Resources for Crops
|Compact Soil Sampling Strategy for White Grubs||
Annual white grubs (WG) are early-season pests attacking corn seeds and seedlings
|Dec 19, 2018||2802-7027 (ENTO-296NP)|
|Prevention and Control of Palmer Amaranth in Cotton||
Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), a member of the "pigweed" family, is one of the most troublesome weeds in many southern row crops. Seed can germinate all season and plants can grow to over 6 feet in height. Plants have either male flowers that shed pollen or female flowers that can produce up to 600,000 seed per plant. One Palmer amaranth per 30 foot of row can reduce cotton yield by 6 to 12%.
|Mar 25, 2015||2805-1001 (PPWS-60NP)|
|Prevention and Control of Palmer Amaranth in Soybean||
Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), a member of the "pigweed" family, is one of the most troublesome weeds in many southern row crops. Seed can germinate all season and plants can grow to over 6 feet in height. Plants have either male flowers that shed pollen or female flowers that can produce up to 600,000 seed per plant. One Palmer amaranth per meter of row can reduce soybean yield 32%.
|Jun 1, 2016||2808-1006 (PPWS-78NP)|
|Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Fungicides in 2007||May 1, 2009||2810-1016|
|2011 Virginia Peanut Production Guide||Jan 12, 2011||2810-1017|
|Insect Pest Management in Virginia: Cotton, Peanut, and Soybean 2010||May 1, 2009||2812-1027|
|Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results, 2008||
Peanut is an important crop for the Virginia – Carolina region. It annually brings over $90 million to the economies of this region from over 180,000 acres planted every year. For example this year, 24,000 acres were planted in Virginia and 98,000 in North Carolina. Average yield was 3,400 lb/A in Virginia and 3,500 in North Carolina. Due to environmental similarities and existence of a strong peanut industry tailored to process primarily the large-seeded Virginia- type peanut, growers in Virginia and North Carolina generally grow the same peanut varieties.
|May 1, 2009||2812-1030|
|Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results 2008||May 1, 2009||2902-1082|
|Making Replant Decisions for Slug Damaged Corn and Soybean Stands||May 14, 2009||2905-1293|
|Lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum), A Potential Plant for the Cut Flower Market||Jan 17, 2019||2906-1312 (SPES-99)|
|Adding Cut Flowers May Increase Profits||Jan 17, 2019||2906-1331 (SPES-100NP)|
|Sell Cut Flowers from Perennial Summer-flowering Bulbs||Jan 25, 2019||2906-1370 (SPES-101NP)|
|Characteristics of Good Quality Transplants||Apr 24, 2015||2906-1383 (AREC-141NP)|
|Tools to More Efficiently Manage In-Season Corn Nitrogen Needs||Nov 16, 2018||2909-1410 (SPES-80NP)|
|Cost and benefit of seed treatments and Temik 15G in furrow for seedling disease and nematode control in Virginia, 2008||Nov 19, 2009||2911-1419|
|Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Fungicides in 2008||Nov 19, 2009||2911-1420|
|Palmer Amaranth Control in Cotton: 2008 & 2009 Efficacy Experiments||Dec 22, 2009||2912-1428|
|Palmer Amaranth Control in Soybean: 2009 Efficacy Experiments||Dec 22, 2009||2912-1429|
|Green Stem Syndrome in Soybean||Dec 22, 2009||2912-1430|
|Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results, 2009. I. Agronomic and Grade Data||Jan 11, 2010||3001-1432|
|Common Diseases of Soybean in the Mid-Atlantic Region||Feb 17, 2010||3001-1435|
|Pop-up and/or Starter Fertilizers for Corn||Nov 16, 2018||3002-1438 (SPES-77NP)|
|Effects of Twin-Row Spacing on Corn Silage Growth Development and Yield in the Shenandoah Valley||Nov 16, 2018||3003-1440 (SPES-79NP)|
|Suggested Soybean Seeding Rates for Virginia||Jun 11, 2010||3006-1447|
|Days to Soybean Physiological Maturity||Sep 9, 2010||3009-1459|
|Peanut Crop Physiology Related Projects at Tidewater Agricultural Research & Extension Center 2009||Sep 9, 2010||3009-1460|
|Virginia No-Till Fact Sheet Series Number Two: Nitrogen Fertilizer Injection in No-Till Systems||
Liquid nitrogen fertilizers have typically been surface applied. This method of application places the fertilizer where the urea nitrogen component of the solution is susceptible to volatilization losses.
