Crop Acres in Virginia
In 2009, the Chesapeake Clean Water Ecosystem Restoration Act (HB 3852/S 1816) was passed, and was intended to strengthen certain standards for the Chesapeake Bay, particularly, to address nonpoint source pollution. Nonpoint source pollution includes that of urban, suburban and agricultural runoff. Cited in the bill was the need to establish and codify the Bay-wide pollution budget, or Total Maximum Daily Loads, (TMDL) for nitrogen, phosphorous and sediment that EPA was in process of developing for the Bay. Hence all states and their perspective watersheds would have pollution caps for all sources of pollution.
Oct 13, 2014 CSES-103NP
The Nutrient Value of Straw
The mature and dried stem, leaves, and chaff remaining after barley and wheat are harvested is known as straw. Many farmers around Virginia harvest straw by baling in small bales, large round bales, or large square bales that range in weight from 40 to 1,000 lbs. plus per bale.
Jun 19, 2015 CSES-126NP
Yellow Corn in Virginia – Spring 2016
Many of the corn fields on the Eastern Shore and in Eastern Virginia are “yellow” and stunted due to the weather this Spring (Figs. 1 and 2) and is similar to conditions that Virginia farmers experienced in Spring 2010. There are many reasons for the corn to be yellow that range from nutrient deficiencies to abiotic factors.
Oct 10, 2016 CSES-171NP
Managing Shrub-Infested, Postmined Pasturelands With Goats and Cattle. Part I: Effect on Botanical Composition and Browse Species Jan 18, 2012 CSES-4
Direct Sales: Certifying Market Scales
Virginia farmers sell their produce through many venues including on-farm sales, farm stands, and farmers’ markets. Wherever the produce is sold, it must be sold by weight, count, head/bunch, or dry measure. If the produce is sold by weight, the produce will be weighed on scales that have been certified by the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Office of Weights and Measures.
Sep 10, 2014 CV-40NP
FACILITATION SERIES: The Art of Flip Charting
The discussion has begun, and words are flowing from each person like the water in a rushing stream. These words must be captured and become the wallpaper plastered throughout the room. It is this process of flip charting that creates the visual summary of key discussion points and provides the group memory that supports the process of a facilitated conversation.
Dec 19, 2014 CV-44NP
Arthropod Pest Management Research on Vegetables in Virginia – 2011
This booklet summarizes more than 50 experiments of arthropod pest management research conducted on vegetable crops in Virginia in 2011. Experiments were primarily conducted at three Virginia Tech research stations: the Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center (ESAREC) near Painter, VA, the Hampton Roads Agricultural Research and Extension Center (HRAREC) in Virginia Beach, VA and the Kentland Research Farm near Blacksburg, VA. All plots were maintained according to standard commercial practices.
Feb 1, 2012 ENTO-1
Mosquitos and their Control
The key to controlling mosquitoes is removing the standing or stagnant water where they live.
Mar 11, 2016 ENTO-202NP
Emerald Ash Borer Control for Foresters and Landowners
Emerald ash borer (EAB) is found in all regions of Virginia. Some areas have established populations with a high level of ash tree mortality and other areas are seeing it for the first time. With a wider spread of infestation many homeowners are seeking methods to protect their ash trees.
Sep 4, 2014 ENTO-76NP
Master Food Volunteer Re-Enrollment Form Nov 1, 2016 FCS-121NP
Arlington and Alexandria Virginia Cooperative Extension Jul 11, 2013 FCS-47NP
How to Write a Recipe
Whether sharing a recipe with family and friends or using it in a classroom setting or professional publication, knowing how to write a clear, concise, easy-to-follow recipe is an important skill. It takes creativity and practice to develop a delicious and wholesome dish. Writing a recipe so others can duplicate your results successfully, time after time, requires adhering to specific guidelines and a set of rules.