|Sep 25, 2015||3011-1516(CSES-131NP)|
|Virginia No-Till Fact Sheet Series Number Three: Manure Injection||Nov 16, 2010||3011-1517|
|Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Fungicides in 2009||Dec 21, 2010||3012-1520|
|2010 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results: Agronomic and Grade Data||Jan 14, 2011||3101-1523|
|2009-2010 Performance of Sorghum Hybrids in the Virginia‐Carolina Region||Jan 25, 2011||3101-1531|
|2010 PEANUT VARIETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION RESULTS Quality Data||Mar 24, 2011||3103-1539|
|Wireworm control experiment in potatoes in Abingdon, VA in 2011||Nov 3, 2011||3110-1596|
|Producing and Marketing Wild Simulated Ginseng in Forest and Agroforestry Systems||May 1, 2009||354-312|
|Nitrogen Soil Testing For Corn in Virginia||Feb 7, 2019||418-016 (SPES-64P)|
|Potassium Fertilization of Cotton||May 1, 2009||418-025|
|Phosphorus, Agriculture & The Environment||Jan 24, 2019||424-029|
|Successful No-Tillage Corn Production||Jul 29, 2009||424-030|
|Fertilizer Types and Calculating Application Rates||Aug 4, 2009||424-035|
|Tips for Profitable Variety Selection: How to Use Data From Different Types of Variety Trials||Jul 29, 2011||424-040|
|Agronomy Handbook, 2000||May 1, 2009||424-100||
|Cotton Harvest Aid Selection and Application Timing||May 1, 2009||424-201|
|Virginia Cotton Report, 2006: Effect of Planting Date and Plant Populations on Growth and Yield of Cotton||May 1, 2009||424-232|
|Virginia Cotton Report, 2006: Evaluation of Chemicals and Variety Selection for Control of Nematodes in Cotton||May 1, 2009||424-234|
|Getting Started in the Production of Field-Grown, Specialty Cut Flowers||
Specialty cut flowers are one of the most profitable field crops you can grow. Lynn Byczynski, editor of Growing For Market newsletter (see Resources section), estimates a value of $25,000 to $35,000 per acre for field-grown cuts. The most basic requirements are at least half an acre of open, arable land, a rototiller, and, of course, time and effort. This publication is directed to those new to market gardening, but commercial vegetable growers, tobacco farmers, and young people interested in summer income are all potential candidates. Even grain and livestock farmers have increased profitability in their operations by adding cut flower production. For many greenhouse and nursery operations, mid-summer business is slower, relative to spring. A field-grown cut flower business is a viable option to fill in the summer production and cash flow gap.
|May 2, 2014||426-618 (HORT-71P)|
|Field Production of Cut Flowers: Potential Crops||May 1, 2009||426-619|
|Defoliating Cotton under Adverse Conditions: Drought-stress, Cool Temperatures, and Rank Growth||May 1, 2009||427-208|
|Description and Performance of the Virginia-Market-Type Peanut Cultivars||
While the runner-type peanut is the predominant market type grown in the United States, the Virginia-Carolinas region has traditionally grown only the largeseeded, Virginia-type peanut. There are several old — as well as new — Virginia-type cultivars available to the peanut industry. While information on older cultivars is available in Extension publications, information on the most recently released cultivars is lacking. Therefore, this publication will provide growers, shellers, and processors with the latest research-based information on the performance of the newest cultivars and currently grown cultivars.
|Nov 3, 2014||432-201 (AREC-103P)|
|2011 Flue-Cured Tobacco Production Guide||Mar 24, 2011||436-048|
|2003 Flue-Cured Tobacco Production Guide||May 1, 2009||436-048|
|2008 Burley Tobacco Production Guide||May 1, 2009||436-050-08|
|2011 Burley Tobacco Production Guide||
2011 BURLEY TOBACCO PRODUCTION GUIDE
|Mar 22, 2011||436-050|
|Float Greenhouse Tobacco Transplant Guide||May 1, 2009||436-051|
|Nitrogen Management for White Potato Production||Sep 28, 2009||438-012|
|Manure Spreader Calibration for Rear-discharge Equipment -- Handling Solid and Semi-solid Manures and Poultry Litter||May 1, 2009||442-004|
|Curing Quality Peanuts in Virginia||May 1, 2009||442-062|
|Impact of Changing From Nitrogen- to Phosphorus-Based Manure Nutrient Management Plans||Sep 16, 2009||442-310|
|Planter/Drill Considerations for Conservation Tillage Systems||
No-till planters and drills must be able to cut and handle residue, penetrate the soil to the proper seeding depth, and establish good seed-to-soil contact. Many different soil conditions can be present in the Mid-Atlantic region at planting time. Moist soils covered with residue, which may also be wet, can dominate during the late fall and early spring and, occasionally, in the summer. Although this condition provides an ideal environment for seed germination, it can make it difficult to cut through the residue. In contrast, hard and dry conditions may also prevail. Although cutting residue is easier during dry conditions, it is more difficult to penetrate the hard, dry soils. Proper timing, equipment selection and adjustments, and crop management can overcome these difficult issues.