Nov 9, 2015 FST-155NP (FST-214NP)
Fasting During Ramadan: Nutrition and Health Impacts and Food Safety Recommendations Sep 26, 2016 HNFE-351P
Hops in Virginia: Need-to-Know Information about Extension Resources May 7, 2015 HORT-182NP (ANR-256NP)
Hops in Virginia: Need-to-Know Information about the Industry
Background: Hops were grown in Virginia even in the days of Thomas Jefferson, but production eventually shifted away from the east coast in favor of the Pacific Northwest. For the past few decades, hops have not been grown commercially on a substantial level in Virginia. However, beginning several years ago when the craft brewing industry surged, renewed interest in hops production led to a rapid increase in the number of hobby and commercial hops growers. A fall 2014 survey showed approximately 50 growers in the state, but as of 2015 many new growers have been added to the ranks. Much of the production is clustered in Northern Virginia and the I-81 and I-64 corridors, but growers can be found in all regions of the state stretching from Southeast to Southwest Virginia.
Mar 6, 2017 HORT-183NP
Vertical Gardening Using Trellises, Stakes, and Cages
Vertical gardening is the practice of “gardening up,” in which a variety of structures are used to elevate plant growth to take advantage of vertical space. Vertical gardening is well-suited to urban areas where space is limited and gardeners are interested in using space most efficiently. Balconies, decks, patios, windowsills, fence lines, and backyard gardens are excellent places to practice vertical gardening. This publication will describe the use of vertical gardening techniques to get the most out of growing vegetables and other plants in these small spaces.
May 7, 2015 HORT-189NP
Advanced Irrigation Management for Container-Grown Ornamental Crop Production
Container-grown plants are constrained with regard to root growth, and are affected by factors including container size, substrate, weather, nutrition, and irrigation. Typical soilless substrates will hold less plant-available water than a typical field soil, making water management a critical component of any container-grown plant production system. A well-designed and managed irrigation system, which works in concert with the aforementioned factors, can provide the necessary quantity of water to support plant growth in an efficient manner.
Sep 23, 2016 HORT-218P
What in the World? International Produce Takes a Stand at Virginia Farmers Markets May 25, 2016 HORT-225NP
GAPs and FSMA – an Overview for Hop Growers in Virginia
Food safety is a hot topic for hop growers and brewers. With multiple acronyms for various practices, standards, and regulations: GAPs, FSMA, PSR, PCR, and more; the confusion is understandable. Let’s examine where the small-acreage hop grower fits in. This fact sheet serves as an orientation to these standards,regulations, and practices as they may apply to hops; it is in no way a complete set of guidelines or substitute for training.
Dec 20, 2016 HORT-237NP
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight in the Virginia Home Landscape: Version 2, September 2016
This Best Management Practice document is a set of guidelines for home growers of landscape boxwood to avoid introduction of the boxwood blight pathogen into a landscape or, if the disease is already present in a landscape, to manage the disease in the most effective manner and avoid spread of the disease to new locations.
Sep 30, 2016 PPWS-29NP (PPWS-85NP)
Virginia Boxwood Blight Task Force
To provide leadership in safeguarding and protecting the ornamental horticulture industry, historical gardens and landscape plantings from boxwood blight.
May 20, 2014 PPWS-30
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight: Best management practices for boxwood blight in Virginia production nurseries WITH boxwood blight Version 2, September 2016
This Best Management Practice document is a set of guidelines for home growers of landscape boxwood to avoid introduction of the boxwood blight pathogen into a landscape or, if the disease is already present in a landscape, to manage the disease in the most effective manner and avoid spread of the disease to new locations.
Sep 30, 2016 PPWS-32NP (PPWS-87NP)
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight in Virginia Production Nurseries WITHOUT Boxwood Blight Version 2, September 2016
This Best Management Practice document is a set of guidelines for home growers of landscape boxwood to avoid introduction of the boxwood blight pathogen into a landscape or, if the disease is already present in a landscape, to manage the disease in the most effective manner and avoid spread of the disease to new locations.
Sep 30, 2016 PPWS-33NP (PPWS-86NP)
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight: Best management practices for Virginia retail nurseries WITH boxwood blight Version 2, August 2016
This Best Management Practice document is a set of guidelines for home growers of landscape boxwood to avoid introduction of the boxwood blight pathogen into a landscape or, if the disease is already present in a landscape, to manage the disease in the most effective manner and avoid spread of the disease to new locations.