|Aug 8, 2014||442-457 (BSE-147P)|
|Japanese Beetle in Field Corn||Feb 4, 2019||444-106|
|Root-knot Nematode in Field Corn||Feb 4, 2019||444-107|
|Asiatic Garden Beetle in Field Corn||Feb 4, 2019||444-108|
|Slugs in Field Corn||Feb 4, 2019||444-109|
|Integrated Pest Management Peanut Scouting Manual||
In the competitive global peanut market, you need to lower production costs. At the same time, you also need to keep pesticide residues in peanuts to a minimum; protect rivers, streams, and lakes from runoff; and prevent chemicals from leaching through the soil to groundwater. Using IPM to protect crops only from pests that are likely to cause economic losses is a good way to meet these goals.
|Nov 13, 2014||444-126|
|Identifying Soybean Fields at Risk to Leaf-Feeding Insects||Nov 13, 2018||444-203 (SPES-74P)|
|Cabbage and Seedcorn Maggot||May 1, 2009||444-231|
|European Corn Borer||Feb 4, 2019||444-232|
|The Peanut Southern Corn Rootworm Advisory||
The southern corn rootworm (SCR) has long been considered a major pest of peanuts in North Carolina and Virginia. However, researchers and Extension faculty at Virginia Tech and NC State have determined through more than 400 commercial field trials that the majority of peanut fields do not need to be treated. They have developed and tested a simple-to-use advisory that identifies those fields not at risk for pod damage or economic loss. The Southern Corn Rootworm Advisory can save you time and money as well as help you use insecticides more efficiently.
|Nov 13, 2014||444-351|
|Managing Stink Bugs in Cotton: Research in the Southeast Region||Nov 13, 2018||444-390|
|Corn Earworm Biology and Management in Soybeans||
Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, is the most common and destructive insect pest of soybeans grown in Virginia. Although infestation severity varies, about one-third of our acreage is treated annually. This costs farmers 1.5 to 2 million dollars annually, and requires the application of many pounds of insecticide to crop lands. We may never eliminate this pest from Virginia soybeans, but knowledge of the biology and use of best management practices can help limit insecticide controls to those fields that meet economic threshold criteria. This publication provides current information on corn earworm biology, prediction of outbreaks, pest advisories, scouting procedures, and recently revised economic thresholds.
|Nov 13, 2014||444-770|
|Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions II: Identification, Biology, and Ecology||May 1, 2009||450-302|
|Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions III: Control with Fungicides||May 1, 2009||450-303|
|Asian Soybean Rust - Frequently Asked Questions IV: Cropping Systems and Cultural Practices||May 1, 2009||450-304|
|Soybean Disease Control: Response of Soybeans to Foliar Sprays of Fungicides in 2005||May 1, 2009||450-561|
|Soybean Rust Incidence and the Response of Soybeans to Foliar Fungicides in 2006||
The spread of soybean rust northward through states along the Atlantic Coast began on soybeans in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida. The disease was first reported in South Carolina on 21 August, North Carolina on 14 September, and Virginia on 9 October. The epidemic of 2006 was far reaching in that disease outbreaks occurred on soybeans as far north as Illinois and Indiana and east to Virginia
|May 1, 2009||450-562|
|Comparison of Yield, Maturity, Value and Susceptibility to TSWV in Virginia- and Runner-type Varieties of Peanut in 2004||May 1, 2009||450-567|
|Soil Test Note #2 - Field Crops||
Most Virginia soils are acidic and require lime applications at three- to five-year intervals. Maintaining the correct soil pH has several benefits, such as encouraging healthy root development and making sure nutrients in the soil are available to the plant. For example, low pH can cause aluminum toxicity and can decrease phosphorus availability.
|Sep 25, 2014||452-702 (CSES-100P)|
|Pest Management Guide: Field Crops, 2019||Jan 31, 2019||456-016 (ENTO-288P)|
|Pest Management Guide: Horticultural and Forest Crops, 2019||Dec 20, 2018||456-017 (ENTO-290)|
|The Basics of Hardwood-Log Shiitake Mushroom Production and Marketing||
Shiitake mushroom production offers an income opportunity for Virginia’s small-farm operators and smallwoodlot owners while providing enjoyment for others. It is also a relatively simple food-production activity, like gardening, that can be a hobby or used for teaching. This publication describes a technique for shiitake production and marketing that can be used and adapted by Virginia farmers, hobbyists, or teachers. It describes common techniques based on the available research, as well as areas of disagreement and typical difficulties producers may face, such as pests. In addition to production methods, this publication describes some of the basics of the finances and marketing of shiitake mushrooms for those interested in using them for income production.
|Apr 3, 2014||ANR-102P|
|IMPACT: Virginia Potato Disease Advisory Impact||
Potatoes are a major food crop on the Eastern Shore of Virginia, with average annual cash receipts of $14 million (2011-13).