Sep 30, 2016 PPWS-34NP (PPWS-89NP)
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight: Best management practices for Virginia retail nurseries WITHOUT boxwood blight Version 2, September 2016
This Best Management Practice document is a set of guidelines for home growers of landscape boxwood to avoid introduction of the boxwood blight pathogen into a landscape or, if the disease is already present in a landscape, to manage the disease in the most effective manner and avoid spread of the disease to new locations.
Sep 30, 2016 PPWS-35NP (PPWS-88NP)
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight for Greenery Producers
Best management practices for boxwood blight (also called “box blight”) for greenery producers are practices recommended to avoid the introduction and spread of boxwood blight, caused by the fungus Calonectria pseudonaviculata (syn. Cylindrocladium pseudonaviculatum). The recommendations in this document are designed to avoid spread of boxwood blight within a planting or to new locations when pruned tips are collected, sold and/or used for holiday greenery1. These recommendations are relevant to anyone involved in the greenery (“tipping”) industry, including small and large-scale greenery producers, home growers who sell boxwood tips, and people who tip-prune boxwood on other people’s property. Care must be taken at all levels of greenery production to prevent the spread of the boxwood blight pathogen and avoid economic losses associated with this disease.
Oct 13, 2016 PPWS-39NP (PPWS-95NP)
Best Management Practices for Boxwood Blight for Professionally Managed Landscapes and Public and Historic Gardens in Virginia
Boxwood blight is caused by the fungal pathogen Calonectria pseudonaviculata (syn. Cylindrocladium buxicola). Boxwood blight was first described in the United Kingdom in the mid-1990’s and by 2002 was found in several other European countries and New Zealand. In September 2011 boxwood blight was discovered in North America. Symptoms of the disease include leaf spotting (Fig. 1), elongate, dark cankers on stems (Fig. 2), defoliation, and dieback (Fig. 3). The primary means by which the disease spreads is the inadvertent introduction of infected boxwood to existing plantings. The pathogen can also spread by spores, which readily adhere to equipment and work clothes, and by microsclerotia, which survive in infested soil and plant debris. This document outlines best management practices for landscapers and property managers to reduce the risk of spreading boxwood blight to landscapes and public and historic gardens, and to manage the disease if it is introduced.
Sep 26, 2016 PPWS-49NP (PPWS-84NP)
Food Deserts in Virginia
In 2012, Delegate Delores McQuinn introduced House Joint Resolution 88 and then in 2013 reintroduced House Joint Resolution 646 to request that the Virginia General Assembly review the issue of food deserts in Virginia. The Honorable William Howell, Speaker of the House of Delegates of the Virginia General Assembly, commissioned Alan Grant, dean of the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Virginia Tech, and Jewel Hairston, dean of the College of Agriculture at Virginia State University, to conduct a study of food deserts in the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Jan 22, 2014 VCE-294NP
Basic First-Aid Supplies
Being Prepared helps families alleviate fears and reduce potential losses related to disasters. In the event of emergencies or disasters, injured people need to receive help within the first hour of the incident. Often family members and co-workers are the initial first responders. First-aid kits are a necessity for attending to victims and should be kept in homes, vehicles, schools and workplaces.
Jun 24, 2014 VCE-409NP
Biological & Chemical Terrorism
Terrorism is the use of force or violence against people or property in violation of the criminal laws of the United States for purposes of intimidation, coercion or ransom.
Jun 24, 2014 VCE-410NP
Child Emergency Preparedness
Children and Disasters: Disasters can leave children feeling frightened, confused and insecure. Children may respond to disaster by demonstrating fears, sadness or behavioral problems. Younger children may return to earlier behavior patterns, such as bedwetting, sleep problems and separation anxiety. Older children also may display anger, aggression, school problems or withdrawal. Some children who have only indirect contact with the disaster but witness it on television also may develop distress. Whether a child has personally experienced trauma, has merely seen the event on TV or has heard it discussed by adults, parents and teachers should be informed and ready to help if reactions to stress begin to occur.
Jun 24, 2014 VCE-411NP
Earthquakes
Earthquakes are sudden slips along a geological fault and the resulting ground shaking and radiated seismic energy caused by the slip or by volcanic activity or other sudden stress changes in the earth.
Jun 25, 2014 VCE-412NP
Floods
Floods are one of the most common hazards in the United States. A flood is defined as any high flow, overflow or inundation by water that causes or threatens damage. Flood effects can be local, impacting a neighborhood or community, or very large, affecting entire river basins and multiple states. Each year coastal, estuarine, riverine, overland and flash flooding places thousands of people, pets and livestock at risk of serious injury and death, and destroys property and infrastructure costing valued at billions of dollars.
Jun 25, 2014 VCE-413NP
Pet Preparedness
Pets often are an important part of people’s lives. If you are like many animal owners, your pet is an important member of your family. The likelihood that you and your animals will survive emergencies or disasters such as a fire, earthquake, flood, tornado or terrorist attack depends largely on emergency planning. Because animals can influence a person’s decision to take protective actions, understand how to manage animals in emergencies.Create fear among the public.
Jul 10, 2014 VCE-414NP
Tornadoes
Tornadoes are violently rotating columns of air with circulation that reaches the ground. Tornadoes usually start as a funnel cloud and are accompanied by a loud, roaring noise.
Jul 10, 2014 VCE-415NP
Virginia Cooperative Extension Video
Virginia Cooperative Extension puts university knowledge into the hands of people. A group of credible experts and educators, the organization provides information, education, and tools to improve everyday life. Director Edwin Jones explains more about the goals and vision of Virginia Cooperative Extension.
May 27, 2014 VCE-419NP
Preparing for an Emergency: Make a Family Emergency Kit
Preparing for emergencies is not new. Your grandparents probably have extra supplies, such as: soap and shampoo in the bathroom closets, onions and potatoes stored in the basement, and canned goods on pantry shelves in their home. They understood the value of having a little extra on hand in case of emergencies. All states and counties have experienced disasters. Virginian’s have experienced ice storms, thunder storms, tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, and power outages. It is wise to be prepared for the unexpected.
Sep 1, 2014 VCE-486NP
IMPACT: Family and Consumer Sciences, Fit Extension Working to Promote Healthy Habits Oct 24, 2013 VCE-55NP
Situation Analysis Report, Accomack County, 2013 Nov 5, 2015 VCE-596-1NP
Situation Analysis Report, Bath County, 2013 Oct 22, 2015 VCE-596-10NP
Situation Analysis Report, Tazewell County, 2013 Oct 28, 2015 VCE-596-100NP
Situation Analysis Report, City of Virginia Beach, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Aug 11, 2015 VCE-596-101NP
Situation Analysis Report, Warren County, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Jul 2, 2015 VCE-596-102NP
Situation Analysis Report, Westmoreland County, 2013 Nov 6, 2015 VCE-596-104NP
Situation Analysis Report, Wise County, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Aug 11, 2015 VCE-596-105NP
Situation Analysis Report, Bedford County, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years.
Jul 9, 2015 VCE-596-11NP
Situation Analysis Report, Bland County, 2013 Nov 5, 2015 VCE-596-12NP
Situation Analysis Report, Brunswick County, 2013 Oct 9, 2015 VCE-596-14NP
Situation Analysis Report, Buckingham County, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years.
Jul 9, 2015 VCE-596-16NP
Situation Analysis Report, Albemarle County / City of Charlottesville, 2013 Oct 28, 2015 VCE-596-2NP
Situation Analysis Report, Charles City County, 2013 Oct 27, 2015 VCE-596-20NP
Situation Analysis Report, Charlotte County, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Jul 15, 2015 VCE-596-21NP
Situation Analysis Report, City of Chesapeake, 2013 Oct 27, 2015 VCE-596-22NP
Situation Analysis Report, Chesterfield County, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Jul 15, 2015 VCE-596-23NP
Situation Analysis Report, Clarke County, 2013 Oct 22, 2015 VCE-596-24NP
Situation Analysis Report, Craig County, 2013 Oct 6, 2015 VCE-596-25NP
Situation Analysis Report, Culpeper County, 2013 Oct 22, 2015 VCE-596-26NP
Situation Analysis Report, Cumberland County, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years.