|Nov 13, 2014||ANR-105P|
|2014 Virginia On-Farm Small Grain Test Plots||
The demonstration and research plot results discussed in this publication are a cooperative effort by six Virginia Cooperative Extension agents, extension specialists from Virginia Tech, and an assistant professor at the Virginia State University School of Agriculture. We are proud to present this year’s on farm small grain plot work to you. We hope the information in this publication will help farmers produce a profitable crop in 2015.
|Aug 11, 2014||ANR-113NP|
|Weed Control in Hops||
Because hops are long-lived perennials, controlling weeds near plants without causing injury can be challenging. Furthermore, empty spaces between rows can quickly become filled with weeds if left unmanaged. Growers therefore need a year-round weed management plan. An important part of that plan is identifying the common weeds at the site and understanding their life cycles. Once weeds have been identified, a management plan can be developed using cultural, chemical, or integrated approaches.
|Mar 11, 2015||ANR-144NP|
|2016 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots||
The research and demonstration plots discussed in this publication are a cooperative effort by nine Virginia Cooperative Extension employees, a faculty member at Virginia State University, numerous producers, and many members of the agribusiness community. The field work and printing of this publication are mainly supported by the Virginia Corn Check-Off Fund through the Virginia Corn Board. Anyone who would like a copy should contact their local extension agent, who can request a copy from the Essex County Extension office.
|Dec 9, 2016||ANR-235NP|
|Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots 2016||
These demonstration and research plot results are a collaborative effort of Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) Agents and Specialists, area producers, and agribusiness. The purpose of this publication is to provide research-based information to aid in the decision-making process for soybean producers in Virginia. It provides an unbiased evaluation of varieties, management practices, and new technologies through on-farm replicated research using producer equipment and time. These experiments enable producers to make better management decisions based on research and provide greater opportunities to improve yields and profits, which improves quality of life for them and their families.
|Jan 13, 2017||ANR-244NP|
|Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2016||
Proper soil fertility management ensures sufficient nutrients for maximum cotton production. Obtaining and maintaining appropriate soil nutrient concentrations is imperative, as fertilizer inputs are the largest component of production budgets for Virginia cotton farmers. At the same time, excessive nutrient application wastes money, wastes natural resources, and can negatively impact yields and environmental quality.
|Feb 22, 2016||AREC-124NP (AREC-165NP)|
|Mid-Atlantic Grain Sorghum Performance Tests 2014||
The 2014 grain sorghum OVT tests contained 52 hybrids; 41 hybrids were planted as a full season crop and 21 as double crop. Full season and double cropping tests were conducted at three locations, at the Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center (TAREC) in Suffolk, VA, in a farmer field near Windsor, VA, in Isle of Wight County, and at the Virginia State University’s Randolph Farm near Petersburg, VA.
|Mar 6, 2015||AREC-133NP|
|IMPACT: Virginia Winter Fruit School Impact||
Tree fruits are important to the agricultural economy in Virginia. The commonwealth ranks sixth in the nation in apple production, with a crop valued at more than $68 million, and 20th in peach production, with a crop valued at $4.5 million. Although smaller in acreage, cherries, pears, and plums also play an important role in some areas of Virginia. These fruit crops are susceptible to an everchanging array of insects, plant diseases, and weeds, and pest management programs are complex and knowledge-intensive.
|May 13, 2015||AREC-135NP|
|2012 Flue-cured Tobacco Production Guide||Feb 23, 2012||436-048 (AREC-14)|
|2016 Virginia Peanut Production Guide||
Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included in this publication as a convenience to the reader. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in this publication does not imply endorsement by Virginia Tech nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. Individuals who use agricultural chemicals are responsible for ensuring that the intended use complies with current regulations and conforms to the product label. Be sure to obtain information about usage regulations and examine a current product label before applying any chemical.
|Jan 28, 2016||AREC-157NP|
|Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2015||
The purpose of this publication is to provide performance data of the many soybean varieties offered for sale in Virginia. These data should be of benefit to producers and agribusinesses in making selections of varieties for their use. It is realized that not all varieties that are offered for sale in Virginia are included in these tests. There is no implication that varieties not included are inferior in any way, but only that they have not been tested.
|Feb 19, 2016||AREC-170NP|
|Applied Research on Field Crop Disease Control 2015||Apr 19, 2016||AREC-173NP|
|2017 Virginia Peanut Production Guide||
The primary considerations when selecting peanut varieties are yield, grade factors, disease, pests, and drought and heat response. A good practice is recording for each field the variety, yield, rainfall, and disease and insect incidence every year. This will allow producers to identify the most productive and less problematic fields, also the most productive varieties for each field.
|Jan 6, 2017||AREC-197NP|
|Peanut Variety & Quality Evaluation Results 2016||
Due to suitability to the environmental conditions and existence of a strong peanut industry tailored to process primarily the large-seeded Virginia-type peanut, growers in Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina generally grow Virginia-type cultivars. In the view of a common interest in the Virginia-type peanut, the three states are working together through a multi-state project, the Peanut Variety Quality Evaluation (PVQE), to evaluate advanced breeding lines and commercial cultivars throughout their production regions.
|Dec 20, 2016||AREC-198NP|
|2016 Virginia Grain Sorghum Performance Tests||Feb 17, 2017||AREC-201NP|
|2016 Cotton Variety Testing and On-Farm Results||Feb 23, 2017||AREC-204NP|
|2016 Pre-Commercial Evaluation of ENLIST® Varieties in the Southeastern US||Feb 23, 2017||AREC-205NP|
|2016 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results: Quality Data||
Along with agronomic and grade information, data on kernel and pod quality are essential for release of new peanut cultivars to ensure acceptability by the entire peanut trade. The present report contains the quality data collected on 4 Virginia-type cultivars that currently are on the market and 21 advanced breeding lines tested in the Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation (PVQE) small plots in 2016.
|Mar 6, 2017||AREC-208NP|
|2018 Virginia Peanut Production Guide||Jan 29, 2018||AREC-229NP|
|2017 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results: Agronomic and Grade Data||Jan 26, 2018||AREC-231|
|Troubleshooting The Soybean Crop||Nov 16, 2012||AREC-25NP|
|2012 Insect Pest Management in Virginia Cotton, Peanut, and Soybean||Jan 28, 2013||AREC-37NP|
|Increasing Fresh Produce Availability From Local Sources||
In 2012, several partners came together for a unified mission, “to both educate and provide locally grown fresh produce” to citizens of the Eastern Shore of Virginia (Fig. 1). The best way to fight hunger and provide locally sourced fresh vegetables is to demonstrate proper production practices and teach citizens where they can find information that they need to be successful in their gardens.
|Jul 19, 2013||AREC-50NP|
|2014 Virginia Peanut Production Guide||
The primary considerations when selecting peanut varieties are yield, grade factors, disease, pests, and drought and heat response. A good practice is recording for each field the variety, yield, rainfall, and disease and insect incidence every year. This will allow producers to identify the most productive and less problematic fields, also the most productive varieties for each field.
|May 2, 2014||AREC-58NP|
|Soybean Reproductive Development Stages||
Remove the soybean plant at ground level to make it easier to stage. Examine each main stem node one at a time to determine the development stage. Focus on the top four nodes that contain fully developed leaves (shown below). A fully developed leaf is one that is located immediately below a node containing a leaf with unrolled or unfolded leaflets (leaflet edges are no longer touching). The soybean crop is considered to be at a particular stage when 50% of the plants reach that stage. Listed with stage description for R1 through R6 are the approximate number of days to R7, or physiological maturity, for full season (FS) soybean planted in May and double crop (DC) soybean planted in June/July.
|Nov 25, 2013||AREC-59NP|
|Southeastern U.S. 2019 Vegetable Crop Handbook||
New varieties and strains of particular varieties of vegetables are constantly being developed throughout the world. Since it is impossible to list and describe all of them, only some of the better performing commercial types are listed in the specific crop section, either alphabetically or in order of relative maturity from early to late. These varieties are believed to be suitable for commercial production under most conditions.
|Feb 13, 2019||AREC-66NP (SPES-106NP)|
|Disease Management in No-Till Corn in Virginia||
No-till cropping avoids the use of tillage for seedbed preparation or weed control, and crop residues left on the soil surface reduce soil erosion, minimize runoff, and increase soil moisture. No-till cropping has several advantages in terms of reduced crop production costs (fuel, labor, machinery) and soil conservation, but alterations to the biotic and abiotic environment in no-till compared to conventionally tilled fields provide unique challenges in terms of insect, weed, and disease management. The following provides recommendations for disease management in no-till corn but can be applied to other no-till cropping systems. Disease incidence and severity is not necessarily greater in no-till compared to conventional tillage, and in some cases disease may be reduced. Effects of no-till on diseases are variable and dependent on the specific pathogen, crop, and environment.
|Feb 7, 2014||AREC-67NP|
|Soybean Insect Guide||
Numerous kinds of insects can be found in soybeans. Most are beneficial or harmless, but some can cause yield loss and even crop failure if not controlled.
|Feb 7, 2014||AREC-68NP|
|2011 Insect Pest Management in Virginia Cotton, Peanut, and Soybean||Feb 1, 2012||AREC-7|
|2013 Tri-State Grain Sorghum Performance Tests||
The 2013 grain sorghum OVT tests contained 45 hybrids planted as a full season crop and 22 as double crop. Full season tests were conducted at three locations, at the Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center (TAREC) in Suffolk, VA, in a farmer field near Homeville, VA, in Sussex County, and at the Virginia State University’s Randolph Farm near Petersburg, VA. The double crop sorghum trials were conducted at two locations, at the TAREC and in a farmer field near Windsor, VA, in the Isle of Weight County.