Jul 9, 2015 VCE-596-27NP
Situation Analysis Report, City of Danville, 2013 Oct 13, 2015 VCE-596-28NP
Situation Analysis Report, Dickenson County, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Jul 15, 2015 VCE-596-29NP
Situation Analysis Report, City of Alexandria, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Jul 9, 2015 VCE-596-3NP
Situation Analysis Report, Dinwiddie County, 2013 Oct 13, 2015 VCE-596-30NP
Situation Analysis Report, Essex County, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Jul 15, 2015 VCE-596-31NP
Situation Analysis Report, Fairfax County, 2013 Nov 4, 2015 VCE-596-32NP
Situation Analysis Report, Fauquier County, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years.
Feb 18, 2016 VCE-596-33NP
Situation Analysis Report, Floyd County, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Jul 17, 2015 VCE-596-34NP
Situation Analysis Report, Fluvanna County, 2013 Oct 13, 2015 VCE-596-35NP
Situation Analysis Report, Franklin County, 2013 Oct 13, 2015 VCE-596-36NP
Situation Analysis Report, Frederick County, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Jul 17, 2015 VCE-596-37NP
Situation Analysis Report, Giles County, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Jul 2, 2015 VCE-596-38NP
Situation Analysis Report, Gloucester County, 2013 Oct 28, 2015 VCE-596-39NP
Situation Analysis Report, Alleghany County, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Jun 13, 2016 VCE-596-4NP
Situation Analysis Report, Goochland County, 2013 Oct 6, 2015 VCE-596-40NP
Situation Analysis Report, Grayson County, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Jul 17, 2015 VCE-596-41NP
Situation Analysis Report, Green County, 2013 Oct 28, 2015 VCE-596-42NP
Situation Analysis Report, Halifax County, 2013 Oct 22, 2015 VCE-596-44NP
Situation Analysis Report, City of Hampton, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Jul 17, 2015 VCE-596-45NP
Situation Analysis Report, Hanover County, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Jul 17, 2015 VCE-596-46NP
Situation Analysis Report, Henrico County, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Jul 17, 2015 VCE-596-47NP
Situation Analysis Report, Henry County/City of Martinsville, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Jul 17, 2015 VCE-596-48NP
Situation Analysis Report, Highland County, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Aug 7, 2015 VCE-596-49NP
Situation Analysis Report, Amelia County, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Jul 15, 2015 VCE-596-5NP
Situation Analysis Report, Isle of Wight County, 2013 Oct 6, 2015 VCE-596-50NP
Situation Analysis Report, King George County, 2013 Oct 9, 2015 VCE-596-53NP
Situation Analysis Report, Lee County, 2013 Oct 6, 2015 VCE-596-56NP
Situation Analysis Report, Loudoun County, 2013 Oct 13, 2015 VCE-596-57NP
Situation Analysis Report, Louisa County, 2013 Oct 9, 2015 VCE-596-58NP
Situation Analysis Report, Amherst County, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Jul 2, 2015 VCE-596-6NP
Situation Analysis Report, Madison County, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Aug 7, 2015 VCE-596-61NP
Situation Analysis Report, Mathews County, 2013 Oct 6, 2015 VCE-596-62NP
Situation Analysis Report, Mecklenburg County, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Aug 7, 2015 VCE-596-63NP
Situation Analysis Report, Middlesex County, 2013 Oct 28, 2015 VCE-596-64NP
Situation Analysis Report, Montgomery County, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Aug 7, 2015 VCE-596-65NP
Situation Analysis Report, Nelson County, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Aug 7, 2015 VCE-596-66NP
Situation Analysis Report, New Kent County, 2013 Oct 23, 2015 VCE-596-67NP