|Mar 26, 2014||AREC-83NP|
|Soybean Neamtode Management Guide||Jan 2, 2012||AREC-1|
|Understanding Soil Moisture Sensors: A Fact Sheet for Irrigation Professionals in Virginia||
In the Commonwealth of Virginia, water resources are increasingly being scrutinized due to changing surface water or groundwater availability. Access to good quality water is a continuing concern, and in many communities, managing water use — particularly consumptive use — is a priority to conserve public water supplies to meet the needs of a growing population.
|Sep 23, 2016||BSE-198P|
|Irrigation Scheduling in Humid Climates Using the Checkbook Method||Jan 30, 2019||BSE-239P|
|Double Cropping Soybeans In Virginia||
Double cropping is simply growing and harvesting two crops in one year. In the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, soybeans are commonly double-cropped after a winter small-grain crop, usually wheat. However, double cropping is not limited to the small-grain-soybean system. Other crops, such as grain sorghum or even corn, could fit into a double-cropping system with small grains. Soybean can be grown after other winter crops, such as canola, or after a spring crop, such as snap beans. As long as both crops can complete their development in time to allow profitable production of the entire system, numerous double-cropping systems are possible.
|Mar 11, 2015||CSES-102NP (CSES-104NP)|
|Roadside Survey of Continuous No-till and Cover Crop Acres in Virginia||
In 2009, the Chesapeake Clean Water Ecosystem Restoration Act (HB 3852/S 1816) was passed, and was intended to strengthen certain standards for the Chesapeake Bay, particularly, to address nonpoint source pollution. Nonpoint source pollution includes that of urban, suburban and agricultural runoff. Cited in the bill was the need to establish and codify the Bay-wide pollution budget, or Total Maximum Daily Loads, (TMDL) for nitrogen, phosphorous and sediment that EPA was in process of developing for the Bay. Hence all states and their perspective watersheds would have pollution caps for all sources of pollution.
|Oct 13, 2014||CSES-103NP|
|2014 Virginia Bollgard II Xtendflex Variety Trial||
Lint yield and fiber quality of commercially available cotton varieties and experimental lines of Bollgard II XtendFlex tested in 2014 in Suffolk, VA.
|Apr 29, 2015||CSES-113NP|
|Virginia Cover Crops Fact Sheet Series No. 1: Beneficial Uses of Cover Crops||
The general purpose of a cover crop is to improve the soil, the broader environment, or other crops in rotation, not for direct harvest. Cover crops, depending on which are selected, are capable of providing many diverse assets. This publication provides a short description of these main benefits.
|May 5, 2015||CSES-120NP|
|Virginia Cover Crops Fact Sheet Series No. 2: Cover Crop Performance Evaluation in Field and Controlled Studies||
Cover crops increase soil organic matter, reduce erosion, suppress weeds, forage for nutrients, and reduce fertilizer costs (Clark, 2007). Cover crop species vary greatly and provide varied benefits. Performance evaluation of cover crop species and mixtures is needed in Virginia.
|May 5, 2015||CSES-121NP|
|The Mid-Atlantic Nutrient Management Handbook||
Delaware, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia, and Virginia, the five states in the Mid-Atlantic region, all require Certified Nutrient Management Plans to be completed for certain agricultural programs.
|Jun 9, 2015||CSES-122P|
|Nitrogen and Sulfur Leaching Potential in Virginia||
Early summer often means locally heavy and sporadic rainfall as thunderstorms deliver intense rains, and 2015 appears to be no different with many areas in eastern Virginia receiving 3+ inches of rain in a few days (Figure 1). These storms also often coincide with the timing of sidedress nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) applications on corn. While some rainfall after sidedress is very beneficial to facilitate N movement into soil, heavy rain (2+ inches) often leaves us wondering how much, if any, of that recently-applied N remains and if additional N is needed.
|Jun 19, 2015||CSES-125NP|
|The Nutrient Value of Straw||
The mature and dried stem, leaves, and chaff remaining after barley and wheat are harvested is known as straw. Many farmers around Virginia harvest straw by baling in small bales, large round bales, or large square bales that range in weight from 40 to 1,000 lbs. plus per bale.
|Jun 19, 2015||CSES-126NP|
|The Soil and Me: A Perspective on Soil Health||
Soil is the foundation upon which our natural living world depends; it is otherwise known as the dynamic material that civilization is built on (Lindbo, Kozlowski, and Robinson 2012). Soil serves diverse functions that are critical to the survival of humanity; without the soil, life on earth is inconceivable. It represents the critical zone of the earth where life, water, minerals, and air intersect and interact (fig. 1) because the soil constantly relates with other parts of nature. The soil is considered a living, dynamic resource at the earth’s surface and has been defined as “the unconsolidated mineral or organic material on the immediate surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants” (SSSA 2015). The thickness or depth of this surface or layer varies with the type and environment of the soil.
|Nov 5, 2015||CSES-132NP|
|Soybean Growth and Development||
Proper management of the soybean crop requires knowledge of how environmental conditions and pests affect growth during vegetative and reproductive stages. For example, too little or too much soil moisture at certain stages may hinder growth and lower yield, and insect pests may damage the crop at one stage but not another. The information below can help you determine the proper timing of various management practices.
|Nov 13, 2015||CSES-134NP|
|Yellow Corn in Virginia – Spring 2016||
Many of the corn fields on the Eastern Shore and in Eastern Virginia are “yellow” and stunted due to the weather this Spring (Figs. 1 and 2) and is similar to conditions that Virginia farmers experienced in Spring 2010. There are many reasons for the corn to be yellow that range from nutrient deficiencies to abiotic factors.
|Oct 10, 2016||CSES-171NP|
|Value and implications of corn stover removal from Virginia fields||
There has recently been increased interest in the use of crop residues for different industrial uses in the US and the world. Corn residue is frequently cited as the most likely candidate for alternate industrial uses because of the large area of production and the relatively large amount of residue produced per acre. Among the potential alternate uses for corn stover, biofuel production has received the greatest attention.
|Apr 6, 2017||CSES-180 (CSES-182NP)|
|Facts About Industrial Hemp||Aug 14, 2017||CSES-196NP|
|Predicting Soybean Reproductive Stages in Virginia||Oct 7, 2017||CSES-197P|
|Virginia Tech Corn Silage Testing 2017||Nov 30, 2017||CSES-203NP|
|Internationalizing the Land Grant Mission: Lessons from Senegal||Mar 20, 2018||CSES-207P|
|Manure Injection in No-Till and Pasture Systems||Mar 27, 2018||CSES-22P (SPES-5P)|
|2017 Cotton Variety Testing and On-Farm Results||Jan 31, 2018||CSES-225NP|
|2017 Virginia Grain Sorghum Performance Tests||Feb 21, 2018||CSES-227|
|Harvesting and nutrient replacement costs associated with corn stover removal in Virginia||Feb 21, 2018||CSES-229NP|
|Virginia Soybean Performance Tests 2017||Mar 23, 2018||CSES-232NP|
|Cotton Harvest Aid Cheat Sheet||Aug 28, 2013||CSES-65NP|
|Sensor-Based, Variable-Rate Nitrogen Applications in Virginia||
Variable-rate applications (VRA) of nitrogen (N) fertilizers are a new option to assist producers with real-time fertilizer rate decisions. Two commercially available systems that allow variable-rate nitrogen applications are GreenSeeker (Trimble Navigation Limited; www. ntechindustries.com/greenseeker-home.html) and the OptRx Crop Sensor (Ag Leader Technology; www. agleader.com/products/directcommand/optrx/). A discussion of the science behind these systems, potential economic benefits, and other methodologies to make VRA is discussed in Virginia Cooperative Extension publication 442-505, “Precision Farming Tools: Variable- Rate Application” (Grisso et al. 2011).
|Aug 8, 2014||CSES-90P|
|Importance of Farm Phosphorus Mass Balance and Management Options||
Phosphorus is a naturally occurring element that is one of 16 elements essential for plant growth and animal health. Research has documented that applying phosphorus in fertilizers or manure increases crop growth and yield on soils that are below critical agronomic levels, as measured during routine soil testing. Although the economic benefits of phosphorus fertilization on crop production are well-documented, too much of a good thing can be detrimental to the environment. Excessive soil phosphorus is a potential threat to water quality.
|Dec 19, 2014||CSES-98P|
|2017 Virginia On-Farm Soybean Test Plots||Jan 4, 2018||CSES-223NP|
|2017 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots||Jan 4, 2018||CSES-224NP|
|Determining Harvesting Time for Corn Silage||May 5, 2016||DASC-82NP|
|Winter Crops as a Feed Source for Dairy Cattle||Jun 27, 2016||DASC-85NP|
|2014 Insect Pest Management in Virginia Cotton and Peanut||Feb 9, 2015||ENTO-109NP|
|Summary of insecticide efficacy for control of wireworms on potatoes – Virginia (2003-2015)||
Wireworms are the subterranean larval stage of click beetles. These insects can remain in the soil for several years attacking potato seed pieces or tubers or seeds and roots of other crops that are planted in the field.