Situation Analysis Report, City of Newport News, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Aug 7, 2015 VCE-596-68NP
Situation Analysis Report, City of Norfolk, 2013 Oct 12, 2015 VCE-596-69NP
Situation Analysis Report, Appomattox County, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Jul 2, 2015 VCE-596-7NP
Situation Analysis Report, Northampton County, 2013 Oct 9, 2015 VCE-596-70NP
Situation Analysis Report, Northumberland County, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Aug 10, 2015 VCE-596-71NP
Situation Analysis Report, Nottoway County, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Aug 10, 2015 VCE-596-72NP
Situation Analysis Report, Orange County, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Aug 10, 2015 VCE-596-73NP
Situation Analysis Report, Page County, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Jul 2, 2015 VCE-596-74NP
Situation Analysis Report, City of Petersburg, 2013 Oct 13, 2015 VCE-596-76NP
Situation Analysis Report, Pittslyvania County, 2013 Oct 28, 2015 VCE-596-77NP
Situation Analysis Report, City of Portsmouth, 2013 Oct 23, 2015 VCE-596-78NP
Situation Analysis Report, Powhatan County, 2013 Oct 13, 2015 VCE-596-79NP
Situation Analysis Report, Arlington County, 2013 Oct 9, 2015 VCE-596-8NP
Situation Analysis Report, Prince Edward County, 2013 Oct 22, 2015 VCE-596-80NP
Situation Analysis Report, Prince George County, 2013 Nov 4, 2015 VCE-596-81NP
Situation Analysis Report, Prince William County, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Aug 10, 2015 VCE-596-82NP
Situation Analysis Report, Pulaski County, 2013 Oct 6, 2015 VCE-596-83NP
Situation Analysis Report, Rappahannock County, 2013 Oct 6, 2015 VCE-596-84NP
Situation Analysis Report, City of Richmond, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Aug 10, 2015 VCE-596-85NP
Situation Analysis Report, Richmond County, 2013 Oct 13, 2015 VCE-596-86NP
Situation Analysis Report, Roanoke County/Roanoke and Salem, 2013 Oct 6, 2015 VCE-596-87NP
Situation Analysis Report, Rockingham County, 2013 Oct 9, 2015 VCE-596-89NP
Situation Analysis Report, Augusta County, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years.
Jul 9, 2015 VCE-596-9NP
Situation Analysis Report, Scott County, 2013 Nov 6, 2015 VCE-596-91NP
Situation Analysis Report, Shenandoah County, 2013 Oct 6, 2015 VCE-596-92NP
Situation Analysis Report, Smyth County, 2013 Oct 22, 2015 VCE-596-93NP
Situation Analysis Report, Southampton County, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Aug 11, 2015 VCE-596-94NP
Situation Analysis Report, Stafford County, 2013
Virginia Cooperative Extension takes pride in the premise that vital programming is based on the issues, problems, and needs of the people. A thorough analysis of the situation provides context for understanding and addressing these problems. Each local office updates their situation analysis every 4-5 years. Click here to see the 2013 report.
Aug 10, 2015 VCE-596-96NP
Situation Analysis Report, City of Suffolk, 2013 Oct 27, 2015 VCE-596-97NP
Situation Analysis Report, Surry County, 2013 Oct 28, 2015 VCE-596-98NP
Situation Analysis Report, Sussex County, 2013 Nov 5, 2015 VCE-596-99NP
Virginia Cooperative Extension Volunteer Screening Guidelines Sep 10, 2015 VCE-629NP
Author Checklist May 26, 2016 VCE-733NP
Preparing Your Manuscript for Submission Jul 20, 2016 VCE-751NP
Easy Ways to Eat More Veggies
A mom and daughter show how easy it is to eat more veggies by making some small and simple changes in their daily lives.
May 26, 2016 VCEP-52NP
Cow/Calf Operations Cost Per Pound of Beef Sold May 8, 2009
Surviving the Beef Cattle Market Crisis May 8, 2009
Analyzing the Cost of a Bull May 8, 2009