|Dec 23, 2015||ENTO-176NP|
|Insect Pest Management in Virginia Cotton, Peanut, and Soybean 2015||Mar 8, 2016||ENTO-184NP|
|Insecticide and Acaricide Research on Vegetables in Virginia 2016||
This booklet contains arthropod pest management research conducted on vegetable crops in eastern Virginia in 2016. Research was conducted at several locations in Virginia including: 1) the Virginia Tech Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center (AREC) near Painter, VA.
|Dec 14, 2016||ENTO-229NP|
|Corn earworm monitoring in commercial sweet corn fields in Virginia – 2017||Mar 5, 2018||ENTO-266NP|
|Advanced Irrigation Management for Container-Grown Ornamental Crop Production||
Container-grown plants are constrained with regard to root growth, and are affected by factors including container size, substrate, weather, nutrition, and irrigation. Typical soilless substrates will hold less plant-available water than a typical field soil, making water management a critical component of any container-grown plant production system. A well-designed and managed irrigation system, which works in concert with the aforementioned factors, can provide the necessary quantity of water to support plant growth in an efficient manner.
|Sep 23, 2016||HORT-218P|
|Evaluation of Blackberry Varieties in Virginia||
Blackberries (Rubus spp.) are of interest among strawberry and vegetable growers in Virginia looking to diversify their crops. Including blackberries in farm plans could allow these growers to keep their farms and pick-your-own activities open to customers for a longer duration, increasing agritourism and sales; however, Virginia growers lack information on blackberry varieties that perform well in the state.
|Oct 7, 2016||HORT-226P|
|Sweetpotato Production and Variety Performance in Southeast Virginia, 2015-2016||May 8, 2018||HORT-282P|
|Low Tunnels in Vegetable Crops: Beyond Season Extension||May 30, 2018||HORT-291P|
|Managing Troublesome Crop Weeds: Current Practices||Jul 25, 2017||PPWS-101NP|
|Peanut (Arachis hypogaea, L.) Nutrition||
Maintaining the right soil pH for each crop ensures optimal nutrient uptake by plants. For peanut, the recommended pH range is 5.8 – 6.2. If soil pH is higher than 6.2, manganese (Mn) or boron (B) deficiency may occur; if pH is less than 5.8, zinc (Zn) toxicity problems could be favored. Therefore, taking soil samples correctly is very important for correcting soil pH. A single composite sample should be taken for each 5 irrigated and 10 rainfed acres. This sample should be composed of 20 or more subsamples collected from an imaginary grid uniformly covering the land area. The subsamples should be well mixed together and only a small composite sample should be retained and sent to the soil lab.
|Sep 1, 2014||PPWS-40NP|
|2015 Virginia Grain Sorghum Performance Tests||
The 2015 grain sorghum OVT tests contained 21 hybrids planted as a full season crop and 22 as double crop. Full season tests were conducted at three locations, the Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center (TAREC) in Suffolk, VA, the Eastern Virginia Agricultural Research and Extension Center (EVAREC) in Warsaw, VA, and in a farmer field near Windsor, VA, in Isle of Wight County. The double crop sorghum trials were conducted at three locations, the TAREC, in a farmer field near Windsor, VA, in Isle of Wight County, and in a farmer field near Locust Grove, VA, in Orange County.
|Feb 12, 2016||PPWS-72NP|
|Best Management Practices for Bioenergy Crops: Reducing the Invasion Risk||Jan 5, 2012||PPWS-8P|
|2017 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results: Quality Data||Apr 24, 2018||PPWS-105NP|
|2018 Cotton Variety Testing and On-Farm Results||Jan 1, 2021||SPES-105NP|
|Nematode Management in Field Crops||May 17, 2018||SPES-15|
|Instructions for Sampling and Submitting Crop Nematode Samples||May 17, 2018||SPES-16NP|
|Applied Research on Field Crop Disease and Nematode Management 2017||Jun 18, 2018||SPES-26NP|
|Consider Your Whole System: Nitrogen and Sulfur Leaching Potential in Virginia||Jun 25, 2018||SPES-39NP|
|Fresh Hops Harvesting and Handling Tips||Jun 29, 2018||SPES-43NP|
|2018 Virginia On-Farm Wheat Test Plots||Aug 24, 2018||SPES-54NP|
|2019 Virginia Peanut Production Guide||Nov 26, 2018||SPES-67NP|
|Virginia Tech Corn Silage Testing 2018||Nov 6, 2018||SPES-69NP|
|Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials in 2018||Nov 5, 2018||SPES-73NP|
|2018 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Results: Agronomic and Grade Data||Jan 15, 2019||SPES-93NP|
|2018 Virginia On-Farm Corn Test Plots||Jan 3, 2019||SPES-94NP|
|2018 Virginia On-Farm Soybean Research||Jan 16, 2019||SPES-96NP|
|Pesticide Applicator Manuals||Nov 17, 2011||VTTP-2|
|Pyridine Herbicide Carryover: Causes and Precautions||May 9, 2012||VTTP-6NP|